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#1 Re: This is Cool » Miscellany » Today 00:14:25

968) Scarlet fever

Scarlet fever, also called scarlatina, acute infectious disease caused by group A hemolytic streptococcal bacteria, in particular Streptococcus pyogenes. Scarlet fever can affect people of all ages, but it is most often seen in children. It is called scarlet fever because of the red skin rash that accompanies it. Before the advent of antibiotics, scarlet fever was extremely serious, often causing long periods of illness, many dangerous complications, and even death. Children with scarlet fever used to be immediately isolated and quarantined, and entire schools and neighbourhoods panicked when a case was discovered. Today, however, scarlet fever has declined in incidence and, when it does occur, in severity. Recovery is rapid and complete when antibiotics are administered promptly, and most of the potentially dangerous complications can be prevented if the full course of treatment is followed.

Scarlet fever is almost identical to streptococcal pharyngitis, commonly called strep throat, and is frequently referred to as “strep throat with a rash.” The major difference between the two illnesses is that the scarlet fever bacterium gives rise to an antigen called the erythrogenic (“redness-producing”) toxin, which is responsible for the characteristic rash.

The Course Of The Disease

Scarlet fever is rarely seen in infants and toddlers, but it begins to increase in incidence gradually after two years of age and reaches a peak incidence just before adolescence, being most common between the ages of 6 and 12. It is more common in temperate areas than in warmer tropical areas. The main sources of infection are the noses and throats of infected persons, who frequently spray droplets into the air by sneezing or coughing. Bacteria can also be transmitted indirectly by contact with contaminated objects or the unwashed hands of an infected person.

The incubation period of the scarlet fever bacterium ranges between one and seven days. The illness usually begins with a sudden onset of fever, vomiting, and severe sore throat. Along with these symptoms the child usually develops a headache, chills, and weakness. Between 12 and 24 hours after the onset of fever, the typical scarlet rash appears. Occasionally the child complains of severe abdominal pain.

In a typical case the temperature rises to 39.5 °C (103 °F) or higher. The throat is red and sore, and the tonsils are enlarged, reddened, and covered with patches of exudate. The glands under the angles of the jaw become swollen and tender. The tongue changes its appearance as the disease progresses. At the start the tip and edges are reddened, and the rest of the tongue has a whitish appearance. By the third or fourth day the white coat has peeled off, and the tongue then develops a red “strawberry” appearance.

The scarlet fever rash, which appears shortly after the fever, has been described as a “sunburn with goose pimples.” The skin is covered with tiny red spots that blanch on pressure and has a rough, sandpaper-like texture. This scarlet rash usually covers the entire body except for the area around the mouth, which remains pale. One of the most characteristic features of the rash is desquamation, or peeling, which occurs at the end of the first week. Desquamating skin comes off as fine flakes like bran. The hands and feet are usually the last to desquamate—not until the second or third week of the illness.

Diagnosis And Treatment

Most cases of scarlet fever can be diagnosed by the typical signs and symptoms alone. The most useful means of confirming a diagnosis is throat culture. Group A hemolytic streptococci can be isolated from the throat or nose by using a cotton swab, and the results of the culture can be determined after only 24 hours of incubation. Blood samples can also be drawn and checked for elevated white blood cell levels or for antibodies to various of the toxins given off by the streptococci, but these tests are rarely needed for diagnosis.

A number of antibiotics are effective in the treatment of group A streptococcal infections, but penicillin remains the drug of choice. The drug can be given by injection or by mouth. Treatment consistently results in rapid reduction of fever and improvement in well-being. The aim is to maintain an adequate blood level of penicillin against the bacteria for at least 10 days of treatment. The danger is that often, with the child feeling better after only two or three days, treatment is stopped too soon. For this reason doctors occasionally treat patients by injection of a single long-acting penicillin preparation. For children who are allergic to penicillin, there are a number of other equally effective antibiotics—for example, erythromycin.


Early complications of scarlet fever generally occur during the first week of illness. The infection may spread, causing inflammation of the middle ear (otitis media), the paranasal sinuses (sinusitis), or the lymph nodes of the neck. A rare early complication is bronchial pneumonia. Even rarer are osteomyelitis (infection of the bone), mastoiditis (infection of the bony areas behind the ears), and septicemia (blood poisoning). If the child is adequately treated, such complications rarely develop.

Of great importance are two serious late complications, rheumatic fever (inflammation of the heart and joints) and glomerulonephritis (inflammation of the urine-producing structures of the kidney). These late complications are probably caused by an autoimmune reaction brought on by the streptococci or some of their by-products. Onset varies from one to two weeks for glomerulonephritis and from two to four weeks for rheumatic fever. They may follow a mild streptococcal infection just as often as a severe one.

Rheumatic fever is relatively uncommon but serious. The incidence is said to be about 3 percent after a case of streptococcal infection that is inadequately treated and less than 1 percent after full treatment. Rheumatic fever is rarely seen in children under three years of age. Since rheumatic fever often causes damage to the heart, it is extremely important that any child with a streptococcal infection be correctly diagnosed and adequately treated.

