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#1 Re: This is Cool » Miscellany » Today 01:15:28

470) Ambulance

An ambulance is a self-propelled vehicle specifically designed to transport critically sick or injured people to a medical facility. Most ambulances are motor vehicles, although helicopters, airplanes, and boats are also used. The interior of an ambulance has room for one or more patients plus several emergency medical personnel. It also contains a variety of supplies and equipment that are used to stabilize the patient's condition while en route.


The earliest ambulances were simple two-wheeled carts used to carry sick or wounded soldiers who were unable to walk by themselves. The word ambulance comes from the Latin word ambulare, meaning to walk or move about. The first ambulances specifically used to transport patients to a medical facility were developed in the late 1700s in France by Dominique-Jean Larrey, surgeon-in-chief in Napoleon's army. Larrey noted that it took almost a full day for wounded soldiers to be carried to field hospitals, and that most of them died in that time "from want of assistance." To render more immediate aid and provide faster transportation, he designed a horse-drawn carriage staffed by a medical officer and assistant with room for several patients on stretchers.

The first military ambulance corps in the United States was organized in 1862 during the Civil War as part of the Union army. The first civilian ambulance service in the United States was organized three years later by the Cincinnati Commercial Hospital. By the turn of the century, most major hospitals had their own private ambulances. The first motorized ambulance went into operation in Chicago in 1899.

In areas where there were no major hospitals, the local undertaker's hearse was often the only vehicle capable of carrying a patient on a stretcher, and many funeral homes also provided an ambulance service. As a result, the design and construction of ambulances and hearses remained closely related for many years.

Most early ambulances were simply intended to transport patients. After the doctor or fire department rescue squad applied first aid, the patient was loaded into the back of the ambulance for a quick ride to the hospital. In some cases, the doctor rode along, but most of the time the patient rode alone and unattended. In the United States that changed dramatically when the federal government passed the Highway Safety Act in 1966. Among its many standards, the new act set requirements for ambulance design and emergency medical care. Ambulances with low-slung, hearse-like bodies were replaced by high-bodied vans to accommodate additional personnel and equipment. Radios were installed. Many ambulances carried advanced equipment like cardiac defibrillators, along with an math of life-saving medicines and drugs.

Today, ambulances come in a wide variety of shapes and sizes. The simplest designs are equipped to provide basic life support, or BLS, while larger, more sophisticated designs are equipped to provide advanced life support, or ALS. Ambulances may be operated by private companies, hospitals, the local fire or police department, or a separate city-run organization.

Raw Materials

Ambulance manufacturers purchase many components from other suppliers rather than fabricate them themselves. These include the vehicle cab and chassis, warning lights and sirens, radios, most electrical system components, the heating and air conditioning components, the oxygen system components, and various body trim pieces like windows, latches, handles, and hinges.

If the ambulance has a separate body, the body framework is usually made of formed or extruded aluminum. The outer walls are painted aluminum sheet, and the interior walls are usually aluminum sheet covered with a vinyl coating or a laminated plastic. The subfloor may be made of plywood or may use an open-cored plastic honeycomb laminated to aluminum sheet. The interior floor covering is usually a seamless, industrial-grade vinyl that extends partially up each side for easy cleaning.

Interior cabinets in the patient compartment are usually made of aluminum with transparent, shatter-resistant plastic panels in the doors. The counter and wall surfaces in the "action area," the area immediately opposite the patient's head and torso in the left-hand forward portion of the ambulance body, are usually covered with a seamless sheet of stainless steel to resist the effects of blood and other body fluids. Interior seating and other upholstered areas have a flame-retardant foam padding with a vinyl covering. Interior grab handles and grab rails are made of stainless steel. Other interior trim pieces may be made of various rubber or plastic materials.


Ambulance designs fall into three categories. Type I ambulances have a modular, or detachable, body built on a truck chassis. The truck cab is connected to the body through a small window, but the occupants of the cab must go outside the vehicle to enter the ambulance body. Type II ambulances use a van with a raised roof. Because of the van construction, the occupants of the cab can easily enter the body from the inside, although the interior space is limited. Type III ambulances have a modular body built on a cut-away van chassis. This design combines the capacity of the larger modular body with the walk-through accessibility of a van.

The federal requirements for ambulances are defined by General Services Administration Standard KKK-A-1822: Federal Specifications for Ambulances. It covers overall construction, electrical systems, emergency warning lights, and many other aspects of ambulance design. Some states have adopted this federal standard, while others have their own design requirements. Because an ambulance is a motor vehicle, the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS) apply to the vehicle portion. Certain Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) standards regarding blood-borne and airborne pathogens also apply. Within the framework of these standards, manufacturers may specify specific features and materials to provide their products with unique advantages in the marketplace.

The Manufacturing Process

Ambulances are usually manufactured in a modified assembly line process, where the vehicle or body moves from one fixed area of a plant to another, rather than being pulled along an assembly line. Specific parts are brought to each area for installation or assembly. Different manufacturers may use slightly different processes. The following is a typical sequence of operations for the manufacture of a Type I ambulance with a modular body.

Building the body shell

•    1 The structural components of the ambulance body—the supporting struts, braces, and brackets for the floor, sides, and roof—are either bent to shape using standard machine shop tools, or are cut from specially shaped aluminum extrusions that have been purchased from suppliers. The components are held in the proper position with a device called a jig and are welded together to form the body frame-work.
•    2 The exterior skin pieces are fabricated using standard sheet metal shop tools and are fastened to the outside of the framework using either mechanical fasteners or adhesive bonding. The external compartments are fabricated and welded in place. Finally, the external body doors are fabricated and are fastened in place on hinges.
•    3 The outside of the body shell is then cleaned, sanded, and spray painted with a primer. Next, a sealer is applied. This is followed by a base coat of paint, usually white, and then a clear coat of paint to protect the base color and give the surface a shiny appearance. Between each coat, the body is placed in an oven to dry.
Preparing the cab and chassis
•    4 Additional wiring is added to the cab, chassis, and engine electrical system to accommodate the warning lights and sirens and to bring power to the body. Additional switches and controls are added to the dash as required. The heating and air conditioning system may also be modified.
•    5 Holes are drilled in the vehicle frame rails and mounting brackets are installed to support the ambulance body. The frame rails may be cut to the proper length for the body.

