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#1 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » 10 second questions » Today 14:26:37

Hi,

The solution #6241 is correct. Neat work, zetafunc!

#6242. Find the value of 'a' when the distance between the points (3,a), (4,1) is

.

#2 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » Oral puzzles » Today 14:17:56

Hi,

The solution set in #3821 is correct. Good work, Monox D. I-Fly!

#3822. Solve:
x + y = 4,
2x - 3y = 3.

#3 Re: Dark Discussions at Cafe Infinity » crème de la crème » Today 01:51:50

223) Sir Edwin Lutyens

Sir Edwin Lutyens, in full Sir Edwin Landseer Lutyens (born March 29, 1869, London, England—died January 1, 1944, London), English architect noted for his versatility and range of invention along traditional lines. He is known especially for his planning of New Delhi and his design of the Viceroy’s House there.

After studying at the Royal College of Art, London, he was articled in 1887 to a firm of architects but soon left to set up in practice on his own. In his early works (1888–95) he assimilated the traditional forms of local Surrey buildings. Lutyens’ style changed when he met the landscape gardener Gertrude Jekyll, who taught him the “simplicity of intention and directness of purpose” she had learned from John Ruskin. At Munstead Wood, Godalming, Surrey (1896), Lutyens first showed his personal qualities as a designer. This house, balancing the sweep of the roof with high buttressed chimneys and offsetting small doorways with long strips of windows, made his reputation. A brilliant series of country houses followed in which Lutyens adapted varied styles of the past to the demands of contemporary domestic architecture.

About 1910 Lutyens’ interest shifted to larger, civil projects, and in 1912 he was selected to advise on the planning of the new Indian capital at Delhi. His plan, with a central mall and diagonal avenues, may have owed something to Pierre-Charles L’Enfant’s plan for Washington, D.C., and to Christopher Wren’s plan for London after the Great Fire, but the total result was quite different: a garden-city pattern, based on a series of hexagons separated by broad avenues with double lines of trees. In his single most important building, the Viceroy’s House (1913–30), he combined aspects of classical architecture with features of Indian decoration. Lutyens was knighted in 1918.

After World War I Lutyens became architect to the Imperial War Graves Commission, for which he designed the Cenotaph, London (1919–20); the Great War Stone (1919); and military cemeteries in France. His vast project for the Roman Catholic cathedral at Liverpool was incomplete at his death.

lutyens.jpg

#4 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » 10 second questions » Today 01:26:51

Hi,

#6241. Find the distance between the points P(-6,7) and Q(-1,-5).

#5 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » Oral puzzles » Today 01:20:11

Hi,

#3821. Solve:
2x + y - 3 = 0,
2x - 3y - 7 = 0.

#6 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » Oral puzzles » 2017-10-18 14:11:12

Hi,

#3820. Solve:
3x + y + 1 = 0,
2x - 3y + 8 = 0.

#8 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » Doc, Doc! » 2017-10-16 09:56:07

Hi,

#1130. Name the Medical term : It refers to symmetrical paralysis, usually affecting either the arms or the legs. It's the most common cause of paralysis in children, but can affect people of any age. Unlike other forms of paralysis, it is highly unpredictable, and may get better, worse, or radically change with time.

#9 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » General Quiz » 2017-10-16 09:44:34

Hi,

#6695. What is 'xenoglossophobia'?

#6696. What is 'ranidaphobia'?

#11 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » Oral puzzles » 2017-10-16 03:00:42

Hi,

Good attempt, Monox D. I-Fly!

#3819. A 16 meter deep well with diameter 3.5 meter is dug up and the earth from it is spread evenly to form a platform 27.5 meter by 7 meter. Find the height of the platform,

#12 Re: Dark Discussions at Cafe Infinity » crème de la crème » 2017-10-16 01:06:51

222) Jan Koum

Biography of Jan Koum

Jan Koum (Ukraine, conceived February 24, 1976) is an American web businessman and PC engineer. He and Brian Acton are the CEO and fellow sponsor of WhatsApp, a versatile informing application which was occupied by Facebook Incorporation in February 2014 for US$19 Billion. In 2014, he entered the Forbes rundown of the 400 wealthiest Americans at position 62, with an expected worth of more than seven billion dollars and a large portion of billion dollars. He was the most astounding positioned newcomer.