Glomerulonephritis (also called Bright disease) is a more-common late complication. A child who develops acute glomerulonephritis has fever, blood in the urine, puffiness in the face, and, occasionally, high blood pressure. However, in most cases the prognosis for full recovery is excellent.


#2 Re: Dark Discussions at Cafe Infinity » crème de la crème » Today 00:04:52

856) Frederick Sanger

Frederick Sanger, (born August 13, 1918, Rendcombe, Gloucestershire, England—died November 19, 2013, Cambridge), English biochemist who was twice the recipient of the Nobel Prize for Chemistry. He was awarded the prize in 1958 for his determination of the structure of the insulin molecule. He shared the prize (with Paul Berg and Walter Gilbert) in 1980 for his determination of base sequences in nucleic acids. Sanger was the fourth two-time recipient of the Nobel Prize.


Sanger was the middle child of Frederick Sanger, a medical practitioner, and Cicely Crewsdon Sanger, the daughter of a wealthy cotton manufacturer. The family expected him to follow in his father’s footsteps and become a medical doctor. After much thought, he decided to become a scientist. In 1936 Sanger entered St. John’s College, Cambridge. He initially concentrated on chemistry and physics, but he was later attracted to the new field of biochemistry. He received a bachelor’s degree in 1939 and stayed at Cambridge an additional year to take an advanced course in biochemistry. He and Joan Howe married in 1940 and subsequently had three children.

Because of his Quaker upbringing, Sanger was a conscientious objector and was assigned as an orderly to a hospital near Bristol when World War II began. He soon decided to visit Cambridge to see if he could enter the doctoral program in biochemistry. Several researchers there were interested in having a student, especially one who did not need money. He studied lysine metabolism with biochemist Albert Neuberger. They also had a project in support of the war effort, analyzing nitrogen from potatoes. Sanger received a doctorate in 1943.

Insulin Research

Biochemist Albert C. Chibnall and his protein research group moved from Imperial College in London to the safer wartime environment of the biochemistry department at Cambridge. Two schools of thought existed among protein researchers at the time. One group thought proteins were complex mixtures that would not readily lend themselves to chemical analysis. Chibnall was in the other group, which considered a given protein to be a distinct chemical compound.

Chibnall was studying insulin when Sanger joined the group. At Chibnall’s suggestion, Sanger set out to identify and quantify the free-amino groups of insulin. Sanger developed a method using dinitrofluorobenzene to produce yellow-coloured derivatives of amino groups.  Information about a new separation technique, partition chromatography, had recently been published. In a pattern that typified Sanger’s career, he immediately recognized the utility of the new technique in separating the hydrolysis products of the treated protein. He identified two terminal amino groups for insulin, phenylalanine and glycine, suggesting that insulin is composed of two types of chains. Working with his first graduate student, Rodney Porter, Sanger used the method to study the amino terminal groups of several other proteins. (Porter later shared the 1972 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for his work in determining the chemical structure of antibodies.)

On the assumption that insulin chains are held together by disulphide linkages, Sanger oxidized the chains and separated two fractions. One fraction had phenylalanine at its amino terminus; the other had glycine. Whereas complete acid hydrolysis degraded insulin to its constituent amino acids, partial acid hydrolysis generated insulin peptides composed of several amino acids. Using another recently introduced technique, paper chromatography, Sanger was able to sequence the amino-terminal peptides of each chain, demonstrating for the first time that a protein has a specific sequence at a specific site. A combination of partial acid hydrolysis and enzymatic hydrolysis allowed Sanger and the Austrian biochemist Hans Tuppy to determine the complete sequence of amino acids in the phenylalanine chain of insulin. Similarly, Sanger and the Australian biochemist E.O.P. Thompson determined the sequence of the glycine chain.

Two problems remained: the distribution of the amide groups and the location of the disulphide linkages. With the completion of those two puzzles in 1954, Sanger had deduced the structure of insulin. For being the first person to sequence a protein, Sanger was awarded the 1958 Nobel Prize for Chemistry.

Sanger and his coworkers continued their studies of insulin, sequencing insulin from several other species and comparing the results. Utilizing newly introduced radiolabeling techniques, Sanger mapped the amino acid sequences of the active centres from several enzymes. One of these studies was conducted with another graduate student, Argentine-born immunologist César Milstein. (Milstein later shared the 1984 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for discovering the principle for the production of monoclonal antibodies.)

RNA Research

In 1962 the Medical Research Council opened its new laboratory of molecular biology in Cambridge. The Austrian-born British biochemist Max Perutz, British biochemist John Kendrew, and British biophysicist Francis Crick moved to the new laboratory. Sanger joined them as head of the protein division. It was a banner year for the group, as Perutz and Kendrew shared the 1962 Nobel Prize for Chemistry and Crick shared the 1962 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine with the American geneticist James D. Watson and the New Zealand-born British biophysicist Maurice Wilkins for the discovery of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid).

