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#1 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » General Quiz » Today 15:16:52

Hi,

#6747. It is sometimes called the Pharos of Alexandria. It is 'One of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World', for many centuries it was one of the tallest man-made structures in the world. Badly damaged by three earthquakes between AD 956 and 1323, it then became an abandoned ruin. It was the third longest surviving ancient wonder (after the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus and the extant Great Pyramid of Giza), surviving in part until 1480, when the last of its remnant stones were used to build the Citadel of Qaitbay on the site. In 1994, French archaeologists discovered some remains. Name it.

#6748. Name the most populous landlocked country in the world and the second-most populous nation on the African continent. It occupies a total area of approximately 1,100,000 square kilometres (420,000 sq mi), (Actual Land Area : 1,104,300 square km (426,400 sq mi)). It shares borders with Eritrea to the north and northeast, Djibouti and Somalia to the east, Sudan and South Sudan to the west, and Kenya to the south.

#2 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » Doc, Doc! » Today 14:47:07

Hi,

#1162. What does the abbreviation BAL signify (a medical procedure for obtaining a sample from within the lungs)?

#3 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » English language puzzles » Today 14:31:13

Hi,

#2745. What does the noun clatter mean?

#2746. What does the noun claustrophobia mean?

#4 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » 10 second questions » Today 14:00:45

Hi,

#6458. If (a + b) = -8 and

find the value of ab.

#5 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » Oral puzzles » Today 13:56:38

Hi,

#3989. If

. find the value of
.

#6 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » General Quiz » Today 00:30:37

Hi,

#6745. In which continent is 'Sea of Okhostk'?

#6746. In which continent is 'Balkhash Lake'?

#7 Re: This is Cool » Miscellany » Today 00:04:12

104) Tartaric Acid

Tartaric acid, also called dihydroxybutanedioic acid, a dicarboxylic acid, one of the most widely distributed of plant acids, with a number of food and industrial uses. Along with several of its salts, cream of tartar (potassium hydrogen tartrate) and Rochelle salt (potassium sodium tartrate), it is obtained from by-products of wine fermentation. In a partially purified form, tartar was known to the ancient Greeks and Romans; the free acid was first isolated in 1769 by Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele. The lees, or sediments, and other waste products from fermentation are heated and neutralized with calcium hydroxide; the precipitated calcium tartrate is then treated with sulfuric acid to produce free tartaric acid. Rochelle salt is prepared from the crude crystalline potassium acid salt, called argol, by neutralization with sodium carbonate. Purified cream of tartar comes chiefly from the filtrates from production of the acid and Rochelle salt. A third salt, tartar emetic (antimony potassium tartrate), is made from the potassium acid salt and antimony oxide.

Three stereoisomeric forms of tartaric acid exist: (1) dextrorotatory tartaric acid (D-tartaric acid) found in grapes and several other fruits, (2) levorotatory tartaric acid (L-tartaric acid) obtained chiefly by resolution of racemic tartaric acid, and (3) a meso or achiral form. Racemic tartaric acid (an equal mixture of D- and L-tartaric acid) is prepared commercially by the molybdenum- or tungsten-catalyzed oxidation of maleic anhydride with hydrogen peroxide.

Study of the crystallographic, chemical, and optical properties of the tartaric acids by French chemist and microbiologist Louis Pasteur laid the basis for modern ideas of stereoisomerism.

The various tartaric acids and the common tartrate salts are all colourless, crystalline solids readily soluble in water. Tartaric acid is widely used as an acidulant in carbonated drinks, effervescent tablets, gelatin desserts, and fruit jellies. It has many industrial applications—e.g., in cleaning and polishing metals, in calico printing, in wool dyeing, and in certain photographic printing and development processes. Rochelle salt is used in silvering mirrors, in processing cheese, and in compounding mild cathartics. Cream of tartar is incorporated into baking powders, hard candies, and taffies; and it is employed in the cleaning of brass, the electrolytic tinning of iron and steel, and the coating of other metals with gold and silver. Tartar emetic is used as an insecticide and a dyeing mordant.

tartaric_acid_2.jpg

#8 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » General Quiz » Yesterday 23:16:55

Hi,

Both the Answers, #6741 and 6742, are correct. Excellent, Mathegocart!

#6743. Name the country/countries of lowest density of population in people per square kilometer.

#6744. Name the country/countries of lowest GDP (Gross Domestic Product).

#9 Re: Jokes » One Liners » Yesterday 23:06:17

Monox D. I-Fly wrote:
ganesh wrote:

What is black and white and red all over? A newspaper!
* * *

Or a bleeding zebra.

Funny!

