Math Is Fun Forum

  Discussion about math, puzzles, games and fun.   Useful symbols: ÷ × ½ √ ∞ ≠ ≤ ≥ ≈ ⇒ ± ∈ Δ θ ∴ ∑ ∫ • π ƒ -¹ ² ³ °

You are not logged in.

#1151 2022-08-03 17:21:54

ganesh
Administrator
Registered: 2005-06-28
Posts: 38,066

Re: crème de la crème

1116) Margaret Court

Summary

Margaret Court AC MBE (née Smith; born 16 July 1942), also known as Margaret Smith Court, is an Australian retired tennis player and former world No. 1. Considered one of the greatest tennis players of all time, her 24 major singles titles and total of 64 major titles (including 19 Grand Slam women's doubles and 21 Grand Slam mixed doubles titles) are the most in tennis history, but not in the Open era, when everyone played the same format and everyone was allowed to play. She is currently a Christian minister in Perth, Western Australia.

In 1970, Court became the first woman during the Open Era (the second woman in history after Maureen Connolly) to win the singles Grand Slam (all four major tournaments in the same calendar year). Her all-surfaces (hard, clay, grass and carpet) singles career-winning percentage of 91.74 is the best of all time according to the Sporteology website. Her Open era singles career winning percentage of 91.02% (608–60) is unequalled, as is her Open era winning percentage of 91.67% (11–1) in Grand Slam singles finals. Her win–loss performance in all Grand Slam singles tournaments was 90.00% (207–23). She was 95.24% (60–3) at the Australian Open, 89.80% (44–5) at the French Open, 85.00% (51–9) at Wimbledon, and 89.66% (52–6) at the US Open. She also shares the Open era record for most Grand Slam singles titles as a mother  with Kim Clijsters. In 1973, Court set the record for most singles titles won in a single Grand Slam event, with 11 Australian Open wins. This record was surpassed by Rafael Nadal in 2019 when he won his 12th French Open title, but remains a women's record.

Details

Court is one of only three players in history (all women) to have won the "Grand Slam Boxed Set", consisting of every Grand Slam title (the singles, doubles and mixed doubles). Court, however, is the only one in tennis history to complete a Multiple Grand Slam set, twice, in all three disciplines. Uniquely, she won all 12 as an amateur and then after a period of retirement, returned as a professional to win all 12 again. Court is also one of only six tennis players ever to win a Multiple Grand Slam set in two disciplines, matching Roy Emerson, Martina Navratilova, Frank Sedgman, Doris Hart, and Serena Williams.

The International Tennis Hall of Fame states "For sheer strength of performance and accomplishment there has never been a tennis player to match (her)." In 2010, the Herald Sun called her the greatest female tennis player of all time, a view supported by Evonne Goolagong Cawley.

Having grown up as a Roman Catholic, Court became associated with Pentecostalism in the 1970s and became a Christian minister in that tradition in 1991. She later founded Margaret Court Ministries.

Margaret Court, née Margaret Smith, (born July 16, 1942, Albury, New South Wales, Australia) is an Australian tennis player who dominated women’s competition in the 1960s. She won 66 Grand Slam championships, more than any other woman, and in 1970 became the second woman (after Maureen Connolly in 1953) to win the Grand Slam of tennis singles: Wimbledon, the U.S. Open, the Australian Open, and the French Open titles in the same year. She is the only player to have achieved the Grand Slam in doubles as well as singles, winning the four events with fellow Australian Kenneth Fletcher in 1963.

Smith first attracted attention after winning the Australian Open singles title in 1960. She won that title the next six years; the Wimbledon singles in 1963, 1965, and 1970; the U.S. Open singles in 1962, 1965, 1969, 1970, and 1973; and the French Open singles in 1962, 1969, 1970, and 1973. She retired after marrying Barrymore Court in 1967 but returned to competition shortly afterward. She won many doubles titles, including U.S. Open mixed doubles in 1969 and 1970.

Court was noted for her powerful serve and volley and her exceptional endurance. She continued to win many tournaments after the birth of her first child, including the U.S. Open in 1973. That year she lost to 55-year-old Bobby Riggs, in a much-publicized match. Court was the top woman player in the world in 1962–65, 1969–70, and 1973 and placed in the top five in 1961, 1966, 1968, 1971–72. Court retired from the game in 1976, and three years later she was elected to the International Tennis Hall of Fame.

In 1995 Court founded a Pentecostal Christian church outside of Perth, West Australia, where she served as pastor.

Margaret-Court.jpg


It appears to me that if one wants to make progress in mathematics, one should study the masters and not the pupils. - Niels Henrik Abel.

Nothing is better than reading and gaining more and more knowledge - Stephen William Hawking.