Sanger’s interaction with nucleic acid groups at the new laboratory led to his pursuing studies on ribonucleic acid (RNA). RNA molecules are much larger than proteins, so obtaining molecules small enough for technique development was difficult. The American biochemist Robert W. Holley and his coworkers were the first to sequence RNA when they sequenced alanine-transfer RNA. They used partial hydrolysis methods somewhat like those Sanger had used for insulin. Unlike other RNA types, transfer RNAs have many unusual nucleotides. This partial hydrolysis method would not work well with other RNA molecules, which contain only four types of nucleotides, so a new strategy was needed.

The goal of Sanger’s lab was to sequence a messenger RNA and determine the genetic code, thereby solving the puzzle of how groups of nucleotides code for amino acids. Working with British biochemists George G. Brownlee and Bart G. Barrell, Sanger developed a two-dimensional electrophoresis method for sequencing RNA. By the time the sequence methods were worked out, the code had been broken by other researchers, mainly the American biochemist Marshall Nirenberg and the Indian-born American biochemist Har Gobind Khorana, using in vitro protein synthesis techniques. The RNA sequence work of Sanger’s group did confirm the genetic code.

DNA Research

By the early 1970s Sanger was interested in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). DNA sequence studies had not developed because of the immense size of DNA molecules and the lack of suitable enzymes to cleave DNA into smaller pieces. Building on the enzyme copying approach used by the Swiss chemist Charles Weissmann in his studies on bacteriophage RNA, Sanger began using the enzyme DNA polymerase to make new strands of DNA from single-strand templates, introducing radioactive nucleotides into the new DNA. DNA polymerase requires a primer that can bind to a known region of the template strand. Early success was limited by the lack of suitable primers. Sanger and British colleague Alan R. Coulson developed the “plus and minus” method for rapid DNA sequencing. It represented a radical departure from earlier methods in that it did not utilize partial hydrolysis. Instead, it generated a series of DNA molecules of varying lengths that could be separated by using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. For both plus and minus systems, DNA was synthesized from templates to generate random sets of DNA molecules from very short to very long. When both plus and minus sets were separated on the same gel, the sequence could be read from either system, one confirming the other. In 1977 Sanger’s group used this system to deduce most of the DNA sequence of bacteriophage ΦX174, the first complete genome to be sequenced.

A few problems remained with the plus and minus system. Sanger, Coulson, and British colleague Steve Nicklen developed a similar procedure using dideoxynucleotide chain-terminating inhibitors. DNA was synthesized until an inhibitor molecule was incorporated into the growing DNA chain. Using four reactions, each with a different inhibitor, sets of DNA fragments were generated ending in every nucleotide. For example, in the A reaction, a series of DNA fragments ending in A (adenine) was generated. In the C reaction, a series of DNA fragments ending in C (cytosine) was generated, and so on for G (guanine) and T (thymine). When the four reactions were separated side by side on a gel and an autoradiograph developed, the sequence was read from the film. Sanger and his coworkers used the dideoxy method to sequence human mitochondrial DNA. For his contributions to DNA sequencing methods, Sanger shared the 1980 Nobel Prize for Chemistry. He retired in 1983.

Additional Honours

Sanger’s additional honours included election as a fellow of the Royal Society (1954), being named a Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE; 1963), receiving the Royal Society’s Royal Medal (1969) and Copley Medal (1977), and election to the Order of the Companions of Honour (CH; 1981) and the Order of Merit (OM; 1986). In 1993 the Wellcome Trust and the British Medical Research Council established a genome research centre, honouring Sanger by naming it the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute.


#3 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » Doc, Doc! » Today 00:04:28


#1628. What does the medical term 'Rat-bite fever' mean?

#4 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » English language puzzles » Today 00:04:04


#3897. What does the noun fireplace mean?

#3898. What does the adjective fireproof mean?

#5 Re: This is Cool » Miscellany » Yesterday 00:13:13

967) Cirrhosis

Cirrhosis, irreversible change in the normal liver tissue that results in the degeneration of functioning liver cells and their replacement with fibrous connective tissue. Cirrhosis can have a number of causes; the term is applied whenever the end result is scarring of the liver.

Laënnec, or portal, cirrhosis is primarily caused by excessive and chronic alcohol consumption. The relationship between alcohol and cirrhosis is unquestioned, but the mechanism of injury remains unknown. Besides cirrhosis, the affected person may show jaundice, gastrointestinal bleeding, and kidney failure.

In the early stage of cirrhosis, the disease can be stabilized by abstention from alcohol and by an adequate diet. In this stage, the liver first enlarges; its outer capsule becomes smooth and stretched, and its colour turns yellow because of an increase in fat. Fibrous tissue and extra bile ducts may develop. In the next stage, the quantity of fibrous tissue increases so that the liver is granular. The blood vessels thicken, and their channels may become obstructed, which reduces blood flow in the organ. Complications at this stage include coma, kidney failure, jaundice, infection, and hemorrhages. In the advanced stage of the disease, the liver shrinks and the surface usually has a roughened appearance. The normal lobular structure of the liver is lost; there is no longer fat but only poorly functioning residual liver tissue.