Early Life

Koum was conceived in Kyiv, Ukraine. He is Jewish. He experienced childhood in Festive, outside Kyiv, and moved with his mom and grandma to Mountain View, California in 1992, where a social bolster system helped the family to get a little apartment comprised of two-room, at the age of 16. His dad had expected to join the family later, however at long last stayed in Ukraine. At first Koum’s mom acted as a sitter, while he himself filled in as a cleaner at a staple.

Education

By the age of 18 he got to be occupied himself with programming. He was recruited at San Jose State University and at the same time he worked at Ernst & Young as a security analyzer.

Court Case

In February 1996, a limiting request was allowed against Koum in state court in San Jose, California. An ex point by point affairs in which she said Koum verbally and physically debilitated her. In October 2014, Koum said in regards to the controlling request, “I am embarrassed about the way I acted, and embarrassed that my conduct constrained her to make lawful move.”

Career

In 1997, Jan Koum was acquired by Yahoo as a framework engineer, not long after he met Brian Acton while working at Ernst & Young as a security analyzer. Throughout these nine years, they worked at Yahoo. In September 2007 Koum and Acton left Yahoo and took a year off, going around South America and playing extreme Frisbee. Both connected, and fizzled, to work at Facebook. In January 2009, he purchased an iPhone and understood that the then-seven-month-old App Store spoke the truth to generate an entire new industry of applications. He went to his companion Alex Fishman and the two spoke for quite a long time about Koum’s thought for an application over tea at Fishman’s kitchen counter. Koum very quickly picked the name WhatsApp in light of the fact that it seemed like “what’s up,” and after a week on his birthday, Feb. 24, 2009, he fused WhatsApp Inc. in California.

Mark Zuckerberg

WhatsApp got to be prominent in only a little measure of time, and this got Face book’s consideration. Facebook’s originator Mark Zuckerberg initially reached Koum in the spring 2012. The two started meeting at a coffeehouse in Los Altos, California, then started a progression of suppers and strolls in the slopes above Silicon Valley.

On February ninth, Zuckerberg invited Koum to dinner at his home, and formally proposed Koum an arrangement to join the Facebook board.

WhatsApp

WhatsApp is a texting application for cell phones that works under a membership plan of action. The exclusive, cross-stage application utilizes the Internet to send instant messages, pictures, feature, and client area and sound media messages. In January 2015, WhatsApp was the most internationally mainstream informing application with more than 600 million dynamic clients. In April 2015, WhatsApp came to 800 million dynamic users. In September 2015 the client base has grown up to 900 million.

WhatsApp Inc., situated in Mountain View, California, was obtained by Facebook on February 19, 2014, for roughly US$16 billion

Present

Today Jan Koum is 37 years of age, one of the wealthiest men in the online networking industry, yet as thinking back, in a positive light, on the basic life that he had in the Ukraine and how his vision of moment straightforward informing has changed the life of many millions.

Jan-Koum-Founder-of-WhatsApp.jpg

#13 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » Oral puzzles » 2017-10-15 21:32:25

Hi,

The solution #3817 is correct. Neat work, Monox D. I-Fly!

#3818. A card is drawn at random from a pack of 52 cards. Find the probability that the card drawn is neither a red card nor a queen.

#14 Re: Dark Discussions at Cafe Infinity » crème de la crème » 2017-10-14 15:48:29

221) Sir George Cayley

Sir George Cayley, 6th Baronet (27 December 1773 - 15 December 1857) was a prolific English engineer and is one of the most important people in the history of aeronautics. Many consider him to be the first true scientific aerial investigator and the first person to understand the underlying principles and forces of flight.

In 1799 he set forth the concept of the modern aeroplane as a fixed-wing flying machine with separate systems for lift, propulsion, and control. He was a pioneer of aeronautical engineering and is sometimes referred to as "the father of aviation." He discovered and identified the four forces which act on a heavier-than-air flying vehicle: weight, lift, drag and thrust. Modern aeroplane design is based on those discoveries and on the importance of cambered wings, also identified by Cayley. He constructed the first flying model aeroplane and also diagrammed the elements of vertical flight. He designed the first glider reliably reported to carry a human aloft. He correctly predicted that sustained flight would not occur until a lightweight engine was developed to provide adequate thrust and lift. The Wright brothers acknowledged his importance to the development of aviation.