Mounting the body

•    6 The painted body shell is lowered onto the chassis mounting brackets and is bolted in place.
•    7 The cab is usually ordered with the same background color as the body, and does not require priming or base/clear painting. Most ambulances are specified with one or more colored stripes that extend along the sides and rear of the cab and body. The areas around the stripes are masked off with paper and tape so that the position of the stripes on the cab and the body match. The stripes are then painted and dried, and the masking removed.
•    8 The front and rear bumpers, which are not painted, are then installed. If the mirrors have been removed to paint the stripes, they are reinstalled.

Finishing the body

•    9 The electrical wiring in the body walls and ceiling is installed from the inside, and foam panels are bonded in place to provide thermal and noise insulation. With the wiring in place, the exterior lights are mounted and connected, and the exterior latches, grab handles, windows, and other trim pieces are installed.
•    10 The oxygen piping and outlets, which are part of the patient life-support system, are installed in the body walls. The vacuum system, which removes blood, saliva, and other body fluids is also installed. If the ambulance body requires an auxiliary heating and air-conditioning system, it is installed at this time.
•    11 With all the systems in place, the interior cabinets are installed and the walls, floors, and ceilings are covered. The electrical power distribution board is installed in a forward compartment of the body and the panel is connected to the cab and chassis electrical wiring. If the ambulance is specified with an inverter, which converts 12 volts direct current from the vehicle batteries into 120 volts alternating current for use with certain medical equipment, it is also installed at this time.
•    12 The seats and upholstery pieces, which are either purchased or assembled in a separate area, are fastened in place. The interior grab handles, containers, and trim pieces are installed as the final step.

Quality Control

The design of ambulances is regulated by several standards, and the manufacturer must take appropriate steps to ensure compliance with those standards. Each system is inspected and tested for proper installation and operation as part of the manufacturing process. In addition, every material, from the aluminum in the body to the foam in the head rests, is certified by the manufacturer to meet the required specifications.

The Future

Many fire departments are finding that approximately 80-90% of their calls are for medical emergencies, while only 10-20% are for fires. In the case of medical emergencies, an ambulance has to be called in addition to the fire engine. Instead of responding to all calls with large pumpers or ladder trucks, some fire departments are starting to use smaller, lower-cost first-response vehicles that combine the equipment and patient transport capabilities of a rescue truck and ambulance with the fire suppression capabilities of a small pumper. These combination vehicles are able to handle a variety of emergency situations, including those involving small fires such as might occur in vehicle accidents. This saves wear on the larger firefighting vehicles, and eliminates the need to dispatch two vehicles to the same incident. In the future, an increase in traffic congestion and an increase in the average age of the population in the United States are expected to increase the number of medical emergency calls. When this happens, it is expected that the single-function ambulance may be replaced by a multi-function combination vehicle in many areas.


#2 Jokes » More Mouse Jokes - 4 » Today 00:41:36

Replies: 0

Q: What goes dot, dot, dash, squeak?
A: Mouse code!
* * *
Q: What did the boyfriend mouse say too the girlfriend mouse family?
A: Mice too meet you.
* * *
Q: What's a mouse's favorite record?
A: Please cheese me!
* * *
Q: What's gray and furry on the inside and white on the outside?
A: A mouse sandwich!
* * *
Q: What kind of shoes do mice wear?
A: Squeakers.
* * *
Q: How do mice celebrate when they move home?
A: With a mouse warming party!
* * *
Q: Who has large antlers, a high voice and wears white gloves?
A: Mickey Moose!
* * *
Q: How do you save a drowning mouse?
A: Use mouse to mouse resuscitation!
* * *

#3 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » 10 second questions » Today 00:32:35


#7698. The average weight of M, N, and O is equal to 65 kilograms. The average weight of M and N is equal to 69.5 kilograms. The average weight of N and O is 66.5 kilograms. What is the weight of N?

#4 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » Doc, Doc! » Today 00:14:33


#1405. What does the medical term 'thyrotropin' mean?

#5 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » English language puzzles » Today 00:02:24


#3423. What does the noun dunce mean?

#3424. What does the noun dune mean?

#6 Re: Dark Discussions at Cafe Infinity » crème de la crème » Yesterday 01:26:22

633) Dudley Allen Buck

Dr. Dudley Allen Buck (1927–1959) was an electrical engineer and inventor of components for high-speed computing devices in the 1950s. He is best known for invention of the cryotron, a superconductive computer component that is operated in liquid helium at a temperature near absolute zero. Other inventions were ferroelectric memory, content addressable memory, non-destructive sensing of magnetic fields, and writing printed circuits with a beam of electrons.


The basic idea for the cryotron was entered into his MIT notebook on December 15, 1953. By 1955, Buck was building practical cryotron devices with niobium and tantalum. The cryotron was a great breakthrough in the size of electronic computer elements. In the next decade, cryotron research at other laboratories resulted in the invention of the Crowe Cell at IBM, the Josephson Junction, and the SQUID. Those inventions have today made possible the mapping of brain activity by magnetoencephalography. Despite the need for liquid helium, cryotrons were expected to make computers so small, that in 1956, Life Magazine displayed a full-page photograph of Dudley Buck with a cryotron in one hand and a vacuum tube in the other.

Another key invention by Dr. Buck was a method of non-destructive sensing of magnetic materials. In the process of reading data from a typical magnetic core memory, the contents of the memory are erased, making it necessary to take additional time to re-write the data back into the magnetic storage. By design of 'quadrature sensing' of magnetic fields, the state of magnetism of the core may be read without alteration, thus eliminating the extra time required to re-write memory data.

Dudley Buck invented recognition unit memory. Also called content addressable memory, it is a technique of storing and retrieving data in which there is no need to know the location of that data. Not only is there no need to query an index for the location of data, the inquiry for data is broadcast to all memory elements simultaneously; thus data retrieval time is independent of the size of the database.

FeRAM was first built by Buck as part of his thesis work in 1952. In addition to its use as computer memory, ferroelectric materials can be used to build shift registers, logic, and amplifiers. Buck showed that a ferroelectric switch could be useful to perform memory addressing.


As a professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Dr. Buck earned a Doctor of Science from M.I.T. in 1958. Buck began as a research assistant while a graduate student at MIT in 1950. His first assignment was on the I/O systems of the Whirlwind (computer). He was assigned to work with another graduate student, William N. Papian, who in the Fall of 1949 Jay Forrester had "selected.. to work testing individual cores by the dozen .. and to pick out cores exhibiting exceptionally good properties.". Subsequently they worked with various manufacturers developing the ferrite materials to be used in coincident-current magnetic core memory.