There are several other causes of cirrhosis besides alcohol consumption. Cirrhosis can result from viral infection, especially after infection by hepatitis B or C, glycogen storage diseases, cystic fibrosis, alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency, and obesity can also cause cirrhosis. In hemochromatosis an increased amount of iron is absorbed by the body and deposited in the liver cells. The liver becomes granular and nodular, and the iron particles may be so dense as to impair liver cell function. In Wilson disease, a hereditary condition, there is excess copper in the liver. The liver usually turns green from bile in the tissue, and enlargement, fibrosis, fat changes, and abscesses occur when the disease is chronic.

The final complications of cirrhosis are usually the same no matter what the cause. High blood pressure in the portal vein can lead to hemorrhages in the esophagus and stomach; or the imbalance in blood chemicals from malfunctioning of the liver can affect the brain and cause hepatic coma. Hepatic coma usually starts with drowsiness and confusion and culminates in loss of consciousness. Jaundice may complicate any stage of cirrhosis. Edema—fluid retention in the tissues—and ascites, an accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity that results in abdominal swelling, also are commonly seen.

Treatment of cirrhosis depends on the cause. Liver damage caused by portal cirrhosis can be halted by abstention from alcohol. Cirrhosis resulting from hepatitis infection or Wilson disease is treated with medication.


#8 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » General Quiz » Yesterday 00:02:33


#7845. Who is considered the father of 'C (programming language)'?

#7846. Who is considered the father of 'Search engine'?

#9 Re: Dark Discussions at Cafe Infinity » crème de la crème » 2021-04-12 00:23:06

855) Igor Yevgenyevich Tamm

Igor Yevgenyevich Tamm, (born July 8 [June 26, Old Style], 1895, Vladivostok, Siberia, Russia—died April 12, 1971, Moscow, Russia, Soviet Union), Soviet physicist who shared the 1958 Nobel Prize for Physics with Pavel A. Cherenkov and Ilya M. Frank for his efforts in explaining Cherenkov radiation. Tamm was one of the theoretical physicists who contributed to the construction of the first Soviet thermonuclear bomb.

Tamm’s father was an engineer in the city of Yelizavetgrad (now Kirovohrad, Ukr.), where he was responsible for building and managing electric power stations and water systems. Tamm graduated from the gymnasium there in 1913 and went abroad to study at the University of Edinburgh. The following year he returned to Moscow State University, and he graduated in 1918. In 1924 he became a lecturer in the physics department, and in 1930 he succeeded his mentor, Leonid I. Mandelstam, to the chair of theoretical physics. In 1933 Tamm was elected a corresponding member of the Soviet Academy of Sciences. The following year, he joined the P.N. Lebedev Physics Institute of the Soviet Academy of Sciences (FIAN), where he organized and headed the theoretical division, a position he occupied until his death.

Tamm’s early studies of unique forms of electron bonding (“Tamm surface levels”) on the surfaces of crystalline solids had important applications in the later development of solid-state semiconductor devices. In 1934 Cherenkov had discovered that light is emitted when gamma rays pass through a liquid medium. In 1937 Tamm and Frank explained this phenomenon as the emission of light waves by electrically charged particles moving faster than the speed of light in a medium. Tamm developed this theory more fully in a paper published in 1939. For these discoveries Tamm, Frank, and Cherenkov received the 1958 Nobel Prize for Physics.

Immediately after World War II, Tamm, though a major theoretician, was not assigned to work on the atomic bomb project, possibly for political reasons. In particular, he was branded a “bourgeois idealist” and his brother an “enemy of the state.” Nevertheless, in June 1948, when physicist Igor V. Kurchatov needed a strong team to investigate the feasibility of creating a thermonuclear bomb, Tamm was recruited to organize the theoretical division of FIAN in Moscow. The Tamm group came to include physicists Yakov B. Zeldovich, Vitaly L. Ginzburg, Semyon Z. Belenky, Andrey D. Sakharov, Efim S. Fradkin, Yuri A. Romanov, and Vladimir Y. Fainberg. Between March and April 1950, Tamm and several members of his group were sent to the secret installation known as Arzamas-16 (near the present-day village of Sarov) to work under physicist Yuly Khariton’s direction on a thermonuclear bomb project. One bomb design, known as the Sloika (“Layer Cake”), was successfully tested on Aug. 12, 1953. Tamm was elected a full member of the Academy of Sciences in October 1953 and the same year was awarded a Hero of Socialist Labour. On Nov. 22, 1955, the Soviet Union successfully tested a more modern thermonuclear bomb that was analogous to the design of the American physicists Edward Teller and Stanislaw Ulam.

Tamm spent the latter decades of his career at the Lebedev Institute, where he worked on building a fusion reactor to control fusion, using a powerful magnetic field in a donut-shaped device known as a Tokamak reactor.


#10 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » English language puzzles » 2021-04-12 00:03:26


#3895. What does the noun firelight mean?