Cayley represented the Whig party as Member of Parliament for Scarborough from 1832 to 1835, and in 1838 helped found the UK's first Polytechnic Institute, the Royal Polytechnic Institution (now University of Westminster) and served as its chairman for many years. He was a founding member of the British Association for the Advancement of Science and was a distant cousin of the mathematician Arthur Cayley.

General engineering projects

Cayley, from Brompton-by-Sawdon, near Scarborough in Yorkshire, inherited Brompton Hall and Wydale Hall and other estates on the death of his father, the 5th baronet. Captured by the optimism of the times, he engaged in a wide variety of engineering projects. Among the many things that he developed are self-righting lifeboats, tension-spoke wheels,  the "Universal Railway" (his term for caterpillar tractors), automatic signals for railway crossings, seat belts, small scale helicopters, and a kind of prototypical internal combustion engine fuelled by gunpowder. He suggested that a more practical engine might be made using gaseous vapours rather than gunpowder, thus foreseeing the modern internal combustion engine. He also contributed in the fields of prosthetics, air engines, electricity, theatre architecture, ballistics, optics and land reclamation, and held the belief that these advancements should be freely available.

Flying machines

He is mainly remembered for his pioneering studies and experiments with flying machines, including the working, piloted glider that he designed and built. He wrote a landmark three-part treatise titled "On Aerial Navigation" (1809 - 1810), which was published in Nicholson's Journal of Natural Philosophy, Chemistry and the Arts. The 2007 discovery of sketches in Cayley's school notebooks (held in the archive of the Royal Aeronautical Society Library) revealed that even at school Cayley was developing his ideas on the theories of flight. It has been claimed that these images indicate that Cayley identified the principle of a lift-generating inclined plane as early as 1792. To measure the drag on objects at different speeds and angles of attack, he later built a "whirling-arm apparatus", a development of earlier work in ballistics and air resistance. He also experimented with rotating wing sections of various forms in the stairwells at Brompton Hall.

These scientific experiments led him to develop an efficient cambered airfoil and to identify the four vector forces that influence an aircraft: thrust, lift, drag, and gravity. He discovered the importance of the dihedral angle for lateral stability in flight, and deliberately set the centre of gravity of many of his models well below the wings for this reason; these principles influenced the development of hang gliders. As a result of his investigations into many other theoretical aspects of flight, many now acknowledge him as the first aeronautical engineer. His emphasis on lightness led him to invent a new method of constructing lightweight wheels which is in common use today. For his landing wheels, he shifted the spoke's forces from compression to tension by making them from tightly-stretched string, in effect "reinventing the wheel". Wire soon replaced the string in practical applications and over time the wire wheel came into common use on bicycles, cars, aeroplanes and many other vehicles.

The model glider successfully flown by Cayley in 1804 had the layout of a modern aircraft, with a kite-shaped wing towards the front and an adjustable tailplane at the back consisting of horizontal stabilisers and a vertical fin. A movable weight allowed adjustment of the model's centre of gravity. Around 1843 he was the first to suggest the idea for a convertiplane, an idea which was published in a paper written that same year. At some time before 1849 he designed and built a biplane in which an unknown ten-year-old boy flew. Later, with the continued assistance of his grandson George John Cayley and his resident engineer Thomas Vick, he developed a larger scale glider (also probably fitted with "flappers") which flew across Brompton Dale in front of Wydale Hall in 1853. The first adult aviator has been claimed to be either Cayley's coachman, footman or butler: one source (Gibbs-Smith) has suggested that it was John Appleby, a Cayley employee: however there is no definitive evidence to fully identify the pilot. An entry in volume IX of the 8th Encyclopædia Britannica of 1855 is the most contemporaneous authoritative account regarding the event. A 2007 biography of Cayley (Richard Dee's The Man Who Discovered Flight: George Cayley and the First Airplane) claims the first pilot was Cayley's grandson George John Cayley (1826 - 1878).