Online

#1152 2022-08-04 20:25:25

ganesh
Administrator
Registered: 2005-06-28
Posts: 38,066

Re: crème de la crème

1117) John Hasbrouck Van Vleck

Summary

John H. van Vleck AKA John Hasbrouck van Vleck

Born: 13-Mar-1899
Birthplace: Middletown, CT
Died: 27-Oct-1980
Location of death: Cambridge, MA
Remains: Buried, Forest Hill Cemetery, Madison, WI

Occupation: Physicist

Nationality: United States

Executive summary: Quantum theory of paramagnetism

American physicist John H. van Vleck studied Paul Dirac's then-new wave equation, to reveal its implications for the scientific understanding of magnetism, and developed the concept of temperature-independent susceptibility, now known as Van Vleck paramagnetism. In 1924 he explained the correspondence principle of absorption. In 1948 he introduced the "crystal field" concept of magnetic ionization. In 1952 he proposed a feasible compromise between two competing theories of magnetic itinerant electrons. He studied nuclear magnetism, ferromagnetism, molecular bonding, and magnetic resonance, and he is considered a founder of the modern theory of magnetism. His work was instrumental to the developing science of solid-state physics, with applications spanning modern electronics, and he won the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1977.

In college he was a member of the University of Wisconsin marching band, and he later wrote an article exploring the history of college football fight songs. He was always fascinated with railroads, memorizing the schedules of all the passenger trains serving his home town of Madison when he was a boy, and he remained familiar with arrivals and departure times even at Harvard.

Details

John Hasbrouck Van Vleck (March 13, 1899 – October 27, 1980) was an American physicist and mathematician. He was co-awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1977, for his contributions to the understanding of the behavior of electronic magnetism in solids.

Education and early life

Van Vleck was born to mathematician Edward Burr Van Vleck and Hester L. Raymond in Middletown, Connecticut, while his father was an assistant professor at Wesleyan University, and where his grandfather, astronomer John Monroe Van Vleck, was also a professor. He grew up in Madison, Wisconsin, and received an A.B. degree from the University of Wisconsin–Madison in 1920, before earning his Ph.D at Harvard University in 1922 under the supervision of Edwin C. Kemble.

Career and research

He joined the University of Minnesota as an assistant professor in 1923, then moved to the University of Wisconsin–Madison before settling at Harvard. He also earned Honorary D. Sc., or D. Honoris Causa, degree from Wesleyan University in 1936.

J. H. Van Vleck established the fundamentals of the quantum mechanical theory of magnetism, crystal field theory and ligand field theory (chemical bonding in metal complexes). He is regarded as the Father of Modern Magnetism.

During World War II, J. H. Van Vleck worked on radar at the MIT Radiation Lab. He was half time at the Radiation Lab and half time on the staff at Harvard. He showed that at about 1.25-centimeter wavelength water molecules in the atmosphere would lead to troublesome absorption and that at 0.5-centimeter wavelength there would be a similar absorption by oxygen molecules. This was to have important consequences not just for military (and civil) radar systems but later for the new science of radioastronomy.

J. H. Van Vleck participated in the Manhattan Project. In June 1942, J. Robert Oppenheimer held a summer study for confirming the concept and feasibility of a nuclear weapon at the University of California, Berkeley. Eight theoretical scientists, including J. H. Van Vleck, attended it. From July to September, the theoretical study group examined and developed the principles of atomic bomb design.

J. H. Van Vleck's theoretical work led to the establishment of the Los Alamos Nuclear Weapons Laboratory. He also served on the Los Alamos Review committee in 1943. The committee, established by General Leslie Groves, also consisted of W. K. Lewis of MIT, Chairman; E. L. Rose, of Jones & Lamson; E. B. Wilson of Harvard; and Richard C. Tolman, Vice Chairman of NDRC. The committee's important contribution (originating with Rose) was a reduction in the size of the firing gun for the Little Boy atomic bomb, a concept that eliminated additional design weight and sped up production of the bomb for its eventual release over Hiroshima. However, it was not employed for the Fat Man bomb at Nagasaki, which relied on implosion of a plutonium shell to reach critical mass.

The philosopher and historian of science Thomas Kuhn completed a Ph.D. in physics under Van Vleck's supervision at Harvard.

In 1961/62 he was George Eastman Visiting Professor at University of Oxford and held a professorship at Balliol College.

In 1950 he became foreign member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences. He was awarded the National Medal of Science in 1966 and the Lorentz Medal in 1974. For his contributions to the understanding of the behavior of electrons in magnetic solids, Van Vleck was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics 1977, along with Philip W. Anderson and Sir Nevill Mott. Van Vleck transformations, Van Vleck paramagnetism and Van Vleck formula are named after him.

Van Vleck died in Cambridge, Massachusetts, aged 81.

Awards and honors

He was awarded the Irving Langmuir Award in 1965, the National Medal of Science in 1966 and elected a Foreign Member of the Royal Society (ForMemRS) in 1967. He was awarded the Elliott Cresson Medal in 1971, the Lorentz Medal in 1974 and the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1977.

Personal life

J. H. Van Vleck and his wife Abigail were also important art collectors, particularly in the medium of Japanese woodblock prints (principally Ukiyo-e), known as Van Vleck Collection. It was inherited from his father Edward Burr Van Vleck. They donated it to the Chazen Museum of Art in Madison, Wisconsin in 1980s.

john-h-van-vleck-1-sized.jpg


It appears to me that if one wants to make progress in mathematics, one should study the masters and not the pupils. - Niels Henrik Abel.

Nothing is better than reading and gaining more and more knowledge - Stephen William Hawking.