#3896. What does the noun fireman mean?

#11 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » Doc, Doc! » 2021-04-12 00:03:00


#1627. What does the medical term 'Rosacea' mean?

#12 Re: This is Cool » Miscellany » 2021-04-12 00:02:24

966) Tetanus

Tetanus, also called lockjaw, acute infectious disease of humans and other animals, caused by toxins produced by the bacillus Clostridium tetani and characterized by rigidity and spasms of the voluntary muscles. The almost constant involvement of the jaw muscles accounts for the popular name of the disease.

Spores of Clostridium are distributed widely in nature, especially in soil, and may enter the body through any wound, even a superficial abrasion; puncture wounds and deep lacerations are particularly dangerous because they provide the oxygen-free environment needed for growth of the microorganism.

Both the occurrence and severity of tetanus are determined by the amount of toxin produced and the resistance of the host. The neurotoxic component, tetanospasmin, is one of the deadliest poisons known. It is believed to act on the synthesis and liberation of acetylcholine, a substance having a key role in the synaptic transmission of nerve impulses throughout the body. Once it has entered the body, the toxin rapidly spreads by way of the bloodstream or directly by a nerve to the central nervous system, where it attacks motor nerve cells and excites them to overactivity. Excessive impulses rush through the nerves to the muscles, which are thrown into severe convulsive spasm. The most common spasms occur in the muscle of the jaw, and the first sign of the illness often is stiffness of the jaw, or trismus. The muscles of the mouth are often affected, pulling the lips out and up over the teeth into a grimace, the mixture of smile and snarl that heralds the onset of the generalized convulsive stage of tetanus. Spasm of the muscles of the throat can make swallowing impossible, whereas the muscles of the larynx or of the chest wall can be thrown into such violent spasm that breathing is impossible and life is threatened. This is a common cause of death if the tetanus is untreated, but there are other effects on the heart, blood pressure, and vital brain centres that may cause death later in the disease.

The incubation period is quite variable in length—from two days to two weeks in most cases but sometimes up to three months. In general, the longer the incubation period, the milder will be the disease. Treatment of tetanus is primarily supportive. Tetanus antitoxin, which contains antibodies derived from the blood of persons who have been immunized against the disease, is given to help neutralize the toxin in the bloodstream, but it has little effect once the toxin has affected the nerve endings. Intravenous penicillin kills the organisms that remain within the wound site. Patients are usually intentionally paralyzed with drugs (such as curare) to prevent muscle spasms caused by the disease; artificial or mechanical respiration is necessary because the respiratory muscles are paralyzed. After a few weeks, when the disease is curtailed, the curare treatment is stopped and the patient begins to breathe on his own again.

Passive protection with tetanus antitoxin should be administered in all cases of injuries that may be contaminated by clostridial spores. Active immunization with tetanus toxoid (prepared by chemical modification of toxin) is a relatively slow process, requiring weeks or months to become effective, and must be renewed every few years (booster doses). A first dose should be given to every accident victim, followed by two more doses several months later. This applies also to persons who have recovered from tetanus, for an attack of the disease does not confer immunity.


#13 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » Oral puzzles » 2021-04-11 15:16:58

Hi Denominator,



#14 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » 10 second questions » 2021-04-11 15:06:47

Hi Denominator,

Neat work!



#15 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » Coordinate Geometry » 2021-04-11 14:58:33


The first part is correct. Excellent!


#16 Re: Exercises » Compute the solution: » 2021-04-11 14:34:59

Hi Denominator,



#17 Re: This is Cool » Miscellany » 2021-04-11 00:02:58

965) Pediatrician

What Is a Pediatrician?

It's one of the biggest decisions you make before your baby is born. Which pediatrician is the right one for your child? Before you start your search, take a few minutes to learn exactly what this kind of doctor does. It will help you make a better choice and know what to expect when your little one arrives.

Pediatricians are doctors who manage the health of your child, including physical, behavior, and mental health issues. They're trained to diagnose and treat childhood illnesses, from minor health problems to serious diseases.

Pediatricians have an education that gives them special skills to take care of your child's health. They graduated from medical school and completed a 3-year residency program in pediatrics.

You'll want to find one who's also "board-certified." That means they've passed rigorous exams given by the American Board of Pediatrics. To stay certified, pediatricians have to meet regular education requirements.

What Does Your Pediatrician Do?

They'll see your child many times from birth to age 2 and once a year from ages 2 to 5 for "well-child visits." After age 5, your pediatrician will likely continue to see your child every year for annual checkups. They're also the first person to call whenever your child is sick.

To take care of your child, your pediatrician will:
•    Do physical exams
•    Give your child vaccinations
•    Make sure she meets milestones in growth, behavior, and skills
•    Diagnose and treat your child's illnesses, infections, injuries, and other health problems
•    Give you information about your child's health, safety, nutrition, and fitness needs
•    Answer your questions about your little one's growth and development
•    Refer you to specialists if they think your child needs expert care

How Does Your Pediatrician Work With Your Delivery Team?

