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#201 2017-04-17 19:45:48

ganesh
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Registered: 2005-06-28
Posts: 23,082

Re: crème de la crème

Thanks again, iamaditya! This is a hobby for a long time (compiling data).

MathsIsFun encouraged me and that is how "Ganesh's Puzzles" commenced.

Regarding Mathematicians, Scientists, Writers and other celebrities, I put these in  'Dark Discussions at Cafe Infinity: crème de la crème'.


It is no good to try to stop knowledge from going forward. Ignorance is never better than knowledge - Enrico Fermi. 

Nothing is better than reading and gaining more and more knowledge - Stephen William Hawking.

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#202 2017-04-17 21:24:55

ganesh
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Registered: 2005-06-28
Posts: 23,082

Re: crème de la crème

168. Thomas Cook, (born November 22, 1808, Melbourne, Derbyshire, England - died July 18, 1892, Leicester, Leicestershire), English innovator of the conducted tour and founder of Thomas Cook and Son, a worldwide travel agency. Cook can be said to have invented modern tourism.

Cook left school at the age of 10 and worked at various jobs until 1828, when he became a Baptist missionary. In 1841 he persuaded the Midland Counties Railway Company to run a special train between Leicester and Loughborough for a temperance meeting on July 5. It was believed to have been the first publicly advertised excursion train in England. Three years later the railway agreed to make the arrangement permanent if Cook would provide passengers for the excursion trains. During the Paris Exposition of 1855, Cook conducted excursions from Leicester to Calais, France. The next year he led his first Grand Tour of Europe.

In the early 1860s he ceased to conduct personal tours and became an agent for the sale of domestic and overseas travel tickets. His firm took on military transport and postal services for England and Egypt during the 1880s. On his death the business passed to his only son, John Mason Cook (1834-99), who had been his father’s partner since 1864. The company passed to Cook’s grandsons in 1899 and remained in the family until 1928. In 1972 the company was renamed Thomas Cook, and in 2001 it was wholly owned by Thomas Cook AG, one of the largest travel groups in the world.

thomascook.jpg


It is no good to try to stop knowledge from going forward. Ignorance is never better than knowledge - Enrico Fermi. 

Nothing is better than reading and gaining more and more knowledge - Stephen William Hawking.

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#203 2017-05-04 23:57:24

ganesh
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Registered: 2005-06-28
Posts: 23,082