Online

#1153 2022-08-05 20:51:22

ganesh
Administrator
Registered: 2005-06-28
Posts: 38,066

Re: crème de la crème

1118) Katharine Hepburn

Summary

Katharine Houghton Hepburn (May 12, 1907 – June 29, 2003) was an American actress of film, stage and television. Hepburn's career as a Hollywood leading lady spanned over 60 years. She was known for her headstrong independence, spirited personality and outspokenness, cultivating a screen persona that matched this public image, and regularly playing strong-willed, sophisticated women. Her work was in a range of genres, from screwball comedy to literary drama, and earned her various accolades, including four Academy Awards for Best Actress—a record for any performer. In 1999, Hepburn was named the greatest female star of classic Hollywood cinema by the American Film Institute.

Raised in Connecticut by wealthy, progressive parents, Hepburn began to act while at Bryn Mawr College. Favorable reviews of her work on Broadway brought her to the attention of Hollywood. Her early years in film brought her international fame, including an Academy Award for Best Actress for her third film, Morning Glory (1933), but this was followed by a series of commercial failures culminating in the critically lauded box office failure Bringing Up Baby (1938). Hepburn masterminded her own comeback, buying out her contract with RKO Radio Pictures and acquiring the film rights to The Philadelphia Story, which she sold on the condition that she be the star. That comedy film was a box office success and landed her a third Academy Award nomination. In the 1940s, she was contracted to Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, where her career focused on an alliance with Spencer Tracy. The screen-partnership spanned 26 years, and produced nine films.

Hepburn challenged herself in the latter half of her life, as she tackled Shakespearean stage productions and a range of literary roles. She found a niche playing middle-aged spinsters, such as in The African Queen (1951), a persona the public embraced. Hepburn received three more Academy Awards for her performances in Guess Who's Coming to Dinner (1967), The Lion in Winter (1968), and On Golden Pond (1981). In the 1970s, she began appearing in television films, which later became her focus. She made her final screen appearance at the age of 87. After a period of inactivity and ill health, Hepburn died in 2003 at the age of 96.

Hepburn shunned the Hollywood publicity machine and refused to conform to society's expectations of women, famously wearing trousers before they were fashionable for women. She was briefly married as a young woman but thereafter lived independently. With her unconventional lifestyle and the independent characters she brought to the screen, Hepburn epitomized the "modern woman" in the 20th-century United States, and is remembered as an important cultural figure.

Details

Katharine Hepburn, in full Katharine Houghton Hepburn, (born May 12, 1907, Hartford, Connecticut, U.S.—died June 29, 2003, Old Saybrook, Connecticut), indomitable American stage and film actress, known as a spirited performer with a touch of eccentricity. She introduced into her roles a strength of character previously considered to be undesirable in Hollywood leading ladies. As an actress, she was noted for her brisk upper-class New England accent and tomboyish beauty.

Hepburn’s father was a wealthy and prominent Connecticut surgeon, and her mother was a leader in the women’s suffrage movement. From early childhood, Hepburn was continually encouraged to expand her intellectual horizons, speak nothing but the truth, and keep herself in top physical condition at all times. She would apply all of these ingrained values to her acting career, which began in earnest after her graduation from Bryn Mawr College in 1928. That year she made her Broadway debut in Night Hostess, appearing under the alias Katharine Burns. Hepburn scored her first major Broadway success in The Warrior’s Husband (1932), a comedy set in the land of the Amazons. Shortly thereafter she was invited to Hollywood by RKO Radio Pictures.

Hepburn was an unlikely Hollywood star. Possessing a distinctive speech pattern and an abundance of quirky mannerisms, she earned unqualified praise from her admirers and unmerciful criticism from her detractors. Unabashedly outspoken and iconoclastic, she did as she pleased, refusing to grant interviews, wearing casual clothes at a time when actresses were expected to exude glamour 24 hours a day, and openly clashing with her more-experienced coworkers whenever they failed to meet her standards. She nonetheless made an impressive movie debut in George Cukor’s A Bill of Divorcement (1932), a drama that also starred John Barrymore. Hepburn was then cast as an aviator in Dorothy Arzner’s Christopher Strong (1933). For her third film, Morning Glory (1933), Hepburn won an Academy Award for her portrayal of an aspiring actress.

However, Hepburn’s much-publicized return to Broadway, in The Lake (1933), proved to be a flop. And while moviegoers enjoyed her performances in homespun entertainments such as Little Women (1933) and Alice Adams (1935), they were largely resistant to historical vehicles such as Mary of Scotland (1936), A Woman Rebels (1936), and Quality Street (1937). Hepburn recovered some lost ground with her sparkling performances in the screwball comedies Bringing Up Baby (1938) and Holiday (1938), both of which also starred Cary Grant. However, it was too late: a group of leading film exhibitors had already written off Hepburn as “box office poison.”

