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#801 2020-10-12 00:37:17

ganesh
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Re: crème de la crème

767) Thomas Steitz

Thomas Steitz, (born August 23, 1940, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, U.S.—died October 9, 2018, Branford, Connecticut), American biophysicist and biochemist who was awarded the 2009 Nobel Prize for Chemistry, along with Indian-born American physicist and molecular biologist Venkatraman Ramakrishnan and Israeli protein crystallographer Ada Yonath, for his research into the atomic structure and function of cellular particles called ribosomes. (Ribosomes are tiny particles made up of RNA and proteins that specialize in protein synthesis and are found free or bound to the endoplasmic reticulum within cells.)

Steitz received a bachelor’s degree in chemistry in 1962 from Lawrence College in Wisconsin and a Ph.D. in molecular biology and biochemistry in 1966 from Harvard University in Massachusetts. Following a year of postdoctoral research in chemistry at Harvard, Steitz joined the Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology at the University of Cambridge in England. He remained at Cambridge until 1970, when he became a professor of chemistry at Yale University in New Haven, Connecticut. Steitz investigated the structures of various cellular macromolecules, including nucleic acids and proteins, using a technique called X-ray crystallography. He focused in particular on elucidating the structures that underlie the activity and function of ribosomes.

Among Steitz’s major accomplishments was the determination of the structure of the large ribosomal subunit (50S) of the archaean Haloarcula marismortui (a primitive single-celled organism) to a resolution of 9 angstroms (Å; 1 Å is equivalent to 10−10 metre, or 0.1 nanometre). In addition, he created a map of the 50S ribosomal subunit of H. marismortui at a resolution of 5 Å, revealing the locations of protein and RNA components within the subunit, and later provided a complete structure of the 50S subunit at a resolution of just 2.4 Å. Steitz also used X-ray crystallography to investigate the atomic characteristics of the processes of gene expression, DNA replication, genetic recombination, transcription, and translation.

In 2000 Steitz cofounded Rib-X Pharmaceuticals, a company that specialized in the discovery and development of new classes of antibiotics. He also served as chair of the scientific advisory board for the company.

Steitz became a Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator in 1986 and was elected a member of the National Academy of Sciences in 1990. He received the Lewis S. Rosenstiel Award for Distinguished Work in Basic Medical Science in 2001, the Keio Medical Science Prize in 2006, and the Gairdner International Award in 2007.

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It is no good to try to stop knowledge from going forward. Ignorance is never better than knowledge - Enrico Fermi. 

Nothing is better than reading and gaining more and more knowledge - Stephen William Hawking.

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#802 2020-10-14 00:10:20

ganesh
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Posts: 31,432

Re: crème de la crème

768) Peter Agre

Peter Agre, (born January 30, 1949, Northfield, Minnesota, U.S.), American doctor, corecipient of the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 2003 for his discovery of water channels in cell membranes. He shared the award with Roderick MacKinnon, also of the United States.

In 1974 Agre earned an M.D. degree from Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. In 1981, following postgraduate training and a fellowship, he returned to Johns Hopkins, where in 1993 he advanced to professor of biological chemistry. In 2008 he became director of the school’s Malaria Research Institute. Agre also served as vice-chancellor for science and technology at Duke University Medical Center (2005–08).

In the 1980s Agre began conducting his pioneering research on water channels in cell membranes. First mentioned by scientists in the mid-1800s, these specialized openings allow water to flow in and out of cells. They are essential to living organisms, and scientists sought to find the channels, determine their structure, and understand how they worked. In 1988 Agre was able to isolate a type of protein molecule in the cell membrane that he later came to realize was the long-sought water channel. His research included comparing how cells with and without the protein in their membranes responded when placed in a water solution. He discovered that cells with the protein swelled up as water flowed in, while those lacking the protein remained the same size. Agre named the protein aquaporin. Researchers subsequently discovered a whole family of the proteins in animals, plants, and even bacteria. Two different aquaporins were later found to play a major role in the mechanism by which human kidneys concentrate urine and return the extracted water to the blood.