Re: crème de la crème

169. Augustin-Jean Fresnel
Born : 10 May 1788, Broglie, Kingdom of France (now Eure, France); Died : 14 July 1827 (aged 39), Ville-d'Avray, Kingdom of France, (now Hauts-de-Seine, France).
Augustin-Jean Fresnel (10 May 1788 - 14 July 1827), was a French engineer and physicist who contributed significantly to the establishment of the theory of wave optics. Fresnel studied the behaviour of light both theoretically and experimentally.
He is perhaps best known as the inventor of the Fresnel lens, first adopted in lighthouses while he was a French commissioner of lighthouses, and found in many applications today. His Fresnel equations on waves and reflectivity also form the basis for many applications in computer graphics today - for instance, the rendering of water.
Personal life and education
Fresnel was the son of an architect, born at Broglie (in present-day Eure). His early progress in learning was slow, and he still could not read when he was eight years old. At thirteen he entered the École Centrale in Caen, and at sixteen and a half the École Polytechnique, where he acquitted himself with distinction. From there he went to the École des Ponts et Chaussées.
He received only scant public recognition during his lifetime for his labours in the cause of optical science. Some of his papers were not printed by the Académie des Sciences until many years after his death. But as he wrote to Young in 1824: in himself "that sensibility, or that vanity, which people call love of glory" had been blunted. "All the compliments," he says, "that I have received from Arago, Laplace and Biot never gave me so much pleasure as the discovery of a theoretic truth, or the confirmation of a calculation by experiment".
Fresnel has been described as a man with interest in religious questions and deep faith in God. As a form of consolation, he took religion very seriously especially during his illness.
He spent much of his life in Paris, and died of tuberculosis at Ville-d'Avray, near Paris. His is one of the 72 names inscribed on the Eiffel Tower. The writer Prosper Mérimée (1803-1870) was his first cousin.
Career
He served as an engineer successively in the departments of Vendée, Drôme and Ille-et-Vilaine; but having supported the Bourbons in 1814 he lost his appointment on Napoleon's return to power. He appears to have begun his research in optics around 1814, when he prepared a paper on the aberration of light, although it was never published. In 1815, on the second restoration of the monarchy, he obtained a post as engineer in Paris.
In 1818 he wrote a memoir on diffraction, for which he received the prize of the Académie des Sciences at Paris the following year. He was the first to construct a special type of lens, now called a Fresnel lens, as a substitute for mirrors in lighthouses. In 1819, he was nominated to be a commissioner of lighthouses. In 1823 he was unanimously elected a member of the academy. In 1825 he became a Fellow of the Royal Society of London. In 1827, the time of his last illness, the Royal Society of London awarded him the Rumford Medal.
In 1818 he published his Memoir on the Diffraction of Light, submitted to the Academe of science in 1818. His discoveries and mathematical deductions, building on experimental work by Thomas Young, extended the wave theory of light to a large class of optical phenomena, especially, to the double-refraction property of Iceland Spar, or calcite.
In 1817, Young had proposed a small transverse component to light, while yet retaining a far larger longitudinal component. Fresnel, by the year 1821, was able to show by mathematical methods that polarization could be explained only if light was entirely transverse, with no longitudinal vibration whatsoever. He proposed the aether drag hypothesis to explain a lack of variation in astronomical observations. His use of two plane mirrors of metal, forming with each other an angle of nearly 180°, allowed him to avoid the diffraction effects caused (by the apertures) in the experiment of F. M. Grimaldi on interference. This allowed him to conclusively account for the phenomenon of interference in accordance with the wave theory.
With François Arago he studied the laws of the interference of polarized rays. He obtained circularly polarized light by means of a rhombus of glass, known as a Fresnel rhomb, having obtuse angles of 126° and acute angles of 54°. The Fresnel–Arago laws are three laws which summarise some of the more important properties of interference between light of different states of polarization. The laws are as follows:
1. Two orthogonal, coherent linearly polarized waves cannot interfere.
2. Two parallel coherent linearly polarized waves will interfere in the same way as natural light.
3. The two constituent orthogonal linearly polarized states of natural light cannot interfere to form a readily observable interference pattern, even if rotated into alignment (because they are incoherent).
The Fresnel equations describe the behaviour of light when moving between media of differing refractive indices. When light moves from a medium of a given refractive index n1 into a second medium with refractive index n2, both reflection and refraction of the light may occur.
The Fresnel diffraction equation is an approximation of Kirchhoff-Fresnel diffraction that can be applied to the propagation of waves in the near field. It is used to calculate the diffraction pattern created by waves passing through an aperture or around an object, when viewed from relatively close to the object. In contrast the diffraction pattern in the far field region is given by the Fraunhofer diffraction equation.

standard_fresnel_augustin.jpg


It is no good to try to stop knowledge from going forward. Ignorance is never better than knowledge - Enrico Fermi. 

Nothing is better than reading and gaining more and more knowledge - Stephen William Hawking.

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#204 2017-06-27 16:54:55

ganesh
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Registered: 2005-06-28
Posts: 23,082

Re: crème de la crème

170. Adam Osborne (March 6, 1939 – March 18, 2003) was a Thailand-born British-American author, book and software publisher, and computer designer who founded several companies in the United States and elsewhere.

Computers

Osborne was known to frequent the famous Homebrew Computer Club's meetings around 1975. He was best known for creating the first commercially available portable computer, the Osborne 1, released in April 1981. It weighed 24.5 pounds (12 kg), cost US$1795 - just over half the cost of a computer from other manufacturers with comparable features - and ran the popular CP/M 2.2 operating system. It was designed to fit under an airline seat. At its peak, Osborne Computer Corporation shipped 10,000 units of "Osborne 1" per month. Osborne was one of the first personal computing pioneers to understand fully that there was a wide market of buyers who were not computing hobbyists: the Osborne 1 included word processing and spreadsheet software. This was at a time when IBM would not bundle hardware and software with their PCs, selling separately the operating systems, monitors, and even cables for the monitor.

Adam Osborne's experience in the computer industry gave his new company credibility. Osborne Computer Corporation advertisements compared Adam Osborne's influence on the personal computer market to Henry Ford's influence on transportation. It is said that in 1983, Osborne bragged about two advanced new computers his company was developing. These statements destroyed consumer demand for the Osborne 1, and the resulting inventory glut forced Osborne Computer to file for bankruptcy on September 13, 1983. This phenomenon, a pre-announcement of a new product causing a catastrophic collapse in demand for older ones, became known as the Osborne effect, but according to some new sources the real reason for Osborne Computer's bankruptcy was management errors and insufficient cash flow.