Undaunted, Hepburn accepted a role written specifically for her in Philip Barry’s 1938 Broadway comedy The Philadelphia Story, about a socialite whose ex-husband tries to win her back. It was a huge hit, and she purchased the motion picture rights to the play. The 1940 film version—in which she reteamed with Cukor and Grant—was a critical and commercial success, and it jump-started her Hollywood career. She continued to make periodic returns to the stage (notably as the title character in the 1969 Broadway musical Coco), but Hepburn remained essentially a film actor for the remainder of her career. Her stature increased as she chalked up such cinematic triumphs as John Huston’s The African Queen (1951), in which she played a missionary who escapes German troops with the aid of a riverboat captain (Humphrey Bogart), and David Lean’s Summertime (1955), a love story set in Venice. In Long Day’s Journey into Night (1962), an adaptation of Eugene O’Neill’s acclaimed play, Hepburn was cast as a drug-addicted mother.

Hepburn won a second Academy Award for Guess Who’s Coming to Dinner (1967), a dramedy about interracial marriage; a third for The Lion in Winter (1968), in which she played Eleanor of Aquitaine; and an unprecedented fourth Oscar for On Golden Pond (1981), about long-married New Englanders (Hepburn and Henry Fonda). Her 12 Academy Award nominations also set a record, which stood until 2003, when it was broken by Meryl Streep.

In addition, Hepburn appeared frequently on television in the 1970s and ’80s. She was nominated for an Emmy Award for her memorable portrayal of Amanda Wingfield in Tennessee Williams’s The Glass Menagerie (1973), and she won the award for her performance opposite Laurence Olivier in Love Among the Ruins (1975), which reunited her with her favourite director, Cukor. Though hampered by a progressive neurological disease, Hepburn was nonetheless still active in the early ’90s, appearing prominently in films such as Love Affair (1994), which was her last movie.

Hepburn was married once, to Philadelphia broker Ludlow Ogden Smith, but the union was dissolved in 1934. While filming Woman of the Year in 1942, she began an enduring intimate relationship with her costar, Spencer Tracy, with whom she would appear in films such as Adam’s Rib (1949) and Pat and Mike (1952); both were directed by Cukor. Tracy and Hepburn never married—he was Roman Catholic and would not divorce his wife—but they remained close both personally and professionally until his death in 1967, just days after completing the filming of Guess Who’s Coming to Dinner. Hepburn had suspended her own career for nearly five years to nurse Tracy through what turned out to be his final illness. Hepburn was a 1990 Kennedy Center honoree, and in 1999 the American Film Institute named her the top female American screen legend of all time. She wrote several memoirs, including Me: Stories of My Life (1991).

KatharineHepburn.jpg?w=824


It appears to me that if one wants to make progress in mathematics, one should study the masters and not the pupils. - Niels Henrik Abel.

Nothing is better than reading and gaining more and more knowledge - Stephen William Hawking.

Online

#1154 2022-08-07 00:07:05

ganesh
Administrator
Registered: 2005-06-28
Posts: 38,066

Re: crème de la crème

1119) Ilya Prigogine

Summary

Viscount Ilya Romanovich Prigogine (25 January [O.S. 12 January] 1917 – 28 May 2003) was a physical chemist and Nobel laureate noted for his work on dissipative structures, complex systems, and irreversibility.

Biography

Prigogine was born in Moscow a few months before the Russian Revolution of 1917, into a Jewish family. His father, Ruvim Abramovich Prigogine, was a chemical engineer at the Imperial Moscow Technical School; his mother, Yulia Vikhman, was a pianist. Because the family was critical of the new Soviet system, they left Russia in 1921. They first went to Germany and in 1929, to Belgium, where Prigogine received Belgian nationality in 1949. His brother Alexandre (1913–1991) became an ornithologist.

Prigogine studied chemistry at the Free University of Brussels, where in 1950, he became professor. In 1959, he was appointed director of the International Solvay Institute in Brussels, Belgium. In that year, he also started teaching at the University of Texas at Austin in the United States, where he later was appointed Regental Professor and Ashbel Smith Professor of Physics and Chemical Engineering. From 1961 until 1966 he was affiliated with the Enrico Fermi Institute at the University of Chicago and was a visiting professor at Northwestern University. In Austin, in 1967, he co-founded the Center for Thermodynamics and Statistical Mechanics, now the Center for Complex Quantum Systems. In that year, he also returned to Belgium, where he became director of the Center for Statistical Mechanics and Thermodynamics.

He was a member of numerous scientific organizations, and received numerous awards, prizes and 53 honorary degrees. In 1955, Ilya Prigogine was awarded the Francqui Prize for Exact Sciences. For his study in irreversible thermodynamics, he received the Rumford Medal in 1976, and in 1977, the Nobel Prize in Chemistry. In 1989, he was awarded the title of Viscount in the Belgian nobility by the King of the Belgians. Until his death, he was president of the International Academy of Science, Munich and was in 1997, one of the founders of the International Commission on Distance Education (CODE), a worldwide accreditation agency. Prigogine received an Honorary Doctorate from Heriot-Watt University in 1985 and in 1998 he was awarded an honoris causa doctorate by the UNAM in Mexico City.

Prigogine was first married to Belgian poet Hélène Jofé (as an author also known as Hélène Prigogine) and in 1945 they had a son Yves. After their divorce, he married Polish-born chemist Maria Prokopowicz (also known as Maria Prigogine) in 1961. In 1970 they had a son, Pascal.

In 2003 he was one of 22 Nobel Laureates who signed the Humanist Manifesto.

