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#451 2018-11-01 03:20:24

ganesh
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Re: crème de la crème

418) Josephine Cochrane

Dishwashing Machine

Josephine Garis Cochran (later Cochrane) (March 8, 1839 in Ashtabula County, Ohio – August 14, 1913 (age 74) in Chicago, Illinois) was the inventor of the first commercially successful automatic dishwasher, which she constructed together with mechanic George Butters.

Cochran was posthumously inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame in 2006 for her invention of the dishwasher.Josephine Cochrane, inventor of the first commercially successful dishwashing machine, was born in Shelbyville, Illinois in 1839. Her father was a civil engineer, and her great grandfather, John Fitch, was an inventor known for his steamboat-related innovations. Cochrane, thus, may have had creative tendencies in her family. However, she was not formally educated in the sciences.

Cochrane was a socialite. She and her husband, William, often entertained guests at their home. Accustomed to having servants do much of her housework for her, Cochrane did not set out to create the dishwasher to relieve her of the hard work of manually doing the dishes. Rather, the idea came to her when she grew frustrated that her fine china was chipping, mostly by the harsh handling it suffered by the servants as they scrubbed it in the sink. At first, Cochrane tried washing the dishes herself. But she found the task burdensome and thought to herself that there must be a better way.

She worked out a design, one that employed water jets and a dishrack that would hold the soiled tableware in place. Soon after she first began working on the design, her husband passed away, and she was left with debt. This tragedy gave Cochrane a push. She became driven in her desire to create a successful model of her machine. Though others had attempted to create similar devices—a hand-cranked model was patented, for example, in 1850—none had become commercially viable. She was determined that her machine could meet a real consumer need.

Working in a shed behind her home, Cochrane got to work. She measured the dishes and constructed wire compartments to fit plates, cups, and saucers, and placed these inside a wheel that laid flat within a copper boiler. The wheel turned, powered by a motor, and soapy water would squirt up over the dishes to clean them. In 1886, she patented her design and began making them for friends, calling the machine the “Cochrane Dishwasher.” She also advertised the machines in local newspapers. She established Cochran’s Crescent Washing Machine Company, and soon restaurants and hotels became interested. In 1893, Cochrane presented her machine at the Chicago World’s Fair, where she won an award for its design and durability.

Initially, the machines sold well to businesses but not to individual consumers. Some homemakers admitted that they enjoyed washing dishes by hand, and the machines reportedly left a soapy residue on the dishes. They also demanded a great deal of hot water, and many homes did not have hot water heaters large enough to supply the machine sufficiently. The machines’ popularity skyrocketed in the 1950s, when technology, womens’ attitudes toward housework, and dishwashing detergent, changed in the dishwasher’s favor. Today, the dishwasher is a part of the typical American household.

Cochrane’s company eventually became KitchenAid, part of the Whirlpool Corporation. She died in 1913 at the age of 74.

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It is no good to try to stop knowledge from going forward. Ignorance is never better than knowledge - Enrico Fermi. 

Nothing is better than reading and gaining more and more knowledge - Stephen William Hawking.

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#452 2018-11-06 00:18:39

ganesh
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Re: crème de la crème

419) Joseph Bramah

Joseph Bramah, (born April 13, 1748, Stainborough, Yorkshire, Eng.—died Dec. 9, 1814, London), engineer and inventor whose lock-manufacturing shop was the cradle of the British machine-tool industry.

Originally a cabinetmaker, Bramah became interested in the problem of devising a pick-proof lock. In 1784 he exhibited his new lock in his shop window, with a sign offering a reward of 200 guineas to anyone who could pick it. Despite many attempts, the Bramah lock defied all efforts for 67 years, until it was finally opened by a mechanic after 51 hours’ work. The success of the lock was won at the price of complexity, and it could be produced in quantity only after the creation of a whole set of well-designed and precisely engineered machine tools. To assist in making them, he hired a young blacksmith, Henry Maudslay, who proved to be an engineering genius. The prototype machines designed and built by Bramah and Maudslay went far toward founding the machine-tool industry, the basis of the vast expansion of British manufacturing in the 19th century.

Of Bramah’s other inventions the most notable is his hydraulic press; he also invented an improved water closet, a wood-planing machine, and a machine for numbering bank notes.