In addition to the Nobel Prize, Agre’s honours include election to the National Academy of Sciences (2000) and to the American Academy of Arts and Science (2003). He also headed various organizations, notably the American Association for the Advancement of Sciences (2009–10).

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It is no good to try to stop knowledge from going forward. Ignorance is never better than knowledge - Enrico Fermi. 

Nothing is better than reading and gaining more and more knowledge - Stephen William Hawking.

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#803 2020-10-16 00:19:44

ganesh
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Re: crème de la crème

769) Sir Victor Horsley

Sir Victor Horsley, (born April 14, 1857, London—died July 16, 1916, Amārah, Iraq), British physiologist and neurosurgeon who was first to remove a spinal tumour (1887). He also made valuable studies of thyroid activity, rabies prevention, and the functions of localized areas of the brain.

By removing the thyroid glands of monkeys, he was able to establish (1883) the gland’s role in determining the body’s rate of growth, development, and metabolism and to implicate thyroid malfunction as the cause of myxedema (a condition characterized by dry, waxy swelling) and cretinism. As secretary to a government commission (1886) appointed to study the effectiveness of Louis Pasteur’s rabies vaccine, Horsley corroborated Pasteur’s results and led the campaign to eradicate the disease in England. He developed operative techniques that made brain surgery a practical reality and, by 1890, was able to report 44 successful operations. He was knighted in 1902. He died of heatstroke while serving as field surgeon for the British Army in Mesopotamia during World War I.

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It is no good to try to stop knowledge from going forward. Ignorance is never better than knowledge - Enrico Fermi. 

Nothing is better than reading and gaining more and more knowledge - Stephen William Hawking.

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#804 2020-10-18 00:10:34

ganesh
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Re: crème de la crème

770) Louise Glück

Louise Glück, in full Louise Elisabeth Glück, (born April 22, 1943, New York, New York, U.S.), American poet whose willingness to confront the horrible, the difficult, and the painful resulted in a body of work characterized by insight and a severe lyricism. In 2020 she was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature, cited “for her unmistakable poetic voice that with austere beauty makes individual existence universal.”

After attending Sarah Lawrence College in Bronxville, New York, and Columbia University in New York City, Glück taught poetry at numerous colleges and universities, including Harvard and Yale. Her first collection of poetry, Firstborn (1968), used a variety of first-person personae, all disaffected or angry. The collection’s tone disturbed many critics, but Glück’s exquisitely controlled language and imaginative use of rhyme and metre delighted others. Although its outlook is equally grim, The House on Marshland (1975) shows a greater mastery of voice. There, as in her later volumes, Glück’s personae included historic and mythic figures such as Gretel and Joan of Arc. Her adoption of different perspectives became increasingly imaginative; for example, in “The Sick Child,” from the collection Descending Figure (1980), her voice is that of a mother in a museum painting looking out at the bright gallery. The poems in The Triumph of Achilles (1985), which won the National Book Critics Circle Award for poetry, address archetypal subjects of classic myth, fairy tales, and the Bible. These concerns are also evident in Ararat (1990), which has been acclaimed for searing honesty in its examination of the family and the self.

In 1993 Glück won a Pulitzer Prize for 'The Wild Iris' (1992). Her later works included 'Meadowlands' (1996), 'The First Five Books of Poems' (1997), and 'The Seven Ages' (2001). 'Averno' (2006) was her well-received treatment of the Persephone myth. The poems collected in 'A Village Life' (2009)—about existence in a small Mediterranean town—were written in a lavishly descriptive style that significantly departed from the parsimony that characterizes her earlier verse. Poems 1962–2012 (2012) compiled all her published volumes of poetry. Faithful and Virtuous Night (2014) deals with mortality and nocturnal silence, sometimes from a male perspective; it won the National Book Award.