* * *
I have given up on my stand up comedy routines. Everybody just keeps laughing at me.
* * *
I think football would become an even better game if someone could invent a ball that kicks back.
* * *
People who want to share their religious or political views with you almost never want you to share yours with them.
* * *
How about we do some peer-to-peer sharing? Your domain or mine?
* * *
Can't throw the ball, kept on bouncing away: situation is out of hand.
* * *
Why should you not make fun of a crippled person? Because he can't stand the jokes.
* * *
How do we know that soccer referees are happy? Because they whistle while they work.
* * *
Nobody works harder than a drunk person trying to carefully whisper a secret.
* * *
When I asked if you'd like to go out on a date sometime, I meant with me.
* * *
A sports expert is the guy who writes the best alibis for being wrong.
* * *
It's funny how one person can make you never trust anybody...
* * *
When there are no volunteers, they get appointed.
* * *
Why do you need a driver's license to buy liquor when you can't drink and drive?
* * *
I think I'm agnostic, but I haven't decided.
* * *
Incompetence knows no barriers of time or place.
* * *

#10 Re: Dark Discussions at Cafe Infinity » crème de la crème » Yesterday 15:32:24

310) Albert Szent-Györgyi

Albert Szent-Györgyi, (born Sept. 16, 1893, Budapest, Hung., Austria-Hungary—died Oct. 22, 1986, Woods Hole, Mass., U.S.), Hungarian biochemist whose discoveries concerning the roles played by certain organic compounds, especially vitamin C, in the oxidation of nutrients by the cell brought him the 1937 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine.

Szent-Györgyi earned a medical degree from the University of Budapest in 1917. He became interested in biochemistry and pursued studies in Germany and the Netherlands in that field. While working at the University of Cambridge (1927, 1929) and at the Mayo Foundation, Rochester, Minn., U.S. (1928), Szent-Györgyi found and isolated an organic reducing agent, which he called hexuronic acid (now known as ascorbic acid), from plant juices and adrenal gland extracts. Four years later, as a professor at the University of Szeged, Hungary (1931–45), he helped prove that the acid is identical to the antiscurvy vitamin C, which had been discovered in 1907 by Axel Holst and Alfred Fröhlich.

Szent-Györgyi then turned to the study of organic compounds known to play a part in the conversion of carbohydrate breakdown products to carbon dioxide, water, and other substances necessary for the production of usable energy by the cell. His work laid the foundations for Sir Hans Krebs’s elucidation of the complete conversion cycle (the Krebs cycle) two years later.

Devoting himself to a study of the biochemistry of muscular action, he discovered a protein in muscle that he named “actin,” demonstrated that it—in combination with the muscle protein myosin—is responsible for muscular contraction, and showed that the compound adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the immediate source of energy necessary for muscle contraction. Immigrating to the United States in 1947, he was immediately appointed director of the Institute for Muscle Research, Woods Hole, Mass., where he conducted research into the causes of cell division and, hence, cancer.

Szent-Györgyi wrote 'The Crazy Ape' (1970), a critical and pessimistic commentary on science and the prospects for human survival on Earth. Among his scientific publications are 'On Oxidation, Fermentation, Vitamins, Health, and Disease' (1940), 'Chemical Physiology of Contractions in Body and Heart Muscle' (1953), and 'Introduction to a Submolecular Biology' (1960).

szent-gyorgyi.jpg

#11 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » General Quiz » Yesterday 15:05:41

Hi,

#6741. Name the nation which lays claim to be the oldest extant sovereign state as well as the oldest constitutional republic.  It is an enclaved microstate surrounded by Italy, situated on the Italian Peninsula on the northeastern side of the Apennine Mountains. Its size is just over 61 square kilometers (24 sq mi), with a population of 33,562.

#6742. Name the most densely populated sovereign state in the world. It is a sovereign city-state, country and microstate on the French Riviera in Western Europe. France borders the country on three sides while the other side borders the Mediterranean Sea.

#12 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » Doc, Doc! » Yesterday 14:43:41

Hi,

#1161. With which part of the body is Encephalopathy affected?

#13 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » English language puzzles » Yesterday 14:29:49

Hi,

#2743. What does the adjective classified mean?

#2744. What does the adjective classless mean?

#14 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » 10 second questions » Yesterday 14:09:13

Hi,

#6457. If a = 7 and b = -10, what is the value of

#15 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » Oral puzzles » Yesterday 14:05:48

Hi,

The solution #3987 is correct. Neat work, Monox D. I-Fly!

#3988. If sin A = 3/5 and A is an acute angle, find the value of tan A + sec A.