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It is no good to try to stop knowledge from going forward. Ignorance is never better than knowledge - Enrico Fermi. 

Nothing is better than reading and gaining more and more knowledge - Stephen William Hawking.

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#453 2018-11-08 00:15:32

ganesh
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Re: crème de la crème

420) Gersh Itskovich Budker

Gersh Itskovich Budker, (born May 1, 1918, Murafa, near Vinnitsa, Ukraine—died July 4, 1977, Novosibirsk, Russia, U.S.S.R.), Soviet physicist who developed new methods of particle acceleration in high-energy physics.

Budker graduated from Moscow State University in 1941 and served in air defense during World War II. In 1945 he started working in Laboratory #2 (subsequently renamed the Kurchatov Institute of Atomic Energy) in Moscow on the theory of nuclear reactions; he received a doctorate for this work in 1950. After taking part in the construction of a proton accelerator in Dubna, Budker shifted his research to relativistic plasma physics. In 1952 he proposed the idea of a stabilized electron beam and also suggested plasma traps with magnetic mirrors for controlling nuclear fusion. In 1958 Budker organized—and directed until his death—the Nuclear Physics Institute in Akademgorodok (near Novosibirsk) as part of the new Siberian branch of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences. From 1965 to 1967, he constructed electron and electron-positron accelerators based on a new method of colliding beams, and in 1966 he invented a method of using electrons to cool (slow) heavier particles. Budker was elected a corresponding member (1958) and a full member (1964) of the Academy of Sciences.

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It is no good to try to stop knowledge from going forward. Ignorance is never better than knowledge - Enrico Fermi. 

Nothing is better than reading and gaining more and more knowledge - Stephen William Hawking.

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#454 2018-11-10 01:12:40

ganesh
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Re: crème de la crème

421) David Chaum

David Lee Chaum (born 1955) is an American computer scientist and cryptographer. He is famous for developing ecash, an electronic cash application that aims to preserve a user’s anonymity. He has also invented many cryptographic protocols and founded DigiCash, an electronic money corporation. His 1981 paper, "Untraceable Electronic Mail, Return Addresses, and Digital Pseudonyms", laid the groundwork for the field of anonymous communications research.

Life and career

Chaum gained a doctorate in computer science and business administration from the University of California, Berkeley in 1982. Also that year, he founded the International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR), which currently organizes academic conferences in cryptography research. Subsequently, he taught at the New York University Graduate School of Business Administration and at the University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB). He also formed a cryptography research group at the National Research Institute for Mathematics and Computer Science (CWI) in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. He founded DigiCash, an electronic cash company, in 1990.

Chaum received the Information Technology European Award for 1995. In 2004, he was named an IACR Fellow. In 2010, he received the RSA Conference award for excellence in the field of mathematics.

Notable research contributions

Digital cash

Chaum is credited as the inventor of secure digital cash for his 1982 paper, which also introduced the cryptographic primitive of a blind signature. These ideas have been described as the technical roots of the vision of the Cypherpunk movement that began in the late 1980s. Chaum's proposal allowed users to obtain digital currency from a bank and spend it in a manner that is untraceable by the bank or any other party. In 1988, he extended this idea (with Amos Fiat and Moni Naor) to allow offline transactions that enable detection of double-spending.

In 1990, he founded DigiCash, an electronic cash company, in Amsterdam to commercialize the ideas in his research. The first electronic payment was sent in 1994. In 1999, Chaum left the company.

New types of digital signatures

In the same 1982 paper that proposed digital cash, Chaum introduced blind signatures. This form of digital signature blinds the content of a message before it is signed, so that the signer cannot determine the content. The resulting blind signature can be publicly verified against the original, unblinded message in the manner of a regular digital signature.

In 1989, he (with Hans van Antwerpen) introduced undeniable signatures. This form of digital signature uses a verification process that is interactive, so that the signatory can limit who can verify the signature. Since signers may refuse to participate in the verification process, signatures are considered valid unless a signer specifically uses a disavowal protocol to prove that a given signature was not authentic.

In 1991, he (with Eugene van Heyst) introduced group signatures, which allow a member of a group to anonymously sign a message on behalf of the entire group. However an appointed group manager holds the power to revoke the anonymity of any signer in the case of disputes.