A replica of the 1853 machine was flown at the original site in Brompton Dale by Derek Piggott in 1973 for TV and in the mid-1980s[20] for the IMAX film On the Wing. The glider is currently on display at the Yorkshire Air Museum. Another replica, piloted by Allan McWhirter, flew in Salina, Kansas just before Steve Fossett landed the Virgin Atlantic GlobalFlyer there in March 2003, and later piloted by Richard Branson at Brompton in summer 2003.

Memorial

Cayley is commemorated in Scarborough at the University of Hull, Scarborough Campus, where a hall of residence and a teaching building are named after him. He is one of many scientists and engineers commemorated by having a hall of residence and a bar at Loughborough University named after him. The University of Westminster also honours Cayley's contribution to the formation of the institution with a gold plaque at the entrance of the Regent Street building.

There are display boards and a video film at the Royal Air Force Museum London in Hendon honouring Cayley's achievements and a modern exhibition and film "Pioneers of Aviation" at the Yorkshire Air Museum, Elvington,York. The Sir George Cayley Sailwing Club is a Yorkshire-based free flight club, affiliated to the British Hang Gliding and Paragliding Association, which has borne his name since its founding in 1975.

Cayley_George.jpg

#16 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » Oral puzzles » 2017-10-14 14:47:44

Hi,

#3817. A card is drawn at random from a pack of 52 cards. Find the probability that the card drawn is jack, queen, or king.

#17 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » Doc, Doc! » 2017-10-14 14:40:47

Hi,

#1129. Name the Medical term : A permanent shortening of a muscle or joint. It is usually in response to prolonged hypertonic spasticity in a concentrated muscle area, such as is seen in the tightest muscles of people with conditions like spastic cerebral palsy.  They are essentially muscles or tendons that have remained too tight for too long, thus becoming shorter.

#18 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » General Quiz » 2017-10-14 14:30:31

Hi,

#6693. Who is known as '"Ike" (former US President)?

#6694. Who is known as "Iron Lady"?

#19 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » 10 second questions » 2017-10-13 10:58:57

Hi,

#6237. If

, then find the value of
is terms of x.

#20 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » Oral puzzles » 2017-10-13 10:48:15

Hi,

#3816. What is the probability that a number selected from the numbers 1, 2, 3, ...., 15 is a multiple of 4?

#21 Re: Dark Discussions at Cafe Infinity » crème de la crème » 2017-10-13 01:06:14

220) Steve Jobs

Steve Jobs co-founded Apple Computers with Steve Wozniak. Under Jobs' guidance, the company pioneered a series of revolutionary technologies, including the iPhone and iPad.

“Do you want to spend the rest of your life selling sugared water or do you want a chance to change the world? [Jobs inviting an executive to join Apple]” - Steve Jobs

Synopsis

Steve Jobs was born in San Francisco, California, on February 24, 1955, to two University of Wisconsin graduate students who gave him up for adoption. Smart but directionless, Jobs experimented with different pursuits before starting Apple Computer with Steve Wozniak in 1976. Apple's revolutionary products, which include the iPod, iPhone and iPad, are now seen as dictating the evolution of modern technology, with Jobs having left the company in 1985 and returning more than a decade later. He died in 2011, following a long battle with pancreatic cancer.

Early Life

Steven Paul Jobs was born on February 24, 1955, in San Francisco, California, to Joanne Schieble (later Joanne Simpson) and Abdulfattah "John" Jandali, two University of Wisconsin graduate students who gave their unnamed son up for adoption. His father, Jandali, was a Syrian political science professor, and his mother, Schieble, worked as a speech therapist. Shortly after Steve was placed for adoption, his biological parents married and had another child, Mona Simpson. It was not until Jobs was 27 that he was able to uncover information on his biological parents.

The infant was adopted by Clara and Paul Jobs and named Steven Paul Jobs. Clara worked as an accountant and Paul was a Coast Guard veteran and machinist. The family lived in Mountain View, California, within the area that would later become known as Silicon Valley. As a boy, Jobs and his father worked on electronics in the family garage. Paul showed his son how to take apart and reconstruct electronics, a hobby that instilled confidence, tenacity and mechanical prowess in young Jobs.