Buck completed his S.M degree in 1952 at MIT. His thesis for the degree was Ferroelectrics for Digital Information Storage and Switching. The thesis was supervised by Arthur R. von Hippel. In this work he demonstrated the principles of storing data in ferroelectric materials; the earliest demonstration of Ferroelectric memory, or FeRAM. This work also demonstrated that ferroelectric materials could be used as voltage controlled switches to address memory, whereas close friend and fellow student Ken Olsen's saturable switch used ferrites and was a current operated switch.

In late 1951, Dudley Buck proposed computer circuits that used neither vacuum tubes, nor the recently invented transistor. It is possible to make all computer logic circuits, including shift registers, counters, and accumulators using only magnetic cores, wire and diodes. Magnetic logic was used in the KW-26 cryptographic communications system, and in the BOGART computer.

By 1957, Buck began to place more emphasis on miniaturization of cryotron systems. The speed that cryotron devices could attain is greater as size of the device is reduced. Dr. Buck, his students, and researcher Kenneth R. Shoulders made great progress manufacturing thin-film cryotron integrated circuits in the laboratory at MIT. Developments included the creation of oxide layers as insulation and for mechanical strength by electron beam reduction of chemicals. This work, co-authored with Kenneth Shoulders, was published as "An Approach to Microminiature Printed Systems". It was presented in December, 1958, at the Eastern Joint Computer Conference in Philadelphia.


In 1957 the Institute of Radio Engineers awarded Dudley Buck the Browder J. Thompson award for engineers under the age of 30.


Dudley A. Buck was born in San Francisco, California on April 25, 1927. Dudley and his siblings moved to Santa Barbara, California, in 1940. In 1943 Dudley Buck earned his Amateur Radio License W6WCK and a First Class Radiotelephone Operator license for commercial work. He worked part-time at Santa Barbara radio station KTMS until he left to attend college at the Univ. of Washsington under the U.S. Navy V-12 program.

After graduating from the University of Washington in 1947, Buck served in the U.S. Navy for two years at Nebraska Avenue in Washington, D.C. where he began doing work and scientific advising for the agency that would later become the National Security Agency He entered the reserves in 1950 and then began his career at Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Per a request by chairman Dr. Louis Ridenour, Solomon Kullback appointed Buck to the National Security Agency Scientific Advisory Board Panel on Electronics and Data Processing in December, 1958.

Buck died suddenly May 21, 1959, just weeks after his 32nd birthday. His close associate Louis Ridenour died the same day.

His biography was published in October 2018, ‘The Cryotron Files’ by Iain Dey and his son Douglas Buck.


•    1951, Binary Counting with Magnetic Cores
•    1952, Ferroelectrics for Digital Information Storage and Switching
•    1952, Magnetic and Dielectric Amplifiers
•    1958, An Approach to Microminiature Printed Systems
•    1962, Switching Circuits – chapter 13 in Computer Handbook book by Harry Huskey

US Patents:

•    2,832,897 – Magnetically Controlled Gating Element
•    2,933,618 – Saturable Switch
•    2,936,435 – High Speed Cryotron
•    2,959,688 – Multiple Gate Cryotron Switch
•    2,987,707 – Magnetic Data Conversion Apparatus
•    3,001,178 – Electrical Memory Circuits
•    3,011,711 – Cryogenic Computing Devices
•    3,019,978 – Cryotron Translator


#7 Re: This is Cool » Miscellany » Yesterday 00:39:57

469) Shaanxi province earthquake of 1556

Shaanxi province earthquake of 1556, (Jan. 23, 1556), massive earthquake in Shaanxi province in northern China, believed to be the deadliest earthquake ever recorded.

The earthquake (estimated at magnitude 8) struck Shaanxi and neighbouring Shanxi province to the east early on Jan. 23, 1556, killing or injuring an estimated 830,000 people. This massive death toll is thought to have reduced the population of the two provinces by about 60 percent. Local annals (which date to 1177 BCE) place the epicentre of the earthquake around Huaxian in Shaanxi. These annals, which record 26 other destructive earthquakes in the province, describe the destruction caused by the 1556 earthquake in a level of vivid detail that is unique among these records. Though the quake lasted only seconds, it leveled mountains, altered the path of rivers, caused massive flooding, and ignited fires that burned for days.

The local records indicate that, in addition to inspiring searches for the causes of earthquakes, this particular quake led the people in the region affected to search for ways to minimize the damage caused by such disasters. Many of the casualties in the quake were people who had been crushed by falling buildings. Thus, in the aftermath of the 1556 quake, many of the stone buildings that had been leveled were replaced with buildings made of softer, more earthquake-resistant materials, such as bamboo and wood.

The 1556 Shaanxi earthquake is associated with three major faults, which form the boundaries of the Wei River basin. All 26 of the earthquakes recorded in the annals had epicentres in this basin.


#8 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » Oral puzzles » Yesterday 00:26:15


#4709. After a get-together, evey person present shakes hand of every other person. If there were 120 handshakes in all, how many persons were present in the party?

#9 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » General Quiz » Yesterday 00:07:01


#7419. Joseph Rudyard Kipling (30 December 1865 – 18 January 1936) was an English journalist, short-story writer, poet, and novelist. He was born in India, which inspired much of his work. Kipling's works of fiction include The Jungle Book (1894), Kim (1901), and many short stories, including "The Man Who Would Be King" (1888). In which year did win the Nobel Prize in Literature?

#7420. Name the retired Ecuadorian lawyer and diplomat (born in Quito on 29 January 1932), currently residing in Quito. He served as Foreign Minister of Ecuador on three occasions. Pursuant to United Nations General Assembly Resolution A/RES/48/141 of 20 December 1993 he was appointed first United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights and started his four-year mandate on 5 April 1994.

#10 Re: This is Cool » Miscellany » 2020-01-22 03:42:45

468) Albedo

Alternative Title: reflection coefficient

Albedo, fraction of light that is reflected by a body or surface. It is commonly used in astronomy to describe the reflective properties of planets, satellites, and asteroids.

Albedo is usually differentiated into two general types: normal albedo and bond albedo. The former, also called normal reflectance, is a measure of a surface’s relative brightness when illuminated and observed vertically. The normal albedo of snow, for example, is nearly 1.0, whereas that of charcoal is about 0.04. Investigators frequently rely on observations of normal albedo to determine the surface compositions of satellites and asteroids. The albedo, diameter, and distance of such objects together determine their brightness. If the asteroids Ceres and Vesta, for example, could be observed at the same distance, Vesta would be the brighter of the two by roughly 10 percent. Though Vesta’s diameter measures less than half that of Ceres, Vesta appears brighter because its albedo is about 0.35, whereas that of Ceres is only 0.09.