Glück was editor of 'The Best American Poetry 1993' (1993). Her essay collections on poetry included 'Proofs and Theories' (1994) and 'American Originality' (2017). In 2001 she was awarded the Bollingen Prize for Poetry. Glück served as poet laureate consultant in poetry to the Library of Congress (2003–04). Her later honours included the Wallace Stevens Award (2008) and a National Humanities Medal (2015).

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It is no good to try to stop knowledge from going forward. Ignorance is never better than knowledge - Enrico Fermi. 

Nothing is better than reading and gaining more and more knowledge - Stephen William Hawking.

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#805 2020-10-20 01:09:36

ganesh
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Re: crème de la crème

771) Sir Charles Scott Sherrington

Sir Charles Scott Sherrington, (born Nov. 27, 1857, London, Eng.—died March 4, 1952, Eastbourne, Sussex), English physiologist whose 50 years of experimentation laid the foundations for an understanding of integrated nervous function in higher animals and brought him (with Edgar Adrian) the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1932.

Sherrington was educated at Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge (B.A., 1883); at St. Thomas’ Hospital Medical School, where he qualified in medicine in 1885; and at the University of Berlin, where he worked with Rudolf Virchow and Robert Koch. After serving as a lecturer at St. Thomas’ Hospital, he was successively a professor at the universities of London (1891–95), Liverpool (1895–1913), and Oxford (1913–35). He was made a fellow of the Royal Society in 1893 and served as its president from 1920 to 1925. He was knighted in 1922.

Working with cats, dogs, monkeys, and apes that had been deprived of their cerebral hemispheres, Sherrington found that reflexes must be regarded as integrated activities of the total organism, not as the result of the activities of isolated “reflex arcs,” a notion that was currently accepted. The first major piece of evidence supporting “total integration” was his demonstration (1895–98) of the “reciprocal innervation” of muscles, also known as Sherrington’s law: when one set of muscles is stimulated, muscles opposing the action of the first are simultaneously inhibited.

In his classic work, ‘The Integrative Action of the Nervous System’ (1906), he distinguished three main groups of sense organs: exteroceptive, such as those that detect light, sound, odour, and tactile stimuli; interoceptive, exemplified by taste receptors; and proprioceptive, or those receptors that detect events occurring in the interior of the organism. He found—especially in his study of the maintenance of posture as a reflex activity—that the muscles’ proprioceptors and their nerve trunks play an important role in reflex action, maintaining the animal’s upright stance against the force of gravity, despite the removal of the cerebrum and the severing of the tactile sensory nerves of the skin.

His investigations of nearly every aspect of mammalian nervous function directly influenced the development of brain surgery and the treatment of such nervous disorders as paralysis and atrophy. Sherrington coined the term synapse to denote the point at which the nervous impulse is transmitted from one nerve cell to another. His books include ‘The Reflex Activity of the Spinal Cord’ (1932).

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It is no good to try to stop knowledge from going forward. Ignorance is never better than knowledge - Enrico Fermi. 

Nothing is better than reading and gaining more and more knowledge - Stephen William Hawking.

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#806 2020-10-22 00:51:50

ganesh
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Re: crème de la crème

772) Victor Francis Hess

Victor Francis Hess, (born June 24, 1883, Waldstein, Styria, Austria—died Dec. 17, 1964, Mount Vernon, N.Y., U.S.), Austrian-born physicist who was a joint recipient, with Carl D. Anderson of the United States, of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1936 for his discovery of cosmic rays—high-energy radiation originating in outer space.

Educated at the University of Graz, Hess received his Ph.D. from the University of Vienna in 1906. His research dealt chiefly with radioactivity and atmospheric electricity. For many years scientists had been unable to explain the source of an ionizing background radiation in the atmosphere that penetrated electroscopes sent aloft in balloons. It was assumed that the radiation must have its source on Earth, but preliminary findings suggesting that the radiation increased when measured at higher points above the Earth’s surface cast doubt upon this hypothesis. In a series of balloon ascents in 1911–13, Hess found that the radiation increased rapidly with altitude, and suggested it had extraterrestrial origins. In 1925, Hess’s theory was confirmed by Robert Andrews Millikan, who gave the radiation the name of cosmic rays. Cosmic-ray research soon emerged as an important branch of physics and led to the discovery of several new fundamental particles—including the positron, discovered by Anderson in 1932—as well as advances in astrophysics and cosmology.