Most hospitals ask if you have a pediatrician when you go in to deliver. Your baby's first examination may be with a hospital pediatrician or your chosen pediatrician. It depends on the hospital's policy and whether your newborn's doctor makes rounds there. If a hospital pediatrician checks your baby, they'll send your pediatrician notes about the exam.

After you leave the hospital, your pediatrician will see your baby 48 to 72 hours later, and regularly after that for checkups.

Why Do You Need a Pediatrician?

One thing to keep in mind: Family medicine doctors are also an option for your child. They look after the health of your whole family -- kids and grown-ups alike. It's a personal choice whether you use one or a pediatrician.

Some reasons to go with a pediatrician are:
•    They have special training in children's health.
•    They only see children in their practice, so they have a lot of experience in recognizing and treating childhood illnesses.
•    If your child was born early or has a health condition that needs close monitoring, a pediatrician may offer more specialized care.


Pediatrics, medical specialty dealing with the development and care of children and with the diagnosis and treatment of childhood diseases. The first important review of childhood illness, an anonymous European work called ‘The Children’s Practice’, dates from the 12th century. The specialized focus of pediatrics did not begin to emerge in Europe until the 18th century. The first specialized children’s hospitals, such as the London Foundling Hospital, established in 1745, were opened at this time. These hospitals later became major centres for training in pediatrics, which began to be taught as a separate discipline in medical schools by the middle of the 19th century.

The major focus of early pediatrics was the treatment of infectious diseases that affected children. Thomas Sydenham in Britain had led the way with the first accurate descriptions of measles, scarlet fever, and other diseases in the 17th century. Clinical studies of childhood diseases proliferated throughout the 18th and 19th centuries, culminating in one of the first modern textbooks of pediatrics, published by Frédéric Rilliet and Antoine Barthez in France in 1838–43, but there was little that could be done to cure these diseases until the end of the 19th century. As childhood diseases came under control through the combined efforts of pediatricians, immunologists, and public-health workers, the focus of pediatrics began to change, and early in the 20th century the first well-child clinics were established to monitor and study the normal growth and development of children. By the mid-20th century, the use of antibiotics and vaccines had all but eliminated most serious infectious diseases of childhood in the developed world, and infant and child mortality had fallen to the lowest levels ever. In the last half of the century, pediatrics again expanded to incorporate the study of behavioral and social as well as specifically medical aspects of child health.


#18 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » General Quiz » 2021-04-11 00:02:38


#7843. What does the term 'Hypomania' mean?

#7844. What does the term 'Klazomania' mean?

#22 Re: This is Cool » Miscellany » 2021-04-10 00:16:47

964) Dermatology

Summary : What is dermatology?

Dermatology is a branch of medicine that deals with the skin and diseases of the skin. It concerns the study, research and diagnosis of normal skin and disorders of the skin. Cancers, cosmetic and aging conditions of the skin, fat, hair, nails and oral and genital membranes are all aspects of dermatology.

Subspecialties of the dermatology field include dermatopathology, which is involved with the pathology of the skin; immunodermatology, which specializes in the treatment of immune-mediated skin disorders, including lupus, bullous pemphigoid and pemphigus vulgaris; Mohs’ surgery, which involves removing tumors from the skin without harming healthy cells; and pediatric dermatology, in which dermatologists may treat infants, hereditary skin disorders and children.

An expert in the field of dermatology is a dermatologist. A dermatologist may be involved with medical or surgical treatments. Dermatologists may perform a range of procedures, many of which are cosmetic. These include cosmetic filler injections, hair removal or transplantation, intralesional treatment, laser therapy, photodynamic therapy, phototherapy, tattoo removal, tumescent liposuction, radiation therapy and vitiligo surgery.

Other treatments in the dermatology field include cryosurgery, which is the treatment of warts, skin cancers or other dermatoses; allergy testing; systemic therapies such as antibiotics, immunomodulators or injectable products; or topical therapies.

The skin is the largest organ in the body. Moreover, because the entire surface area of the skin is visible, dermatologists have the advantage of direct visual examination.
Details : A dermatologist is a doctor that specializes in treating skin, hair, nail, and mucous membrane disorders and diseases.

They can also address cosmetic issues, helping to revitalize the appearance of the skin, hair, and nails.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimate that, in the United States, there were 39 million visits to office-based dermatologists, who were not federally employed, in 2010.

Below, we explore common issues that dermatologists encounter, the treatments they offer, and the qualifications involved.

What is dermatology?

Dermatology is an area of medicine that focuses on health issues affecting the skin, hair, nails, and mucous membranes.

The skin is the largest organ of the body. It is also the first line of defense against pathogens and injury, and it can be a good indicator of overall health.


It is important to know that a dermatologist has a full license or certification before visiting them. Some practitioners in spas and beauty clinics call themselves dermatologists but do not have the necessary accreditation.

In the U.S., a qualified dermatologist will be certified by the American Board of Dermatology, the American Osteopathic Board of Dermatology, or the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada.

The American Academy of Dermatology (AAD) is the largest membership dermatology group in the United States, with more than 20,000 members.