Bond albedo, defined as the fraction of the total incident solar radiation reflected by a planet back to space, is a measure of the planet’s energy balance. (It is so named for the American astronomer George P. Bond, who in 1861 published a comparison of the brightness of the Sun, the Moon, and Jupiter.) The value of bond albedo is dependent on the spectrum of the incident radiation because such albedo is defined over the entire range of wavelengths. Earth-orbiting satellites have been used to measure the Earth’s bond albedo. The most recent values obtained are approximately 0.33. The Moon, which has a very tenuous atmosphere and no clouds, has an albedo of 0.12. By contrast, that of Venus, which is covered by dense clouds, is 0.76.

What Is Albedo?

The term albedo refers to the amount of solar energy that gets reflected off of the Earth and lands back in space.

Albedo is part of the energy from the sunlight that casts back into the atmosphere. These rays have a significant effect on our climate. When the albedo rises, the universe reflects light more and consequently, higher levels of radiation are sent back to space so the Earth cools down. Albedo determines the level of heat on the Earth. It is now well known that most of the light from the sun moves up once it hits the Earth. Research has shown that water absorbs light more thereby reflecting less light. If there is more water compared to a hard surface, then there is less solar emission. The Earth, the moon, or any other planet has the ability to transmit albedo.


Albedo can be defined as a way of quantifying how much radiation is reflected from the surface. It is a comparison between the reflection radiation from the surface to the amount of radiation that hits it. This term also refers to the quantity of radiation generated by electromagnetic rays which consequently reflects away.

Seasonal Effects on Albedo


To understand albedo better, we look at two scenarios. One, if you walk barefoot on the black soil during summer, you will feel a lot of heat and can even get burnt because the surface is absorbing and retaining more heat. Another person walking on white soil during the same season will not be burnt. This is basically because white surface tends to reflect more heat and absorb very little of it. Equally, if you touch a black car in summer it will feel much hotter than touching a white car. This is because black absorbs and retains heat while white car surface will reflect back the solar rays.


During this season, it is generally wet with either water or ice. Water reflects approximately 6% of the light and absorbs the rest. Ice, on the other hand, reflects 50% to 60% of the incoming solar heat, thereby remaining cooler. A snow-covered area reflects a lot of radiation, which is why skiers having a risk of getting sunburns while on the slopes. Albedo diminishes when the snow-covered places start to warm up.

How is Albedo Quantified?

Albedo helps us to know how well a surface reflects solar energy. It is measured on a scale of zero to one (0-1). Surfaces differ in absorbent ability but will always be in the range of between 0-1.
Value “0” - If a score of zero is given, then the conclusion is that the surface is highly receptive to light, meaning that the surface takes in all the light that comes into contact with it. It is characterized by black surfaces.

Value “1” - This score is evidence that the surface does not absorb incoming light. It is characterized by white surfaces.

The albedo of our planet is 0.367, whereas that of the moon stands at 0.12, meaning the moon reflects 12% out of the radiation that falls on it. There are many satellites set up to monitor the planet's albedo by use of sensors which measure the light from the Earth that reflects on the surface of the moon. NASA has set out what is called Terra and Aqua Satellites to assist identify any changes in albedo.

Various Studies

A. Danjon Studies (1928- 1954)

André-Louis Danjon, a French national, conducted studies on Albedo. He used an approach known as “The eyes of a cat”. He used light to make a bio image of the moon, permitting the sight checking of similarity and differences of the degrees of two research specimens of the moon surfaces. Using this approach, he ceased some light from the part with sunlight to correspond with the sunlight of the other side.

The research led to what is known as Danjon scale astrolabe which also led to enhanced accuracy of major visual astrometry. He further came up with a five-point measuring parameter for assessing the visual appearance and brightness of the moon when there is a total eclipse. He used letter “L” to denote high darkness.

L-O: Moon cannot be seen. This is characterized by the total to the medium dimness.
L-1: The details are visible but with some difficulty.
L-2: The shadows at the middle are very dim but the outer edge is a bit bright.
L-3: The umbral shadow has yellow color around it.
L-4: There is a blue looking shiny color around the moon. It has shades of either red or orange. It illuminates a lot of light.

Earth Surface Albedo Variations 1998- 2014

These were the second studies done within a total of sixteen years. During this period, man tried to understand the ratio of earthshine as compared to lunar shine. This was assessed both from the aerial satellites and on the ground for a period of sixteen years. The moon was the focus of the study.

De Pater and Lissauer Table of Albedo

De Peter and Lissauer categorized albedo into two sets namely Geometric and Bond albedo Geometric albedo means the quantity of radiation in comparison to the frequency which the wave's shape repeats itself while Bond albedo highlights the total radiation reflected from an object in comparison to the total incident radiation from the solar planets.

Albedo Drivers

Some of the factors that drive albedo include but are not limited to the following:

1. Change in land use –This refers to the way people do actions that alters the landscape. Examples range from the natural ecosystem to deforestation to subdividing into small-scale farms and setting up of urban cities leaving the ground bare.

2. Greenhouse emissions – Carbon dioxide and other gases emitted affects albedo.

3. Water degradation – The use of water has increased due to agricultural activities.

4. Pollution – Excess high-level nitrogen and phosphorus flow. This leads to pollution of water bodies and the atmosphere.

The Albedo Effect and Warming of the Universe

It was found that the global albedo has recently gone up and on a measuring scale, the watts per square meter is now greater. This is according to research by Anthony Watts.

The universe is gradually getting hotter due to deforestation. Better forest management skills should be embraced to mitigate effects of albedo. Trees reduce radioactive effects of solar reflection. We should also protect our wetlands and snow cover fractions. The loss of the Arctic is of great concern.

Many states are advocating reforestation since trees are darker and have reduced albedo emission rates. If one plants more trees he is remunerated based on a system called carbon credit. The clouds may at times reflect sunlight but can still hold heat thereby warming up the Earth.

Today climate scientists and researchers are concerned that if global warming continues it will make the polar ice caps to melt making the ocean water to absorb more solar light thereby increasing the global warming. It is in this context that all of us should work towards coming up with better models to curb its effect in future.