Hess taught and conducted research at the universities of Vienna (1910–20), Graz (1920–31), and Innsbruck (1931–37). He left Austria in 1937 to escape the Nazis and settled in the United States, where he taught at Fordham University in New York City until 1956.

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It is no good to try to stop knowledge from going forward. Ignorance is never better than knowledge - Enrico Fermi. 

Nothing is better than reading and gaining more and more knowledge - Stephen William Hawking.

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#807 2020-10-24 00:29:24

ganesh
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Re: crème de la crème

773) Edgar Douglas Adrian

Edgar Douglas Adrian, 1st Baron Adrian

Edgar Douglas Adrian, 1st Baron Adrian, (born Nov. 30, 1889, London, Eng.—died Aug. 4, 1977, Cambridge), British electrophysiologist who with Sir Charles Sherrington won the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1932 for discoveries regarding the nerve cell.

Adrian graduated in medicine in 1915 from Trinity College, Cambridge. After medical service during World War I, he spent the greater part of his professional life at Cambridge in research and teaching, and as master of Trinity College (1961–65) and chancellor of the University (1968–75).

Adrian researched nerve impulses from sense organs, amplifying variations in electrical potential and recording smaller potential changes than had been detectable previously. Later he recorded nerve impulses from single sensory endings and motor nerve fibres, measurements contributing to a better understanding of the physical basis of sensation and the mechanism of muscular control. After 1934 Adrian studied the electrical activity of the brain; his work on the variations and abnormalities of the changes known as the Berger rhythm opened new fields of investigation in epilepsy and in the location of cerebral lesions.

He was president of the Royal Society (1950–55) and of the British Association for the Advancement of Science (1954). In 1942 he was awarded the Order of Merit and in 1955 a barony. Among his writings are ‘The Basis of Sensation’ (1928), ‘The Mechanism of Nervous Action’ (1932), and ‘The Physical Background of Perception’ (1947).

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It is no good to try to stop knowledge from going forward. Ignorance is never better than knowledge - Enrico Fermi. 

Nothing is better than reading and gaining more and more knowledge - Stephen William Hawking.

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#808 Today 00:11:54

ganesh
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Registered: 2005-06-28
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Re: crème de la crème

774) Peter Debye

Peter Debye, in full Peter Joseph William Debye, Dutch Petrus Josephus Wilhelmus Debije, (born March 24, 1884, Maastricht, Netherlands—died November 2, 1966, Ithaca, New York, U.S.), physical chemist whose investigations of dipole moments, X-rays, and light scattering in gases brought him the 1936 Nobel Prize for Chemistry.

After receiving a Ph.D. in physics from the University of Munich (1908), Debye taught physics at the universities of Zürich, Utrecht, Göttingen, and Leipzig before becoming director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physics at Berlin (1935). Two months before the German invasion of his native country (1940), he went to Ithaca, New York, to deliver a lecture at Cornell University and remained there until he retired as chemistry department chairman in 1950.

Debye’s first important research, his dipole moment studies, advanced knowledge of the arrangement of atoms in molecules and of the distances between the atoms. In 1916 he showed that solid substances could be used in powdered form for X-ray study of their crystal structures, thus eliminating the difficult step of first preparing good crystals.

Two of his most significant achievements came in 1923. That year he and Erich Hückel extended Svante Arrhenius’s theory of the dissociation of the positively and negatively charged atoms (ions) of salts in solution, proving that the ionization is complete, not partial. That same year he described the Compton effect, which the American physicist Arthur Holly Compton had discovered shortly before.

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It is no good to try to stop knowledge from going forward. Ignorance is never better than knowledge - Enrico Fermi. 

Nothing is better than reading and gaining more and more knowledge - Stephen William Hawking.

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