Details

Ilya Prigogine, (born Jan. 25, 1917, Moscow, Russia—died May 28, 2003, Brussels, Belg.), was a Russian-born Belgian physical chemist who received the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1977 for contributions to nonequilibrium thermodynamics.

Prigogine was taken to Belgium as a child. He received a doctorate in 1941 at the Free University in Brussels, where he accepted the position of professor in 1947. In 1962 he became director of the International Institute of Physics and Chemistry in Solvay, Belg. He also served as director of the Center for Statistical Mechanics and Thermodynamics at the University of Texas in Austin from 1967 until his death.

Prigogine’s work dealt with the application of the second law of thermodynamics to complex systems, including living organisms. The second law states that physical systems tend to slide spontaneously and irreversibly toward a state of disorder (a process driven by an increase in entropy); it does not, however, explain how complex systems could have arisen spontaneously from less-ordered states and have maintained themselves in defiance of the tendency toward maximum entropy. Prigogine argued that as long as systems receive energy and matter from an external source, nonlinear systems (or dissipative structures, as he called them) can go through periods of instability and then self-organization, resulting in more-complex systems whose characteristics cannot be predicted except as statistical probabilities. Prigogine’s work was influential in a wide variety of fields, from physical chemistry to biology, and was fundamental to the new disciplines of chaos theory and complexity theory.

Thermodynamics is about heat and its transformation into other forms of energy—basically involving statistical descriptions of atomic and molecular movements. Irreversible thermodynamic processes go in only one direction, usually toward more disorder. However, during the 1960s Ilya Prigogine developed a theory about dissipative structures, which maintains that long before a state of equilibrium is reached in irreversible processes, orderly and stable systems can arise from more disordered systems. The result has been applied in a great many areas.

Ilya Prigogine was a Belgian physical chemist and Nobel Laureate born on January 25, 1917 – died on May 28, 2003. Prigogine was well known for his dissipative structures, complex systems, and irreversibility.

He was also the winner of many notable prizes and awards like Francqui Prize in the year of 1955, Rumford Medal in the year of 1976, Nobel Prize in the year of 1977.

He discovered importation and dissipation of energy into chemical systems. Prigogine developed mathematical models to explain irreversible thermodynamics. He gave explanations regarding dissipative structures and their role in thermodynamic systems.

Further in later years he aimed at fundamental role of Indeterminism in nonlinear systems on both the classical and quantum level. Prigogine and coworkers proposed a Liouville space extension of quantum mechanics.

Prigogine was unhappy with the work of Ludwig Boltzmann which showed how macroscopic irreversibility could arise from microscopic reversibility as a result of statistical considerations.  It is also well known that the steady flow of energy which originates in the sun and the stars prevents the atmosphere of the earth or stars from reaching a state of thermodynamic equilibrium. Prigogine notes numerous examples of irreversibility, including diffusion, radioactive decay, solar radiation, weather and the emergence and evolution of life.

Prigogine believed that before him, there was "no direction of time, no distinction between past and future," because even quantum mechanics, in the form of Schrödinger's deterministic wave equation, could not do so Prigogine introduced what he called a "third time" into physics - time as irreversibility. He saw non-equilibrium, dissipative systems far from equilibrium, as a new source of order giving to the system ill-defined "new space-time properties."

Ilya-Prigogine.jpg


It appears to me that if one wants to make progress in mathematics, one should study the masters and not the pupils. - Niels Henrik Abel.

Nothing is better than reading and gaining more and more knowledge - Stephen William Hawking.

Online

#1155 2022-08-09 00:15:58

ganesh
Administrator
Registered: 2005-06-28
Posts: 38,066

Re: crème de la crème

1120) Roger Guillemin

Summary

Roger Charles Louis Guillemin (born January 11, 1924) is a French-American neuroscientist. He received the National Medal of Science in 1976, and the Nobel prize for medicine in 1977 for his work on neurohormones, sharing the prize that year with Andrew Schally and Rosalyn Sussman Yalow.

Biography

Completing his undergraduate work at the University of Burgundy, Guillemin received his M.D. degree from the Medical Faculty at Lyon in 1949, and went to Montreal, Quebec, Canada, to work with Hans Selye at the Institute of Experimental Medicine and Surgery at the Université de Montréal where he received a Ph.D. in 1953. The same year he moved to the United States to join the faculty at Baylor College of Medicine at Houston. In 1965, he became a naturalized citizen of the United States. In 1970 he helped to set up the Salk Institute in La Jolla, California where he worked until retirement in 1989.

Guillemin and Andrew V. Schally discovered the structures of TRH and GnRH in separate laboratories. The process of this scientific discovery at Guillemin's laboratory is the subject of a study by Bruno Latour and Steve Woolgar, published as Laboratory Life.

Guillemin signed along with other Nobel Prize winners a petition requesting a delegation of the Committee on the Rights of the Children of the United Nations to visit a Tibetan child who is under house arrest in China since 1995, namely Gendhun Choekyi Nyima, recognized as the 11th Panchen Lama by the 14th Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso.

Details

Roger Guillemin, in full Roger Charles Louis Guillemin, (born January 11, 1924, Dijon, France), is a French-born American physiologist whose research into the hormones produced by the hypothalamus gland resulted in his being awarded a share (along with Andrew Schally and Rosalyn Yalow) of the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1977.