#11 Re: Dark Discussions at Cafe Infinity » crème de la crème » 2020-01-22 01:06:22

632) Willard Boyle

Willard Boyle, in full Willard Sterling Boyle, (born Aug. 19, 1924, Amherst, N.S., Can.—died May 7, 2011, Truro, N.S.), physicist who was awarded, with American physicist George E. Smith, the Nobel Prize for Physics in 2009 for their invention of the charge-coupled device (CCD). They shared the prize with physicist Charles Kao, who discovered how light could be transmitted through fibre-optic cables. Boyle held dual citizenship in Canada and the United States.

Boyle served in the Canadian navy during World War II. He received a bachelor’s (1947), master’s (1948), and doctorate (1950) in physics from McGill University in Montreal, Que. He was an assistant professor at the Royal Military College in Kingston, Ont., from 1951 to 1953, after which he joined Bell Laboratories, the research-and-development arm of the American Telephone and Telegraph Company (AT&T), in the United States. There he worked on semiconductors. In 1962, with American physicist Donald Nelson, he invented the first laser capable of being operated continuously—unlike previous lasers, which had been capable of operating only in short bursts. From 1962 to 1964 he was director of space science at Bellcomm, a subsidiary of AT&T, where he helped select lunar landing sites for the Apollo spaceflight program. In 1964 he rejoined Bell Laboratories.

In 1969 Boyle and Smith, who also worked for Bell, were asked to originate a new concept for computer memory. After an hour of discussion, they came up with the CCD. Because of the CCD’s sensitivity to light, its chief application has been in photography, in which it replaced film as the recording medium. The digital camera has a CCD at its heart. Because the CCD is a linear detector in that the number of electrons generated is exactly proportional to the light coming in, it is now extensively used in astronomy as well.

In 1974 Boyle became executive director of research on light wave communication, quantum electronics, and digital electronics at Bell Laboratories. He retired in 1979.

(CCD, in full charge-coupled device, Semiconductor device in which the individual semiconductor components are connected so that the electrical charge at the output of one device provides the input to the next device. Because they can store electrical charges, CCDs can be used as memory devices, but they are slower than RAMs. CCDs are sensitive to light, and are therefore used as the light-detecting components in video and digital cameras and in optical scanners.)


#12 Jokes » More Mouse Jokes - 3 » 2020-01-22 00:55:19

Replies: 0

Q: What did Tom get when he locked Jerry in the freezer?
A: Mice cubes!
* * *
Q: Why was the mouse afraid of the water?
A: Catfish.
* * *
Q: What's gray, squeaky and hangs around in caves?
A: Stalagmice!
* * *
Q: What kind of car does a mouse drive?
A: A mini van.
* * *
Q: How does a mouse feel after it takes a shower?
A: Squeaky clean!
* * *
Q: What mouse was a Roman emperor?
A: Julius Cheeser!
* * *
Q: What is gray, hairy and lives on a man’s face?
A: A mouse-tache!
* * *
Q: Why did the mouse eat a candle?
A: For some light refreshment!
* * *

#13 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » 10 second questions » 2020-01-22 00:43:39



#7697. The mean of 15 different natural numbers is 13. Find the maximum value of the second largest of these numbers.

#14 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » Doc, Doc! » 2020-01-22 00:15:32


#1404. In medical parlance, what is 'Multifactorial disorder'?

#15 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » English language puzzles » 2020-01-22 00:02:45


#3421. What does the verb (used with object) dump mean?

#3422. What does the adjective dumpy mean?

#16 Re: This is Cool » Miscellany » 2020-01-21 00:55:40

467) Amnesia

Amnesia, loss of memory occurring most often as a result of damage to the brain from trauma, stroke, Alzheimer disease, alcohol and drug toxicity, or infection. Amnesia may be anterograde, in which events following the causative trauma or disease are forgotten, or retrograde, in which events preceding the causative event are forgotten.

The condition also may be traced to severe emotional shock, in which case personal memories (e.g., identity) are affected. Such amnesia seems to represent a psychological escape from or denial of memories that might cause anxiety. These memories are not actually lost, since they can generally be recovered through psychotherapy or after the amnesic state has ended.

Occasionally amnesia may last for weeks, months, or even years, during which time the person may begin an entirely new life. Such protracted reactions are called fugue states. When recovered, the person is usually able to remember events that occurred prior to onset, but events of the fugue period are forgotten. Posthypnotic amnesia, the forgetting of most or all events that occur while under hypnosis in response to a suggestion by the hypnotist, has long been regarded as a sign of deep hypnosis.

The common difficulty of remembering childhood experiences is sometimes referred to as childhood amnesia.


Amnesia refers to the loss of memories, such as facts, information and experiences. Though forgetting your identity is a common plot device in movies and television, that's not generally the case in real-life amnesia.

Instead, people with amnesia — also called amnestic syndrome — usually know who they are. But, they may have trouble learning new information and forming new memories.

Amnesia can be caused by damage to areas of the brain that are vital for memory processing. Unlike a temporary episode of memory loss (transient global amnesia), amnesia can be permanent.

There's no specific treatment for amnesia, but techniques for enhancing memory and psychological support can help people with amnesia and their families cope.


The two main features of amnesia are:

•    Difficulty learning new information following the onset of amnesia (anterograde amnesia)
•    Difficulty remembering past events and previously familiar information (retrograde amnesia)

Most people with amnesia have problems with short-term memory — they can't retain new information. Recent memories are most likely to be lost, while more remote or deeply ingrained memories may be spared. Someone may recall experiences from childhood or know the names of past presidents, but not be able to name the current president, know what month it is or remember what was for breakfast.

Isolated memory loss doesn't affect a person's intelligence, general knowledge, awareness, attention span, judgment, personality or identity. People with amnesia usually can understand written and spoken words and can learn skills such as bike riding or piano playing. They may understand they have a memory disorder.
Amnesia isn't the same as dementia. Dementia often includes memory loss, but it also involves other significant cognitive problems that lead to a decline in daily functioning.

A pattern of forgetfulness is also a common symptom of mild cognitive impairment (MCI), but the memory and other cognitive problems in MCI aren't as severe as those experienced in dementia.

Additional signs and symptoms

Depending on the cause of the amnesia, other signs and symptoms may include:

•    False memories (confabulation), either completely invented or made up of genuine memories misplaced in time
•    Confusion or disorientation

When to see a doctor

Anyone who experiences unexplained memory loss, head injury, confusion or disorientation requires immediate medical attention.

A person with amnesia may not be able to identify his or her location or have the presence of mind to seek medical care. If someone you know has symptoms of amnesia, help the person get medical attention.