To qualify for registration with the AAD, a dermatologist has to finish both college and medical school as either a medical doctor (MD) or a doctor of osteopathic medicine (DO). They will also have completed a residency involving 1 year of hands-on work.

Some dermatologists have the initials FAAD after their names. This abbreviation stands for: Fellow of the American Academy of Dermatology. It indicates that the dermatologist:
•    has a license to practice medicine
•    has passed exams given by either the American Board of Dermatology or the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada
•    is a member of the AAD

The AAD provide a search tool to help people with skin, hair, or nail conditions find a nearby dermatologist.

Common conditions

Being a dermatologist requires a great depth of clinical knowledge, including, for example, the various internal health problems that can cause skin symptoms.

Dermatologists can treat more than 3,000 conditions. Below are some examples of those that they see most commonly:

Acne: Among the most prevalent skin issues, acne has a range of causes that can lead to different types of pimples. Some people experience scarring, low self-esteem, and other complications.

Dermatitis and eczema: Dermatitis is inflammation of the skin, and it typically leads to swelling with an itchy rash. There are various forms, including atopic dermatitis, which is the most common type of eczema.

Fungal infections: These are common and sometimes involve the skin, nails, and hair. A group of yeasts called Candida can cause a wide range of fungal infections, including oral thrush, ringworm, athlete’s foot, and balanitis.

Hair loss: About 80 million people in the U.S. have hereditary hair loss. A range of health issues can also cause hair loss, including head lice, which affects around 6–12 million children aged 3–11 years in the U.S. annually.

Warts: These are contagious, benign skin growths that appear when a virus has infected the top layer of skin. A dermatologist can use a variety of treatments to remove persistent warts.

Nail problems: Dermatologists also treat health issues that damage the skin around and under the nails. Ingrown nails, fungal infections, and various other conditions can cause this damage.

Vitiligo: This involves the skin losing melanin, a pigment. As a result, some patches of skin are lighter in color than others.

Psoriasis: This chronic autoimmune disorder speeds up the growth of skin cells, resulting in patches of skin that may be thick, red, purple, or silvery and scaly. There are several types of psoriasis.

Rosacea: This causes redness in the face, sometimes with pus-filled bumps, visible blood vessels, and swelling of the eyelids. Symptoms can spread from the nose and cheeks to the forehead, chin, ears, chest, and back.

Shingles, or herpes zoster: This viral infection causes a rash that may be painful. It may clear in a few weeks without treatment, but medical intervention can help speed recovery and prevent complications, which can be severe.

Skin cancer: About 1 in 5 people in the U.S. develop a type of skin cancer by age 70. The most common forms are basal cell carcinoma, melanoma, and squamous cell carcinoma.


Dermatologists use a range of medical and cosmetic procedures to manage issues affecting the skin, nails, and hair.

Medications and noninvasive therapies can treat many skin conditions, while others require more invasive approaches. These procedures can take place in an outpatient setting, such as the doctor’s office, or in a hospital.

Chemical peels

This involves applying a chemical solution that causes a layer of skin to peel off, revealing regenerated skin beneath that is typically smoother.

Dermatologists use this procedure to treat sun-damaged skin and some types of acne. It can also address cosmetic complaints, such as age spots and lines under the eyes.

Cosmetic injections

Wrinkles, scarring, and reduced facial fullness can be temporarily addressed with injections. A dermatologist can inject Botox or fillers such as collagen and fat during an office visit.

Results tend to last for a few months, and maintaining the effects requires regular injections. However, some people develop antibodies to Botox that make the injections ineffective.


Cryotherapy can be a quick treatment for many benign skin issues, such as warts.

The procedure involves freezing skin lesions — often with liquid nitrogen — to destroy the affected cells.


Dermabrasion can help reduce scar tissue, the appearance of fine wrinkles and tattoos, and potentially precancerous areas of skin.

Using a high-speed rotating brush, a dermatologist removes the top layer of skin.

Excision of lesions

Dermatologists excise skin lesions for several reasons. They may cut away these lesions:
•    to prevent a disease from spreading
•    for cosmetic reasons
•    to prevent reoccurring infection
•    to alleviate symptoms
•    to diagnose an underlying issue

Depending on the size of the lesion, the person may receive a local or general anesthetic before the removal.

Hair removal or restoration

A dermatologist can use various methods to address hair loss, including transplantation.

Alternately, they can remove unwanted body hair using lasers.

Laser surgery

Dermatologists can also use laser surgery to treat a variety of skin issues or cosmetic complaints, including:
•    tumors
•    warts
•    moles
•    unwanted tattoos
•    birthmarks
•    scars
•    wrinkles

Vein procedures

Superficial leg veins are small, dilated surface veins. People sometimes call them spider veins and may request their removal.

Sclerotherapy tends to be the spider vein treatment of choice. It involves injecting either foam or a special solution into the vein, which irritates the lining, causing the vein to shut, then become less distinct or disappear.