#16 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » Oral puzzles » Yesterday 00:15:24

Hi,

#3987. If

and
is acute, then that is the value of

#17 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » 10 second questions » Yesterday 00:10:38

Hi,

#6456. If a = 23 and b = -29, what is the value of

#18 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » English language puzzles » Yesterday 00:05:23

Hi,

#2741. What does the noun clasp mean?

#2742. What does the noun classicism mean?

#19 Re: Jokes » One Liners » 2018-04-16 18:29:04

I have given up on my stand up comedy routines. Everybody just keeps laughing at me.
* * *
Sometimes I feel like running away. Then I remember how much I hate running.
* * *
For all the advances in medicine, there is still no cure for the common birthday.
* * *
I was never a photogenic person, because when everyone said cheese I said "WHERE"?
* * *
I hate that feeling after surgery when you're not sure if you're awake or asleep or if you operated on the right patient.
* * *
A wise dog once told me: "Life is like a box of chocolates... it kills you."
* * *
Smart people don't call themselves smart - me included.
* * *
Time is a great teacher, but unfortunately it kills all its pupils.
* * *
Nothing brings neighbors together, like a broken elevator.
* * *
What did the chicken say when it got to the library? "Book book book book book book book..."
* * *
Why didn't the skeleton want to go to school? His heart wasn't in it.
* * *
I may be dumb, but I'm not stupid.
* * *
The first step to causing drama is making sure you tell everyone you hate drama.
* * *
Why can't pigs tell a joke? Because they're such a bore.
* * *
What does a hockey player and a magician have in common? Both do hat tricks!
* * *

#20 Re: This is Cool » Miscellany » 2018-04-16 17:37:45

103) Electronic Organ

The electronic organ resembles a spinet, or upright, piano in size and general shape. Most instruments of this general type rely upon electronic oscillators (circuits carrying an alternating current at a specific frequency) to produce their sound. Each oscillator is capable of frequency variation for different pitches and is capable of reproducing a single melodic line. The instrument’s multiple oscillators make it capable of reproducing music having multiple parts, such as a fugue by Johann Sebastian Bach.

The 200-ton, keyboard-operated telharmonium, which used rotating electromagnetic tone-wheels to generate sound, was an important precursor to the electronic organ. Made in 1904 by the American inventor Thaddeus Cahill, it was exhibited in Massachusetts and New York in 1906 but lapsed into obscurity by World War I. The first successful electronic organ was developed in 1928 in France by Edouard Coupleux and Armand Givelet. It used electronic oscillators in place of the pipes of a conventional organ and was operated with keyboards and a pedal board. Another notable early electronic organ was the Rangertone (1931), invented by Richard H. Ranger of the United States. In 1934 the Orgatron was introduced by Frederick Albert Hoschke; in this organ, tone was generated by reeds that vibrated by electrically fan-blown air, with the vibrations picked up electrostatically and amplified.

One of the most important and well known of the electronic organs is the Hammond organ, a sophisticated instrument having two manuals, or keyboards, and a set of pedals operated by the feet. It was patented by its American inventor Laurens Hammond in 1934. Unlike most other instruments of its type, it produces its sound through a complex set of rotary, motor-driven generators. By means of a series of controls affecting the harmonics, or component tones, of the sound, a great variety of timbres (tone colours) can be reproduced that to some degree imitate the sound of other instruments, such as the violin, the flute, the oboe, and the orchestral percussion instruments.

By the 1960s organ manufacturers had expanded their technology, supplanting vacuum tubes with transistors and solid-state circuitry. Circuits and components designed to operate television and radio receivers and high-fidelity phonographs were adapted to produce music. In the 1970s digital microcircuitry was used to operate a computer organ. In this device, sounds are not created internally but have been prerecorded (sampled) and stored in the computer from which they can later be retrieved. Musical tones or shapes—recorded from conventional windblown pipe organs—are coded into digital form and may be re-created by a special computer at the touch of the keys and stops. Other devices have been used to control reverberation, pitch, and the attack or delay of a note.

clavia-nord-c2-dual-manual-combo-organ.jpg

#21 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » Doc, Doc! » 2018-04-16 15:46:42

Hi,

#1160. What is 'Sydenham's chorea'?

#22 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » General Quiz » 2018-04-16 15:28:16

Hi,

#6739. What is known as "Battlefield of Europe"?

#6740. What is known as "Holy Land"?

#23 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » English language puzzles » 2018-04-16 14:53:53

Hi,

#2739. What does the noun clarinet mean?

#2740. What does the noun clarion call mean?

#24 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » 10 second questions » 2018-04-16 12:24:25

Hi,

#6455. For a > b, if a + b = 5 and ab = 6, find the value of

.

#25 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » Oral puzzles » 2018-04-16 12:19:01

Hi,

#3986. If

and
is a positive acute angle, find the value of
.

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