Anonymous communication

In 1981, Chaum proposed the idea of an anonymous communication network in a paper. His proposal, called mix networks, allows a group of senders to submit an encryption of a message and its recipient to a server. Once the server has a batch of messages, it will reorder and obfuscate the messages so that only this server knows which message came from which sender. The batch is then forwarded to another server who does the same process. Eventually, the messages reach the final server where they are fully decrypted and delivered to the recipient. A mechanism to allow return messages is also proposed. Mix networks are the basis of some remailers and are the conceptual ancestor to modern anonymous web browsing tools like Tor (based on onion routing). Chaum has advocated that every router be made, effectively, a Tor node.

In 1988, Chaum introduced a different type of anonymous communication system called a DC-Net, which is a solution to his proposed Dining Cryptographers Problem. DC-Nets is the basis of the software tool Dissent.

Trustworthy voting systems

Chaum has made numerous contributions to secure voting systems, including the first proposal of a system that is end-to-end verifiable. This proposal, made in 1981, was given as an application of mix networks. In this system, the individual ballots of voters were kept private which anyone could verify that the tally was counted correctly. This, and other early cryptographic voting systems, assumed that voters could reliably compute values with their personal computers. In 1991, Chaum introduced SureVote which allowed voters to cast a ballot from an untrustworthy voting system, proposing a process now called "code voting" and used in remote voting systems like Remotegrity.

In 1994, Chaum introduced the first in-person voting system in which voters cast ballots electronically at a polling station and cryptographically verify that the DRE did not modify their vote (or even learn what it was). In the following years, Chaum proposed (often with others) a series a cryptographically verifiable voting systems that use conventional paper ballots: Pret a Voter, Punchscan, and Scantegrity. The city of Takoma Park, Maryland used Scantegrity for its November, 2009 election. This was the first time a public sector election was run using any cryptographically verifiable voting system.

In 2011, Chaum proposed Random Sample Elections. This electoral system allows a verifiably random selection of voters, who can maintain their anonymity, to cast votes on behalf the entire electorate.

Near Eye Display

A near eye display patent application authored by David Chaum has been updated. "PERSPECTIVA - All styles of eyeglasses can be upgraded to overlay, anywhere you can see through them, digital imagary that is of unbeatable quality." "Invented then founded and led an effort that has demonstrated feasibility of a new paradigm for delivering light that digitally deconstructs images so that they can be reconstructed on the retina with dynamic focus and exquisite clarity." This augmented reality technology seems similar to Magic Leap, Hololens, and Oculus.

Other contributions

In 1979, Chaum proposed a mechanism for splitting a key into partial keys, a predecessor to secret sharing.

In 1985, Chaum proposed the original anonymous credential system, which is sometimes also referred to as a pseudonym system. This stems from the fact that the credentials of such a system are obtained from and shown to organizations using different pseudonyms which cannot be linked.

In 1988, Chaum with Gilles Brassard and Claude Crepeau published a paper that introduced zero-knowledge arguments, as well as a security model using information-theoretic private-channels, and also first formalized the concept of a commitment scheme.

1991, with Torben Pedersen, he demonstrated a well-cited zero-knowledge proof of a DDH tuple. This proof is particularly useful as it can prove proper reencryption of an Elgamal ciphertext.

Chaum contributed to an important commitment scheme which is often attributed to Pedersen. In fact, Pedersen, in his 1991 paper, cites a rump session talk on an unpublished paper by Jurjen Bos and Chaum for the scheme. It appeared even earlier in a paper by Chaum, Damgard, and Jeroen van de Graaf. The scheme is widely used as it is a simple perfectly hiding commitment, that is binding assuming the hardness of the discrete logarithm problem.

In 1993 with Stefan Brands, Chaum introduced the concept of a distance-bounding protocol. Using round-trip delay based on the speed of light, it allows one party to establish an upper-bound on the physical distance from another in an authenticated way.

David-Chaum.jpg


It is no good to try to stop knowledge from going forward. Ignorance is never better than knowledge - Enrico Fermi. 

Nothing is better than reading and gaining more and more knowledge - Stephen William Hawking.