While Jobs was always an intelligent and innovative thinker, his youth was riddled with frustrations over formal schooling. Jobs was a prankster in elementary school due to boredom, and his fourth-grade teacher needed to bribe him to study. Jobs tested so well, however, that administrators wanted to skip him ahead to high school—a proposal that his parents declined.

A few years later, while Jobs was enrolled at Homestead High School, he was introduced to his future partner Steve Wozniak, who was attending the University of California, Berkeley. In a 2007 interview with PC World, Wozniak spoke about why he and Jobs clicked so well: "We both loved electronics and the way we used to hook up digital chips," Wozniak said. "Very few people, especially back then, had any idea what chips were, how they worked and what they could do. I had designed many computers, so I was way ahead of him in electronics and computer design, but we still had common interests. We both had pretty much sort of an independent attitude about things in the world. ..."

Apple Computer

After high school, Jobs enrolled at Reed College in Portland, Oregon. Lacking direction, he dropped out of college after six months and spent the next 18 months dropping in on creative classes at the school. Jobs later recounted how one course in calligraphy developed his love of typography.

In 1974, Jobs took a position as a video game designer with Atari. Several months later he left the company to find spiritual enlightenment in India, traveling further and experimenting with psychedelic drugs. In 1976, when Jobs was just 21, he and Wozniak started Apple Computer. The duo started in the Jobs family garage, funding their entrepreneurial venture by Jobs selling his Volkswagen bus and Wozniak selling his beloved scientific calculator.

Jobs and Wozniak are credited with revolutionizing the computer industry by democratizing the technology and making machines smaller, cheaper, intuitive and accessible to everyday consumers. Wozniak conceived of a series of user-friendly personal computers, and - with Jobs in charge of marketing - Apple initially marketed the computers for $666.66 each. The Apple I earned the corporation around $774,000. Three years after the release of Apple's second model, the Apple II, the company's sales increased by 700 percent to $139 million. In 1980, Apple Computer became a publicly traded company, with a market value of $1.2 billion by the end of its very first day of trading. Jobs looked to marketing expert John Sculley of Pepsi-Cola to take over the role of CEO for Apple.

Departure from Company

However, the next several products from Apple suffered significant design flaws, resulting in recalls and consumer disappointment. IBM suddenly surpassed Apple in sales, and Apple had to compete with an IBM/PC-dominated business world. In 1984, Apple released the Macintosh, marketing the computer as a piece of a counterculture lifestyle: romantic, youthful, creative. But despite positive sales and performance superior to IBM's PCs, the Macintosh was still not IBM-compatible. Sculley believed Jobs was hurting Apple, and the company's executives began to phase him out.

Not actually having had an official title with the company he co-founded, Jobs was pushed into a more marginalized position and thus left Apple in 1985 to begin a new hardware and software enterprise called NeXT, Inc. The following year Jobs purchased an animation company from George Lucas, which later became Pixar Animation Studios. Believing in Pixar's potential, Jobs initially invested $50 million of his own money in the company. The studio went on to produce wildly popular movies such as Toy Story, Finding Nemo and The Incredibles; Pixar's films have collectively netted $4 billion. The studio merged with Walt Disney in 2006, making Steve Jobs Disney's largest shareholder.

Reinventing Apple

Despite Pixar's success, NeXT, Inc. floundered in its attempts to sell its specialized operating system to mainstream America. Apple eventually bought the company in 1996 for $429 million. The following year, Jobs returned to his post as Apple's CEO.

Just as Steve Jobs instigated Apple's success in the 1970s, he is credited with revitalizing the company in the 1990s. With a new management team, altered stock options and a self-imposed annual salary of $1 a year, Jobs put Apple back on track. His ingenious products (like the iMac), effective branding campaigns and stylish designs caught the attention of consumers once again.