Tumescent liposuction

Dermatologists use tumescent liposuction to remove fat. It involves injecting large volumes of local anesthetic into fatty tissue, then sucking it from the body.

Tumescent liposuction is not a treatment for obesity — it is a cosmetic procedure for body contouring.

Dermatologists can also use lasers to selectively burst fat cells.

Skin grafts and flaps

Dermatologists can restore missing skin using skin from elsewhere on the body.

Or, they may repair skin loss by creating a flap of skin from a nearby area and using it to cover the damaged patch.


A dermatologist usually performs a skin biopsy to diagnose or rule out certain conditions.

They typically use one of the following three approaches:

•    Shave biopsies remove small sections of the top layer of skin.
•    Punch biopsies remove small, circular sections of skin, including deeper layers.
•    Excision biopsies remove entire areas of skin that seem to be unhealthy.


PUVA stands for: psoralen combined with ultraviolet A radiation. Psoralen is a drug that makes the skin more sensitive to the radiation treatment.

Dermatologists use PUVA to treat skin diseases, such as psoriasis, dermatitis, and vitiligo.

Mohs surgery

Mohs surgery is a treatment for skin cancer.

First, the dermatologist removes layers of skin to get rid of cancerous cells, then examines them under a microscope.

They then remove successive layers until there are no more cancerous cells. Performing this surgery requires specialized training.

When to see a dermatologist

If skin, hair, or nail symptoms are not responding to home treatment, it may be time to seek professional attention.

If concerns are cosmetic, a person can seek out a specialized cosmetic dermatologist.

It is important for people to discuss any upcoming dermatological treatments with their insurance providers, who often do not fund cosmetic procedures.

Be sure to obtain copies of any medical reports, consultation notes, and diagnostic test results to assure the insurer of the medical necessity of the treatment.


#23 Re: Dark Discussions at Cafe Infinity » crème de la crème » 2021-04-10 00:10:41

854) Norman Joseph Woodland

Norman Joseph Woodland (September 6, 1921 – December 9, 2012) was an American inventor, best known as one of the inventors of the barcode, for which he received a patent in October 1952. Later, employed by IBM, he developed the format which became the ubiquitous Universal Product Code (UPC) of product labeling and check-out stands.


Woodland was born in Atlantic City, New Jersey, on September 6, 1921, to Jewish parents, the elder of two boys.

After graduating from Atlantic City High School, Woodland did military service in World War II as a technical assistant with the Manhattan Project in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Woodland went on to earn his Bachelor of Science in Mechanical Engineering (BSME) from Drexel University (then called Drexel Institute of Technology) in 1947. From 1948 to 1949, he worked as a lecturer in mechanical engineering at Drexel.

In 1948, Bernard Silver, a fellow Drexel Institute graduate student with Woodland, overheard a supermarket executive asking the dean of engineering if the Institute could determine how to capture product information automatically at checkout. The dean turned down the request, but Silver was interested enough to mention the problem to Woodland. After working on some preliminary ideas, Woodland was persuaded that they could create a viable product.

Woodland took some stock market earnings, quit his teaching job and moved to his grandfather's Florida apartment. While at the beach, Woodland again considered the problem, recalling, from his Boy Scout training, how Morse code dots and dashes are used to send information electronically. He drew dots and dashes in the sand similar to the shapes used in Morse code. After pulling them downward with his fingers, producing thin lines resulting from the dots and thick lines from the dashes, he came up with the concept of a two-dimensional, linear Morse code, and after sharing it with Silver and adapting optical sound film technology, they applied for a patent on October 20, 1949, receiving U.S. Patent 2,612,994 ‘Classifying Apparatus and Method’ on October 7, 1952, covering both linear barcode and circular bulls-eye printing designs.

Woodland was employed by IBM in 1951, and although Woodland and Silver wanted IBM to develop the technology, it wasn't commercially feasible, so they sold the patent in 1952 for $15,000 to Philco, which sold it to RCA later in 1952. RCA (The RCA Corporation was a major American electronics company, which was founded as the Radio Corporation of America in 1919) went on to attempt to develop commercial applications through the 1960s until the patent expired in 1969.

After RCA interested the National Association of Food Chains in 1969 in the idea, and they formed the U.S. Supermarket Ad Hoc Committee on a Uniform Grocery Product Code, rival IBM became involved in 1971, finding out about Woodland's work and transferring him to their North Carolina facilities, where he played a key role in developing the most important version of the technology, the Universal Product Code (UPC), beating RCA in a competition.

The first item scanned was a packet of chewing gum in an Ohio supermarket in 1974.

Woodland died from the effects of Alzheimer's disease on December 9, 2012, in Edgewater, New Jersey.


•    In 1973, IBM presented Woodland with their Outstanding Contribution Award.
•    In 1992, he was awarded the National Medal of Technology from President George H. W. Bush for his contribution to barcode technology.
•    In 1998 Woodland received an honorary degree from his alma mater, Drexel University.
•    In 2011, Woodland was inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame.


#24 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » Doc, Doc! » 2021-04-10 00:04:22


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