Guillemin was educated at the universities of Dijon, Lyon, and Montreal. He taught at the Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, Texas, from 1953 to 1970, except for the years 1960–63, when he was on the faculty of the Collège de France in Paris. In 1970 he became a resident fellow and research professor at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies in La Jolla, California, and he served as the institute’s interim president in 2007–09. Guillemin became a U.S. citizen in 1963.

Guillemin proved the hypothesis that the hypothalamus releases hormones that regulate the pituitary gland. Among the hypothalamic hormones that he and his colleagues discovered, isolated, analyzed, or synthesized were TRH (thyrotropin-releasing hormone), which regulates thyroid activity; GHRH (growth hormone-releasing hormone), which causes the pituitary to release gonadotropin; and somatostatin, which regulates the activities of the pituitary gland and the pancreas. Guillemin also discovered an important class of proteins called endorphins that are involved in the perception of pain.

(Roger Guillemin shared the Nobel Prize for Medicine or Physiology in 1977 with Andrew V. Schally, for their separate and often hotly competed research into brain hormones, and with Rosalyn Sussman Yalow, for her development of radioimmunoassays of peptid hormones. Guillemin proved the hypothesis that the pituitary gland is regulated by hypothalamus releases, and discovered endorphins (proteins involved in the perception of pain), somatocrinin (the growth-hormone releasing factor hormone, also called GHR or GHRF, which is used to treat growth deficiencies in children); and somatostatin (the growth-hormone-inhibiting hormone, also called GHIH, which is used to inhibit internal bleeding during surgery). He also studied activins and inhibins (peptides that help regulates the menstrual cycle) and fibroblast growth factors receptors (FGFs, now used in treatment for eye diseases and diabetic blindness).

During World War II, Guillemin's French homeland was occupied by German forces, and he interrupted his studies to become active in the French resistance, serving in an underground network that helped refugees escape to Switzerland over the Jura Mountains. In the early 1950s, he nearly died of tubercular meningitis, but recovered and married his nurse, Lucienne Jeanne Billard. They became American citizens in 1963, and she became a professional harpsichord player. Following his retirement in 1989, Guillemin became an accomplished creator of abstract impressionist art, using his Macintosh computer to create his images that are then transferred to either canvas or paper, via lithography or inkjet processes. His works have been exhibited in major American and European galleries.)

roger-guillemin.jpg


It appears to me that if one wants to make progress in mathematics, one should study the masters and not the pupils. - Niels Henrik Abel.

Nothing is better than reading and gaining more and more knowledge - Stephen William Hawking.

Online

#1156 2022-08-10 00:07:27

ganesh
Administrator
Registered: 2005-06-28
Posts: 38,066

Re: crème de la crème

1121) Maureen Connolly

Summary

Maureen Connolly, in full Maureen Catherine Connolly, byname Little Mo, (born September 17, 1934, San Diego, California, U.S.—died June 21, 1969, Dallas, Texas), was an American tennis player who in 1953 became the first woman to win the Grand Slam of tennis: the British (Wimbledon), United States, Australian, and French singles championships.

Connolly began playing tennis at the age of 10. After a few months of training under a professional teacher, she entered her first tournament and in 1947 won the girl’s 15-and-under title in the Southern California Invitational. By the time she was 15 she had won more than 50 championships. In 1949 she became the youngest girl ever to win the national junior championship, and she successfully defended the title the following year.

In 1951, her second year in women’s division play, Connolly won eight major tournaments and helped the U.S. Wightman Cup team to victory. In September of that year she won the women’s singles at the U.S. Open championship at Forest Hills in New York City. Dubbed “Little Mo” by an affectionate press, Connolly was deceptively slight and engaging off court, but in action she displayed awesome power in her drives and a distractingly expressionless face. In 1952 she retained her U.S. title and won the prestigious Wimbledon (All-England) championship. The next year she became the first woman to win a tennis Grand Slam.

In 1954 she won her third Wimbledon title and second French title. Later that year she suffered a crushed leg in a horseback riding accident and never again entered tournament play. She worked subsequently as a tennis instructor. In 1968 she was elected to the National Lawn Tennis Hall of Fame.

Details

Maureen Catherine Connolly-Brinker (née Connolly; September 17, 1934 – June 21, 1969), known as "Little Mo", was an American tennis player, the winner of nine major singles titles in the early 1950s. In 1953, she became the first woman to win a Grand Slam (all four major tournaments during the same calendar year). She is also the only player in history to win a title without losing a set at all four major championships. The following year, in July 1954, a horseback riding accident seriously injured her right leg and ended her competitive tennis career at age 19.

Early years

Maureen was born in San Diego, California on September 17, 1934, the first child of Martin and Jessamine Connolly. Her parents divorced when she was three years old and she was raised by her mother and an aunt. She loved horseback riding as a child, but her mother was unable to pay the cost of riding lessons. So, she took up the game of tennis. Connolly's tennis career began at the age of 10 on the municipal courts of San Diego. Her first coach, Wilbur Folsom, encouraged her to switch from a left-handed grip to right and she soon became a baseline specialist with tremendous power and accuracy, and a strong backhand. When she was 11, Maureen was dubbed "Little Mo" by San Diego sportswriter Nelson Fisher, who compared the power of her forehand and backhand to the firepower of the USS Missouri, known colloquially as "Big Mo". In 1948, Folsom was replaced as her coach by Eleanor Tennant, who previously coached Alice Marble and Bobby Riggs, both Wimbledon and U.S. singles champions. At age 14, she won 56 consecutive matches, and the following year became the youngest ever to win the U.S. national championship for girls 18 and under.