Book

After Osborne Computer's collapse, Adam Osborne wrote a best-selling memoir of his experience, Hypergrowth: The Rise and Fall of the Osborne Computer Corporation with John C. Dvorak, which was published in 1984.

osborne.jpg


It is no good to try to stop knowledge from going forward. Ignorance is never better than knowledge - Enrico Fermi. 

Nothing is better than reading and gaining more and more knowledge - Stephen William Hawking.

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#205 2017-07-01 00:32:59

ganesh
Administrator
Registered: 2005-06-28
Posts: 23,082

Re: crème de la crème

171. Colin Murdoch

Colin Albert Murdoch (6 February 1929 – 4 May 2008) was a New Zealand pharmacist and veterinarian who made a number of significant inventions, in particular the tranquilliser gun, the disposable hypodermic syringe and the child-proof medicine container. He had a total of 46 patents registered in his name.

Biographical background

Born in Christchurch, New Zealand, in 1929, to parents Mary Kathleen and Frank William James, Murdoch displayed a talent for chemistry at a very early age. Although he struggled through his schooling years with dyslexia, Murdoch already displayed an interest in both mechanical and technical skills. At the age of ten he successfully made gunpowder and came to the realization that an ignition could be caused by the mixing of certain nitrates and sulphuric acid. This discovery led the young Murdoch to build a successful firearm using a wick and a small asbestos-filled hammer.

At the age of 13 he was awarded the Royal Humane Society Medal for saving a drowning man in the New Brighton estuary.

Murdoch later came to outgrow his dyslexia and went on to study at The College of Pharmacy in Wellington. Following this, he completed a five-year apprenticeship and, like his father, became a pharmacist. He later studied to become a veterinarian. as he had an interest in not only human welfare, but also the welfare of animals.

Disposable hypodermic syringe

Both a pharmacist and a veterinarian, Murdoch was aware of the risks in reusing syringes. There was a high risk of passing infection from one patient to the next in both humans and animals, unless the glass syringe was sterilized accurately. Wanting to eliminate these risks, and needing more effective vaccination for his animal patients, Murdoch designed and invented the disposable hypodermic syringe, a plastic version of its glass predecessor. Murdoch presented the design to officials of the New Zealand Department of Health, who were skeptical, and believed it “too futuristic”, and that it would not be received well by both doctors and patients. Development of the syringe was held off for a few years due to lack of funding. Eventually, when he was granted both patents, Murdoch’s syringe became hugely successful, with millions used throughout the world every day. It is not widely known as a New Zealand design, although Murdoch's achievements have been covered in the New Zealand media.

Tranquilliser gun

In the 1950s, while working with colleagues who were studying introduced wild goat, deer and tahr populations in New Zealand, Murdoch had the idea that the animals would be much easier to catch, examine and release if a dose of tranquilliser could be administered by projection from afar. Murdoch became experienced with repairing and modifying guns during World War II, as rifles and shot guns were not being imported into New Zealand at that time. With both motive and experience, Murdoch went on to develop a range of rifles, darts and pistols, which have had an enormous impact on the treatment and study of animals around the world.

At the time Murdoch started testing his gun, the only tranquilliser drugs available were curare and alkaloids of nicotine, both of which tended to have fatal reactions in a high percentage of animals. In partnership with pharmaceutical companies, he helped develop more sophisticated drugs with precise and safe reactions.

Paxarms Limited (which stands for peace and arms), Murdoch’s own company, has developed various systems for administering veterinary products to a range of animals.

Recognition

Colin Murdoch has been acknowledged for his life's work. In 1976 he won three gold medals and a bronze at the World Inventions Fair in Brussels. The New Zealand Design Council has also honoured him and in 2000 he was made an Officer of the New Zealand Order of Merit for services to inventing. Time magazine included him in a list of the 100 most influential people of the South Pacific.

Despite the relative ubiquity of his inventions, Murdoch did not become rich because of them. He deliberately chose not to sue companies that violated his patents, satisfied instead that they were being put to good use.

In his final years he lived quietly in Timaru until his death from cancer.

colin-albert-murdoch.jpg


It is no good to try to stop knowledge from going forward. Ignorance is never better than knowledge - Enrico Fermi. 

Nothing is better than reading and gaining more and more knowledge - Stephen William Hawking.

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