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#455 2018-11-12 00:13:15

ganesh
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Re: crème de la crème

422) Robert Dennard

Robert Dennard, in full Robert Heath Denard, (born September 5, 1932, Terrell, Texas, U.S.), American engineer credited with the invention of the one-transistor cell for dynamic random-access memory (DRAM) and with pioneering the set of consistent scaling principles that underlie the improved performance of increasingly miniaturized integrated circuits, two pivotal innovations that helped spur more than three decades of growth in the computer industry.

Dennard received a B.S. (1954) and an M.S. (1956) in electrical engineering from Southern Methodist University, Dallas, and a Ph.D. (1958) from Carnegie Institute of Technology (now Carnegie Mellon University), Pittsburgh. He joined the International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) in 1958 as a staff engineer and first worked on memory and logic circuits and on the development of data communication techniques. In the early 1960s he began focusing on microelectronics. His design for one-transistor-cell DRAM improved upon other types of computer memory that were then in development (including a memory system consisting of wire mesh and magnetic rings), and in 1968 Dennard was granted a patent for the design. It was one of more than four dozen patents that he was eventually issued. Dennard was given the title of IBM fellow in 1979, and he held several positions over the length of his career of more than 50 years with the company.

DRAM consists of an array of semiconductor memory cells that are integrated on a silicon chip. The type of memory cell invented by Dennard in the 1960s used a single metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) transistor to store and read binary data as an electrical charge on a MOS capacitor, and the high-density memory made possible by that design resulted in relatively low production costs and power requirements for DRAM. Following its introduction as a commercial product in the 1970s, one-transistor-cell DRAM was extensively used in computers and other electronic devices. With miniaturization, it was possible to develop DRAM chips that contain billions of memory cells.

Dennard was elected to the U.S. National Academy of Engineering in 1984 and was inducted into the U.S. National Inventors Hall of Fame in 1997. Among the other awards and honours that Dennard garnered were the U.S. National Medal of Technology and Innovation, which he received (1988) from U.S. Pres. Ronald Reagan, and the 2005 Lemelson-MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) Lifetime Achievement Award. In 2009 he received both the Medal of Honor from the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and the National Academy of Engineering’s Charles Stark Draper Prize.

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It is no good to try to stop knowledge from going forward. Ignorance is never better than knowledge - Enrico Fermi. 

Nothing is better than reading and gaining more and more knowledge - Stephen William Hawking.

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#456 2018-11-14 00:12:00

ganesh
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Re: crème de la crème

423) Sir James Dewar

Sir James Dewar, (born Sept. 20, 1842, Kincardine-on-Forth, Scot.—died March 27, 1923, London, Eng.), British chemist and physicist whose study of low-temperature phenomena entailed the use of a double-walled vacuum flask of his own design which has been named for him.

Educated at the University of Edinburgh, Dewar became a professor at the University of Cambridge (1875) and at the Royal Institution of Great Britain, London (1877), holding both posts throughout his life.

Dewar developed structural formulas for benzene (1867), did research in spectroscopy for more than 25 years, and by 1891 had constructed a machine for producing liquid oxygen in quantity. About 1892 he conceived the idea of using vacuum-jacketed vessels for the storage of low-temperature liquid gases, and the resulting device proved so efficient in preventing the influx of external heat that it became an essential tool in low-temperature scientific work. The principle of the Dewar flask has also been used extensively in the common thermos bottle. Dewar was subsequently the first to liquefy hydrogen gas (1898) and to solidify it (1899). He was knighted in 1904. His discovery (1905) that cooled charcoal can be used to help create high vacuums later proved useful in atomic physics. With Sir Frederick Augustus Abel he developed cordite, an explosive.

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It is no good to try to stop knowledge from going forward. Ignorance is never better than knowledge - Enrico Fermi. 

Nothing is better than reading and gaining more and more knowledge - Stephen William Hawking.

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#457 2018-11-16 00:32:05

ganesh
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Re: crème de la crème

424) J. Presper Eckert, Jr.

J. Presper Eckert, Jr., in full John Presper Eckert, Jr., (born April 9, 1919, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.—died June 3, 1995, Bryn Mawr, Pa.), American engineer and coinventor of the first general-purpose electronic computer, a digital machine that was the prototype for most computers in use today.