Playing career

At the 1951 U.S. Championships, the 16-year-old Connolly defeated Shirley Fry to become, at that time, the youngest ever to win America's most prestigious tennis tournament. Her coach at the time was Eleanor Tennant.

Connolly won her first Wimbledon title in 1952, defeating Louise Brough in the final. She had arrived at the tournament with a shoulder injury but refused to withdraw when Tennant instructed her to do so. The ensuing argument resulted in the end of their partnership. Connolly was seeded first at the 1952 U.S. Championships and successfully defended her title with a victory in the final against Doris Hart. For the 1953 season, she hired a new coach, the Australian Davis Cup captain Harry Hopman, and entered all four Grand Slam tournaments for the first time. She defeated Julie Sampson Haywood in the Australian Championships final and Doris Hart in the finals of the French Championships, Wimbledon, and the U.S. Championships to become the first woman, and only the second tennis player after Don Budge, to win the world's four major titles in the same year, commonly known as a "Grand Slam." She lost only one set in those four tournaments.

Connolly won the last nine Grand Slam singles tournaments she played, including 50 consecutive singles matches. During her Wightman Cup career from 1951 through 1954, she won all seven of her singles matches. Connolly's achievements made her the darling of the media and one of the most popular personalities in the U.S.; she was named Female Athlete of the Year by the Associated Press for three straight years, from 1951 through 1953. In 1954, Connolly did not defend her title at the Australian Championships, but successfully defended her French and Wimbledon championships.

Later life

Horseriding accident

Two weeks after she won her third-straight Wimbledon title, she was horseback riding in San Diego on July 20, 1954. A passing concrete mixer truck frightened her horse Colonel Merryboy, which pinned Connolly between the horse and truck. She was thrown and suffered a compound fracture to her right fibula, which ultimately ended her tennis career at age 19. She had intended to turn professional after the 1954 U.S. National Championships. She officially retired from tennis in February 1955 when she announced her impending marriage to Norman Brinker. Connolly retained Melvin Belli as counsel and sued the concrete mixer company. On December 17, 1957, the Supreme Court of California unanimously affirmed a $95,000 jury verdict in her favor; the opinion was signed by Chief Justice Phil S. Gibson.

Marriage

In June 1955, Connolly married Norman Brinker, a member of the 1952 Olympic equestrian team for the United States, who shared her love of horses. They had two daughters, Cindy and Brenda, and she remained partially involved in tennis, acting as a correspondent for some U.S. and British newspapers at major U.S. tennis tournaments. Connolly was a coach for the British Wightman Cup team during its visits to the U.S. In Texas, where the couple lived, she established the Maureen Connolly Brinker Foundation to promote junior tennis.

In 1957, she published an autobiography titled Forehand Drive. Connolly recognized the downside of her tennis career, writing "I have always believed greatness on a tennis court was my destiny, a dark destiny, at times, where the court became my secret jungle and I a lonely, fear-stricken hunter. I was a strange little girl armed with hate, fear, and a Golden Racket."

Death

In 1966, Connolly was diagnosed with ovarian cancer. On June 4, 1969, she underwent a third operation for a stomach tumor at Baylor Hospital in Dallas. She died nearly three weeks later on June 21, at the age of 34.

Legacy

According to John Olliff and Lance Tingay of The Daily Telegraph and the Daily Mail, Connolly was ranked in the world top 10 from 1951 through 1954, reaching a career high of world number one in those rankings from 1952 through 1954. Connolly was included in the year-end top-10 rankings issued by the United States Lawn Tennis Association from 1950 through 1953. She was the top-ranked U.S. player from 1951 through 1953.

Connolly was inducted into the International Tennis Hall of Fame in 1969 and the International Women's Sports Hall of Fame in 1987. In 1956, she was inducted by the San Diego Hall of Champions into the Breitbard Hall of Fame honoring San Diego's finest athletes both on and off the playing surface.

Since 1973, the Maureen Connolly Challenge Trophy is played, a yearly competition between the best female tennis players age 18 and younger from the United States and Great Britain.

Brinker Elementary School in Plano, Texas is named in honor of her. The school was dedicated on November 20, 1988.

Connolly was portrayed by Glynnis O'Connor in Little Mo, a television movie that initially aired on September 5, 1978.

In 2019, the United States Postal Service released a commemorative Forever stamp in her honor.

maureen-connolly-brinker.jpg


It appears to me that if one wants to make progress in mathematics, one should study the masters and not the pupils. - Niels Henrik Abel.

Nothing is better than reading and gaining more and more knowledge - Stephen William Hawking.