Normal memory function involves many parts of the brain. Any disease or injury that affects the brain can interfere with memory.

Amnesia can result from damage to brain structures that form the limbic system, which controls your emotions and memories. These structures include the thalamus, which lies deep within the center of your brain, and the hippocampal formations, which are situated within the temporal lobes of your brain.

Amnesia caused by brain injury or damage is known as neurological amnesia. Possible causes of neurological amnesia include:

•    Stroke
•    Brain inflammation (encephalitis) as a result of an infection with a virus such as herpes simplex virus, as an autoimmune reaction to cancer somewhere else in the body (paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis), or as an autoimmune reaction in the absence of cancer
•    Lack of adequate oxygen in the brain, for example, from a heart attack, respiratory distress or carbon monoxide poisoning
•    Long-term alcohol abuse leading to thiamin (vitamin B-1) deficiency (Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome)
•    Tumors in areas of the brain that control memory
•    Degenerative brain diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia
•    Seizures
•    Certain medications, such as benzodiazepines or other medications that act as sedatives

Head injuries that cause a concussion, whether from a car accident or sports, can lead to confusion and problems remembering new information. This is especially common in the early stages of recovery. Mild head injuries typically do not cause lasting amnesia, but more-severe head injuries may cause permanent amnesia.
Another rare type of amnesia, called dissociative (psychogenic) amnesia, stems from emotional shock or trauma, such as being the victim of a violent crime. In this disorder, a person may lose personal memories and autobiographical information, but usually only briefly.

Risk factors

The chance of developing amnesia might increase if you've experienced:

•    Brain surgery, head injury or trauma
•    Stroke
•    Alcohol abuse
•    Seizures


Amnesia varies in severity and scope, but even mild amnesia takes a toll on daily activities and quality of life. The syndrome can cause problems at work, at school and in social settings.

It may not be possible to recover lost memories. Some people with severe memory problems need to live in a supervised situation or extended-care facility.


Because damage to the brain can be a root cause of amnesia, it's important to take steps to minimize your chance of a brain injury. For example:

•    Avoid excessive alcohol use.
•    Wear a helmet when bicycling and a seat belt when driving.
•    Treat any infection quickly so that it doesn't have a chance to spread to the brain.
•    Seek immediate medical treatment if you have any symptoms that suggest a stroke or brain aneurysm, such as a severe headache or one-sided numbness or paralysis.


To diagnose amnesia, a doctor will do a comprehensive evaluation to rule out other possible causes of memory loss, such as Alzheimer's disease, other forms of dementia, depression or a brain tumor.

Medical history

The evaluation starts with a detailed medical history. Because the person with memory loss may not be able to provide thorough information, a family member, friend or another caregiver generally takes part in the interview as well.

The doctor will ask many questions to understand the memory loss. Issues that might be addressed include:

•    Type of memory loss — recent or long term
•    When the memory problems started and how they progressed
•    Triggering factors, such as a head injury, stroke or surgery
•    Family history, especially of neurological disease
•    Drug and alcohol use
•    Other signs and symptoms, such as confusion, language problems, personality changes or impaired ability to care for self
•    History of seizures, headaches, depression or cancer

Physical exam

The physical examination may include a neurological exam to check reflexes, sensory function, balance, and other physiological aspects of the brain and nervous system.

Cognitive tests

The doctor will test the person's thinking, judgment, and recent and long-term memory. He or she will check the person's knowledge of general information — such as the name of the current president — as well as personal information and past events. The doctor may also ask the person to repeat a list of words.

The memory evaluation can help determine the extent of memory loss and provide insights about what kind of help the person may need.

Diagnostic tests

The doctor may order:

•    Imaging tests — including an MRI and CT scan — to check for brain damage or abnormalities
•    Blood tests to check for infection, nutritional deficiencies or other issues
•    An electroencephalogram to check for the presence of seizure activity

More Information


Treatment for amnesia focuses on techniques and strategies to help make up for the memory problem, and addressing any underlying diseases causing the amnesia.

Occupational therapy

A person with amnesia may work with an occupational therapist to learn new information to replace what was lost, or to use intact memories as a basis for taking in new information.

Memory training may also include different strategies for organizing information so that it's easier to remember and for improving understanding of extended conversation.

Technological assistance

Many people with amnesia find it helpful to use smart technology, such as a smartphone or a hand-held tablet device. With some training and practice, even people with severe amnesia can use these electronic organizers to help with day-to-day tasks. For example, smartphones can be programmed to remind them about important events or to take medications.

Low-tech memory aids include notebooks, wall calendars, pill minders, and photographs of people and places.

Medications or supplements

No medications are currently available for treating most types of amnesia.

Amnesia caused by Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome involves a lack of thiamin. Treatment includes replacing this vitamin and providing proper nutrition. Although treatment, which also needs to include alcohol abstinence, can help prevent further damage, most people won't recover all of their lost memory.

Research may one day lead to new treatments for memory disorders. But the complexity of the brain processes involved makes it unlikely that a single medication will be able to resolve memory problems.

Coping and support

Living with amnesia can be frustrating for those with memory loss, and for their family and friends, too. People with more-severe forms of amnesia may require direct assistance from family, friends or professional caregivers.

It can be helpful to talk with others who understand what you're going through, and who may be able to provide advice or tips on living with amnesia. Ask your doctor if he or she knows of a support group in your area for people with amnesia and their loved ones.

If an underlying cause for the amnesia is identified, there are national organizations that can provide additional information or support for the individual and their families.

Preparing for your appointment

You're likely to start by seeing your family doctor or a general practitioner. However, you may then be referred to a doctor who specializes in disorders of the brain and nervous system (neurologist).

It's a good idea to arrive at your appointment well-prepared. Here's some information to help you get ready for your appointment and to know what to expect from your doctor.

What you can do

•    Write down any unusual symptoms as you experience them, including any that may seem unrelated to the reason for which you scheduled the appointment.
•    Write down key personal information, including any major stresses or recent life changes you can recall. Ask family members or friends to help you, to ensure your list is complete.
•    Make a list of all medications, vitamins or supplements you're taking.
•    Ask a family member or friend to come with you. Even in the best circumstances, it can be difficult to remember all of the information provided to you during an appointment. Someone with you can help you remember everything that was said.
•    Bring a notepad and pen or pencil to jot down the points you want to be sure to remember later.
•    Write down questions to ask your doctor.