Eckert was educated at the Moore School of Electrical Engineering at the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (B.S., 1941; M.S., 1943), where he and his professor, John W. Mauchly, made several valuable improvements in computing equipment. In 1946 the pair fulfilled a government contract to build a digital computer, which they called ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer). In primitive form, ENIAC contained virtually all the circuitry used in present-day high-speed digital computers. It was used by the U.S. Army for military calculations.

In 1948 Eckert and Mauchly established a computer-manufacturing firm; a year later, they introduced BINAC (Binary Automatic Computer), which stored information on magnetic tape rather than on punched cards. Designed to handle business data, UNIVAC I (Universal Automatic Computer), Eckert and Mauchly’s third model, found many uses in commerce and may be said to have started the computer boom. Between 1948 and 1966 Eckert received 85 patents, mostly for electronic inventions.

Eckert remained in executive positions at his company when it was acquired by Remington Rand, Inc., in 1950 and when that firm was, in 1955, merged into the Sperry Rand Corp. (later Unisys Corp.). Eckert was elected to the National Academy of Engineering in 1967 and was awarded the National Medal of Science in 1968.

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It is no good to try to stop knowledge from going forward. Ignorance is never better than knowledge - Enrico Fermi. 

Nothing is better than reading and gaining more and more knowledge - Stephen William Hawking.

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#458 2018-11-18 00:34:47

ganesh
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Re: crème de la crème

425) Donald A. Glaser

Donald A. Glaser, in full Donald Arthur Glaser, (born September 21, 1926, Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.—died February 28, 2013, Berkeley, California), American physicist and recipient of the 1960 Nobel Prize for Physics for his invention (1952) and development of the bubble chamber, a research instrument used in high-energy physics laboratories to observe the behaviour of subatomic particles.

After graduating from Case Institute of Technology, Cleveland, in 1946, Glaser attended the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, where he received a Ph.D. in physics and mathematics in 1950. He then began teaching at the University of Michigan, where he became a professor in 1957.

Glaser conducted research with Nobelist Carl Anderson, who was using cloud chambers to study cosmic rays. Glaser, recognizing that cloud chambers had a number of limitations, created a bubble chamber to learn about the pathways of subatomic particles. Because of the relatively high density of the bubble-chamber liquid (as opposed to the vapour that filled cloud chambers), collisions producing rare reactions were more frequent and were observable in finer detail. New collisions could be recorded every few seconds when the chamber was exposed to bursts of high-speed particles from particle accelerators. As a result, physicists were able to discover the existence of a host of new particles, notably quarks. At the age of 34, Glaser became one of the youngest scientists ever to be awarded a Nobel Prize.

In 1959 Glaser joined the staff of the University of California, Berkeley, where he became a professor of physics and molecular biology in 1964. In 1971 he cofounded the Cetus Corp., a biotechnology company that developed interleukin-2 and interferon for cancer therapy. The firm was sold (1991) to Chiron Corp., which was later acquired by Novartis. In the 1980s Glaser turned to the field of neurobiology and conducted experiments on vision and how it is processed by the human brain.

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It is no good to try to stop knowledge from going forward. Ignorance is never better than knowledge - Enrico Fermi. 

Nothing is better than reading and gaining more and more knowledge - Stephen William Hawking.

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#459 Today 00:36:08

ganesh
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Re: crème de la crème

426) Ole Evinrude

Ole Evinrude, (born April 19, 1877, Norway—died July 12, 1934, Milwaukee), Norwegian-American inventor of the first commercially successful outboard marine internal-combustion engine.

Evinrude began work on this project in 1906 and by 1909 had developed a one-cylinder power plant rated at 1.5 horsepower. Subsequent outboard motors followed his transmission design, which used a vertical drive shaft with bevel gears (a set of two wheellike gears the teeth of which engage at an angle). In 1910 he founded Evinrude Motors in Milwaukee; renamed Outboard Motor Corporation, the firm was merged with Johnson Motor Company in 1936 to form the Outboard Marine Corporation. The inventor’s son Ralph Evinrude (1907–1986) was the chief organizer and first president of the new corporation.

Ole-Evinrude.jpg


It is no good to try to stop knowledge from going forward. Ignorance is never better than knowledge - Enrico Fermi. 

Nothing is better than reading and gaining more and more knowledge - Stephen William Hawking.

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