Pancreatic Cancer

In 2003, Jobs discovered that he had a neuroendocrine tumor, a rare but operable form of pancreatic cancer. Instead of immediately opting for surgery, Jobs chose to alter his pesco-vegetarian diet while weighing Eastern treatment options. For nine months, Jobs postponed surgery, making Apple's board of directors nervous. Executives feared that shareholders would pull their stock if word got out that their CEO was ill. But in the end, Jobs' confidentiality took precedence over shareholder disclosure. In 2004, he had a successful surgery to remove the pancreatic tumor. True to form, in subsequent years Jobs disclosed little about his health.

Later Innovations

Apple introduced such revolutionary products as the Macbook Air, iPod and iPhone, all of which have dictated the evolution of modern technology. Almost immediately after Apple releases a new product, competitors scramble to produce comparable technologies. Apple's quarterly reports improved significantly in 2007: Stocks were worth $199.99 a share - a record-breaking number at that time - and the company boasted a staggering $1.58 billion profit, an $18 billion surplus in the bank and zero debt.

In 2008, iTunes became the second-biggest music retailer in America - second only to Walmart, fueled by iTunes and iPod sales. Apple has also been ranked No. 1 on Fortune magazine's list of "America's Most Admired Companies," as well as No. 1 among Fortune 500 companies for returns to shareholders.

Personal Life

Early in 2009, reports circulated about Jobs' weight loss, some predicting his health issues had returned, which included a liver transplant. Jobs had responded to these concerns by stating he was dealing with a hormone imbalance. After nearly a year out of the spotlight, Steve Jobs delivered a keynote address at an invite-only Apple event September 9, 2009.

In the early 1990s, Jobs met Laurene Powell at Stanford business school, where Powell was an MBA student. They married on March 18, 1991, and lived together in Palo Alto, California, with their three children.

Death

On October 5, 2011, Apple Inc. announced that its co-founder had passed away. After battling pancreatic cancer for nearly a decade, Steve Jobs died in Palo Alto. He was 56 years old.

Books and Biopics

A number of books have been written on Jobs' life and career, including an authorized 2011 general biography by Walter Isaacson, a 2012 young adult biography by Karen Blumenthal, and yet another title, 2015's Becoming Steve Jobs by Brent Schlender and Rick Tetzeli. The Isaacson work was critiqued for the depiction of its main subject by Apple's chief executive Tim Cook, who succeeded Jobs.

Biopics inspired by the computer icon's life have been released as well - namely the critically panned Jobs (2013), starring Ashton Kutcher, and Steve Jobs (2015), starring Michael Fassbender and directed by Danny Boyle.

steve-jobs1.jpeg

#22 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » Oral puzzles » 2017-10-12 00:29:24

Hi,

#3815. A bag contains 5 black, 7 red, and 3 white balls. A ball is drawn from the bag at random. Find the probability that the ball drawn is:
(i) red
(ii) black or white
(iii) not black

#24 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » General Quiz » 2017-10-11 03:42:43

Hi,

#6691. Which place is known as 'Big D'?

#6692. Which place is known as 'Powder keg of Europe'?

#25 Re: Dark Discussions at Cafe Infinity » crème de la crème » 2017-10-11 01:21:59

219. Éleuthère Irénée du Pont

Éleuthère Irénée du Pont de Nemours (24 June 1771 - 31 October 1834), known as Irénée du Pont, or E. I. du Pont, was a French-American chemist and industrialist who founded the gunpowder manufacturer E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company. His descendants, the Du Pont family, have been one of America's richest and most prominent families since the 19th century, with generations of influential businessmen, politicians and philanthropists.

Early life and family

Du Pont was born 24 June 1771, in Paris, the son of Pierre Samuel du Pont de Nemours and Nicole-Charlotte Marie-Louise le Dée de Rencourt. His father was a political economist who had been elevated to the nobility in 1784 by "letters patent" granted by King Louis XVI, allowing him to carry the honorable de Nemours suffix. Growing up on his father's estate, "Bois des Fossés", near Égreville, young du Pont was enthusiastic about his studies in most subjects, and showed particular interest in explosives. Du Pont married Sophie Dalmas (1775 - 1828) in 1791, and they had eight children.

Du Pont sailed before his family and landed at Rhode Island on 1 January 1800, along with his father and his brother's family. By 1802, he had established both his business and his family home, Eleutherian Mills, on the Brandywine Creek in Delaware. 1 January is the anniversary of the arrival of the du Pont family in America, and this date is still celebrated by its descendants.