Preparing a list of questions can help you make the most of your time with your doctor, as well as ensure that you cover everything you want to ask. For amnesia, some basic questions to ask your doctor include:

•    What's the most likely cause of my symptoms?
•    Are there other possible causes for my symptoms?
•    What kinds of tests do I need? Do these tests require any special preparation?
•    Will my memory ever come back?
•    What treatments are available, and which do you recommend?
•    I have other health conditions. How can I best manage them together?
•    Do I need to restrict any activities?
•    Are there any brochures or other printed material that I can take home? What websites do you recommend?

In addition to the questions that you've prepared to ask your doctor, don't hesitate to ask questions during your appointment at any time that you don't understand something.

What to expect from your doctor

Your doctor is likely to ask you a number of questions, including:

•    When did you first notice your memory loss?
•    Did you experience any other symptoms at that time?
•    Were you involved in any trauma? For example, a car accident, violent collision in sports or an assault?
•    Did an illness or another event seem to trigger the memory loss?
•    Does anything help improve your memory?
•    What, if anything, appears to worsen your memory loss?
•    Are the memory problems intermittent or constant?
•    Has the memory loss stayed the same or is it getting worse?
•    Did the memory loss come on suddenly or gradually?


#17 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » Oral puzzles » 2020-01-21 00:28:32


#4708. If the letters of the word JITEN are permuted in all possible ways and the words thus obtained are arranged alphabetically, what is the rank of JITEN?

#18 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » General Quiz » 2020-01-21 00:03:00


#7417. Who is the author of 'The Lord of the Rings', an epic high-fantasy novel written by English author and scholar?

#7418. Who is the author of 'Le Petit Prince' (The Little Prince), French aristocrat, writer, and aviator?

#19 Re: This is Cool » Miscellany » 2020-01-20 01:20:40

466) Sapphire

Sapphire, transparent to translucent, natural or synthetic variety of corundum (q.v. : quod vide (q.v.) which see; aluminum oxide, Al2O3) that has been highly prized as a gemstone since about 800 BC. Its colour is due mainly to the presence of small amounts of iron and titanium and normally ranges from a very pale blue to deep indigo, with the most valued a medium-deep cornflower blue. Colourless, gray, yellow, pale pink, orange, green, violet, and brown varieties of gem corundum also are known as sapphire; red varieties are called ruby. Much sapphire is unevenly coloured; it is also dichroic; that is, the colour of most varieties changes with the direction of view. Alexandrite sapphire appears blue in daylight and reddish or violet in artificial illumination, somewhat like true alexandrite. Careful heating and cooling under various conditions can induce permanent colour changes in sapphire (e.g., from yellow to colourless or greenish blue and from violet to pink). Other colour changes result from exposure to intense radiation. Most sapphire contains abundant microscopic inclusions; reflections from these yield a faint whitish sheen, known as silk. Tiny, regularly arranged mineral inclusions (commonly rutile) and elongate cavities are responsible for the asterism shown by star sapphire.

Sapphire is a primary constituent of many igneous rocks, especially syenites, pegmatites, and various basic (silica-poor) types; it also occurs in schists and metamorphosed carbonate rocks. Most commercial production has come from alluvial gravels and other placer deposits, where the sapphire commonly is associated with ruby and other gem minerals. The best known sources, including some lode deposits, are in Sri Lanka, Myanmar (Burma), Thailand, Australia (Victoria, Queensland, New South Wales), India, Madagascar, Russia, South Africa, and the United States (Montana, North Carolina).

Most transparent sapphire is faceted, generally in the brilliant style. Such gems have considerable sparkle, but they exhibit little fire because of their modest dispersion (separation of light into its component colours). Skillful cutting of unevenly coloured stones yields gems with a uniform appearance derived from only small portions of relatively deep colour. Star sapphire and other nontransparent varieties are cut en cabochon (in convex form, highly polished) rather than faceted. Despite its great hardness, some sapphire is carved or engraved, especially in the Orient.

Synthetic sapphire has been produced commercially since 1902. Clear, sound material is manufactured in the form of carrot-shaped boules and slender rods. Much is consumed by the jewelry trade, but most synthetic material is used for the manufacture of jewel bearings, gauges, dies, phonograph-needle points, thread guides, and other specialized components; some also is used as a high-grade abrasive. Synthetic star sapphire is made with luminous stars that are more regular and distinct than those in most natural stones; the asterism is obtained through controlled exsolution of impurities.


#20 Re: Dark Discussions at Cafe Infinity » crème de la crème » 2020-01-20 00:56:45

631) Aeneas Coffey

Aeneas Coffey (1780–1839) was an Irish inventor and distiller.


Coffey was born in 1780. According to some sources he was born in Ireland most likely in Co. Dublin or Co. Wicklow. Some references refer to his birth in Calais, France, in 1780 to Irish parents. Coffey was educated at Trinity College, Dublin and entered the excise service around 1799–1800 as a gauger. He married Susanna Logie in 1808, and they had three sons over the next eight years: Aeneas, William and Philip.

Customs and excise officer

According to British customs and excise records, Coffey was a remarkable man with widespread interests and multiple talents who rose quickly through the excise service ranks. He was appointed sub-commissioner of Inland Excise and Taxes for the district of Drogheda in 1813. He was appointed Surveyor of Excise for Clonmel and Wicklow in 1815. In 1816 he was promoted to the same post at Cork. By 1818 he was Acting Inspector General of Excise for the whole of Ireland and within two years was promoted to Inspector General of Excise in Dublin, Ireland.

He was a strong, determined upholder of the law, but aware of its shortcomings. He survived many nasty skirmishes with illegal distillers and smugglers, particularly in County Donegal in Ulster and in the west of Ireland, where moonshining was most rife. On several occasions he proposed to the government simple, pragmatic solutions to rules and regulations which had hampered legal distillers. Not all of his ideas were accepted. Between 1820 and 1824 he submitted reports and gave evidence to Parliamentary Commissions of Inquiry on many aspects of distilling, including formalising the different spellings of Irish whiskey and Scotch whisky. His 1822 report was solidly backed by the Irish distillers. He believed in making it viable to distill legally, and illegal distilling might largely disappear.

He assisted the government in the drafting of the 1823 Excise Act which made it easier to distill legally. It sanctioned the distilling of whiskey in return for a licence fee of £10, and a set payment per gallon of proof spirit. It also provided for the appointment of a single Board of Excise, under Treasury control, for the whole of the United Kingdom, replacing the separate excise boards for England, Scotland and Ireland. The 1823 Excise Act also provided for not more than four assistant commissioners of excise to transact current business in Scotland and Ireland, under the control of the board in London.

Aeneas Coffey resigned from government excise service at his own request in 1824.


Between his Dublin education and his work as an excise officer, Aeneas Coffey had ample opportunity to observe the design and workings of whiskey stills, as Ireland was the world's leading producer of whiskey in the 19th century, and Dublin was at the centre of that global industry. This was how Coffey became familiar with a design differing from the traditional copper pot alembic still commonly used in Ireland, the continuous, or column, still. First patented by a Cork County distillery in 1822, the column still remained a relatively inefficient piece of equipment, although it pointed the way towards a cheaper and more productive way to distill alcohol. It was that last point that captured Coffey's imagination. He made his own modifications to existing column still designs, so as to allow a greater portion of the vapours to re-circulate into the still instead of moving into the receiver with the spirit. The result was more efficient, producing a lighter spirit at higher alcohol content. Coffey patented his design in 1830, and it became the basis for every column still used ever since.

His column still became widely popular in Scotland and the rest of the world outside Ireland, where it is known as the "Coffey still" or "Patent Still". Early Coffey stills produced spirits of about 60% or somewhat higher alcohol by volume concentration but still offered its operators outstanding advantages; its fuel costs were low, its output high (2000 gallons a day of pure alcohol was a good average, it needed less maintenance and cleaning than pot stills and because the still was steam-heated, there was no risk whatsoever of scorching, saving labour costs and distillation down time. Modern versions of the Coffey still can achieve much higher alcohol concentrations, approaching 95.6% alcohol. As alcohol forms an azeotrope with water at this concentration, it is impossible to achieve higher purity alcohol by distillation alone. The Irish distilling industry generally did not take up the Coffey still, but big urban distilleries in Scotland took it on for scotch, and in England it was taken on by the gin distilleries.


On his retirement from service, Aeneas Coffey went into the Irish distilling business. For a short time he ran the Dodder Bank Distillery, Dublin and Dock Distillery in Grand Canal Street, Dublin, before setting up on his own as Aeneas Coffey Whiskey Company in 1830. The development of the Coffey still made distillation of his own whiskey much more economical.

Later years

Nothing is known of the final years and last resting place of Aeneas Coffey. His eldest son, also called Aeneas Coffey, emigrated to South Africa and managed a distillery. Aeneas Coffey junior married but his wife died childless. He returned to England and spent his final years near London.


It is impossible to overestimate Aeneas Coffey's importance in the history of distilling. Analogies between industries are hard to make, but one can safely call him the 'Henry Ford of distilling', the 'father of Irish whiskey' or the 'man who put the 'e' into whiskey'. Just as Ford came from Irish stock but made his name, fame and fortune in America, so Aeneas Coffey was an Irishman whose invention changed the world.

Aeneas Coffey's contribution to the mechanisation of alcohol production is immense and his invention can be found today in almost every country on earth.

(Distillation is the process of separating the components or substances from a liquid mixture by using selective boiling and condensation. Distillation may result in essentially complete separation (nearly pure components), or it may be a partial separation that increases the concentration of selected components in the mixture. In either case, the process exploits differences in the relative volatility of the mixture's components. In industrial chemistry, distillation is a unit operation of practically universal importance, but it is a physical separation process, not a chemical reaction.

Distillation has many applications. For example:

•    Distillation of fermented products produces distilled beverages with a high alcohol content or separates out other fermentation products of commercial value.
•    Distillation is an effective and traditional method of desalination.
•    In the petroleum industry, oil stabilization is a form of partial distillation that reduces vapor pressure of crude oil, thereby making it safe for storage and transport as well as reducing the atmospheric emissions of volatile hydrocarbons. In midstream operations at oil refineries, fractional distillation is a major class of operation for transforming crude oil into fuels and chemical feed stocks.
•    Cryogenic distillation leads to the separation of air into its components – notably oxygen, nitrogen, and argon – for industrial use.
•    In the chemical industry, large amounts of crude liquid products of chemical synthesis are distilled to separate them, either from other products, from impurities, or from unreacted starting materials.

An installation used for distillation, especially of distilled beverages, is a distillery. The distillation equipment itself is a still.)


#21 Jokes » More Mouse Jokes - 2 » 2020-01-20 00:42:26

Replies: 0

Q: What did the mouse say when his friend broke his front teeth?
A: Hard cheese!
* * *
Q: What is a mouse's favorite game?
A: Hide and squeak!
* * *
Q: What are crisp, like milk and go 'eek, eek, eek' when you eat them?
A: Mice Krispies!
* * *
Q: What is small, furry and brilliant at sword fights?
A: A mouseketeer!
* * *
Q: What kind of cheese do rodents like?
A: Mousearella.
* * *
Q: What goes eek, eek, bang?
A: A mouse in a minefield!
* * *
Q: What squeaks as it solves crimes?
A: Miami mice!
* * *

#22 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » Doc, Doc! » 2020-01-20 00:34:35


#1403. What does the medical term/phrase 'Anomic aphasia' mean?

#23 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » 10 second questions » 2020-01-20 00:16:27


#7696. The average height of 16 students is 142 centimeters. If the height of the teacher is included, the average height increases by 1 centimeter. Find the height of the teacher.

#24 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » English language puzzles » 2020-01-20 00:02:34


#3419. What does the verb (used with object) dumbfound mean?

#3420. What does the noun dummy mean?

#25 Re: Dark Discussions at Cafe Infinity » Studying maths effectively for getting good grades » 2020-01-19 02:43:02


1. Remember, the three dimensions of success : Determination, Dedication, and Devotion.
2. "Rome wasn't built in a day" is an adage attesting to the need for time to create great things.
3. Meticulous planning and Time Management is paramount.
4. Have a complete picture of the syllabus.
5. Eliminate weak links. The Strength Of The Chain Is In The Weakest Link.
6. Put one's best foot forward. Embark on an undertaking with as much effort and determination as possible.
7. Prayers help in many cases.
8. Well begun is half done.
9. Look for the positives in your life.

This is true for CBSE Examinations and others too.

Additional information : Use of logarithm tables, Ready Reckoner of conversion from one unit to another in Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, use of appropriate units (preferably SI units), Use of Simple/Scientific Calculator, Definitions in Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Basic Arithmetic operations and Laws of exponents/radicals, conversant with formulas are helpful.

Please see the links : Formulas 1, Formulas 2, and Formulas 3.

Best Wishes!

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