Career in France

In the fall of 1785, du Pont entered the Collège Royal in Paris. Two years later, he was accepted by the friend of his father and noted chemist Antoine Lavoisier as a student in the Régie des poudres, the government agency responsible for the manufacture of gunpowder. It was from Lavoisier that he gained his expertise in nitrate extraction and manufacture. He studied "advanced explosives production techniques".

After a brief apprenticeship, he took a position at the government powder works in Essones but quit after Lavoisier left. In 1791, du Pont began to help his father manage their small publishing house in Paris, where they published a republican newspaper in support of governmental reforms in France. Despite being a soft-spoken chemist, he also had a strong sense of social order. Du Pont was a member of the pro-Revolution national guard and supported the Jacobins. However, on 20 August 1792, both du Pont and his father participated in protecting the escape of Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette when the Tuileries Palace was stormed. His father riled up fellow revolutionaries by refusing to go along with the guillotine execution of Louis XVI, and the two men's moderate political views proved to be a liability in revolutionary France.

His father was arrested in 1794, only avoiding execution because of the end of the Reign of Terror. In September 1797, du Pont and his father spent a night in La Force prison while their home and presses were ransacked. These events led his father to lose hope in the political situation in France, and so he began making plans to move their family to America and aspired to create a model community of French émigrés. On 2 October 1799, the du Pont family sold their publishing house and set sail for the United States. They reached Rhode Island on 1 January 1800 and began to settle in the home the eldest du Pont had secured in Bergen Point, New Jersey.

They soon set up an office in New York City to decide what their new line of business would be, but ironically mild-mannered and introverted Éleuthère Irénée was not included in much of these plans. However, he would soon begin to realize the possibilities that his childhood apprenticeship with Lavoisier would allow him and his family in America.

E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company

Du Pont had no thought of becoming involved with gunpowder manufacture again upon his arrival in the United States, but he brought with him an expertise in chemistry and gunpowder making, during a time when the quality of American-made gunpowder was very poor. Delaware legend holds that he decided to go into the gunpowder business during a fateful hunting trip with Major Louis de Tousard, a former French artillery officer then employed by the United States Army to procure gunpowder supplies. Du Pont's gun misfired as he attempted to shoot a bird, which caused him to reflect on his powder-making apprenticeship with Lavoisier as a youth in France. Du Pont commented on the inferior quality of the American-made powder they were using for hunting despite its high price.

At his request, Tousard arranged a tour of an American powder plant. He quickly deduced that the saltpeter being used was of good enough quality, however, the American refining process was poor and inefficient compared with the techniques he had learned in France. He began to think that he could use his experience from France to manufacture gunpowder of a higher quality in the United States and reform the current industry standard for refinery. With his father's blessing, he began to assemble capital for the construction of the first powder mills, and returned to France in the beginning of 1801 to procure the necessary financing and equipment.

The act of association was signed on 21 April 1801, and the company was christened E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company since it was its namesake's ingenuity that had created this venture. His gunpowder company was capitalized at $36,000 with 18 shares at $2,000 each. He purchased a site on Brandywine Creek for $6,740. There were several small buildings and a dam with foundations for a cotton-spinning mill which had been destroyed by fire. The first gunpowder was produced in April 1804.

Death

Du Pont died on 31 October 1834 in Philadelphia. The cause of death was unspecified, due to "conflicting reports of either cholera or a heart attack." He was buried in the Du Pont de Nemours Cemetery on the family property in Wilmington.

Legacy

The company he founded would become one of the largest and most successful American corporations. By the mid-19th century it was the largest supplier of gunpowder to the U.S. military, and supplied as much as 40 percent of the powder used by the Union Army forces during the Civil War. His sons, Alfred V. du Pont (1798 - 1856) and Henry du Pont (1812 - 1889), managed the plant after his death, assisted by his son-in-law, Antoine Bidermann. His grandson Lammot du Pont I (1831 - 1884) was the first president of the United States Gunpowder Trade Association, popularly known as the Powder Trust.

eleutire.jpg

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