Online

#1157 2022-08-12 00:17:26

ganesh
Administrator
Registered: 2005-06-28
Posts: 38,066

Re: crème de la crème

1122) Michael Collins

Summary

Michael Collins (October 31, 1930 – April 28, 2021) was an American astronaut who flew the Apollo 11 command module Columbia around the Moon in 1969 while his crewmates, Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin, made the first crewed landing on the surface. He was also a test pilot and major general in the U.S. Air Force Reserves.

Born in Rome, Italy, Collins graduated in the Class of 1952 from the United States Military Academy. He joined the United States Air Force, and flew F-86 Sabre fighters at Chambley-Bussières Air Base, France. He was accepted into the U.S. Air Force Experimental Flight Test Pilot School at Edwards Air Force Base in 1960, also graduating from the Aerospace Research Pilot School (Class III).

Selected as part of NASA's third group of 14 astronauts in 1963, Collins flew in space twice. His first spaceflight was on Gemini 10 in 1966, in which he and Command Pilot John Young performed orbital rendezvous with two spacecraft and undertook two extravehicular activities (EVAs, also known as spacewalks). On the 1969 Apollo 11 mission, he became one of 24 people to fly to the Moon, which he orbited thirty times. He was the fourth person (and third American) to perform a spacewalk, the first person to have performed more than one spacewalk, and, after Young, who flew the command module on Apollo 10, the second person to orbit the Moon alone.

After retiring from NASA in 1970, Collins took a job in the Department of State as Assistant Secretary of State for Public Affairs. A year later, he became the director of the National Air and Space Museum, and held this position until 1978, when he stepped down to become undersecretary of the Smithsonian Institution. In 1980, he took a job as vice president of LTV Aerospace. He resigned in 1985 to start his own consulting firm. Along with his Apollo 11 crewmates, Collins was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1969 and the Congressional Gold Medal in 2011.

Details

Michael Collins, (born October 31, 1930, Rome, Italy—died April 28, 2021, Naples, Florida, U.S.), was an U.S. astronaut who was the command module pilot of Apollo 11, the first crewed lunar landing mission.

A graduate of the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, New York, Collins transferred to the air force, becoming a test pilot at Edwards Air Force Base in California. He joined the space program in 1963.

Gemini 10, crewed by Collins and command pilot John W. Young, was launched on July 18, 1966. After a rendezvous with an Agena target vehicle, the two men used the Agena’s engines to propel them to a record altitude of 764 km (475 miles), where Collins left the spacecraft to remove equipment needed for a micrometeorite experiment from the aft end of the Gemini and attempted unsuccessfully to attach similar equipment to the Agena. He succeeded in retrieving an instrument from the Agena, but his activity was cut short because the Gemini craft was low on fuel. Gemini 10 returned to Earth on July 21.

On July 16, 1969, Collins was launched to the Moon in the Apollo 11 mission with commander Neil A. Armstrong and lunar module pilot Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr. Armstrong and Aldrin landed on the Moon in the lunar module Eagle on July 20 while Collins remained in the command module Columbia, circling the Moon at an altitude of 97–121 km (60–75 miles). On July 21 Armstrong and Aldrin rejoined him, and the following day the astronauts left lunar orbit. They splashed down in the Pacific Ocean on July 24. The three astronauts spent 18 days in quarantine to guard against possible contamination by lunar microbes. During the days that followed and during a tour of 21 nations, they were hailed for their part in the opening of a new era in humankind’s exploration of the universe.

Apollo 11 was his last space mission; later in 1969 Collins was appointed assistant secretary of state for public affairs. In 1971 he became the first director of the National Air and Space Museum in Washington, D.C., and in 1978 he became undersecretary of the Smithsonian Institution. From 1980 to 1985 he was vice president for field operations for Vought Corporation, an American aerospace firm. He wrote four books, including an account of the Apollo 11 mission, Carrying the Fire (1974), and a history of the American space program, Liftoff (1988).

astronauta-Michael-Collins_1569153581_137754125_667x375.jpg


It appears to me that if one wants to make progress in mathematics, one should study the masters and not the pupils. - Niels Henrik Abel.

Nothing is better than reading and gaining more and more knowledge - Stephen William Hawking.

Online

#1158 Yesterday 00:21:49

ganesh
Administrator
Registered: 2005-06-28
Posts: 38,066

Re: crème de la crème

1123) Muhammad Ali

Summary

Muhammad Ali (born Cassius Marcellus Clay Jr.; January 17, 1942 – June 3, 2016) was an American professional boxer and activist. Nicknamed "The Greatest", he is regarded as one of the most significant sports figures of the 20th century, and is frequently ranked as the greatest heavyweight boxer of all time. In 1999, he was named Sportsman of the Century by Sports Illustrated and the Sports Personality of the Century by the BBC.

Born and raised in Louisville, Kentucky, he began training as an amateur boxer at age 12. At 18, he won a gold medal in the light heavyweight division at the 1960 Summer Olympics and turned professional later that year. He became a Muslim after 1961. He won the world heavyweight championship from Sonny Liston in a major upset on February 25, 1964, at age 22. Also that year, he renounced his birth name as a "slave name" and formally changed his name to Muhammad Ali. In 1966, Ali refused to be drafted into the military owing to his religious beliefs and ethical opposition to the Vietnam War and was found guilty of draft evasion and stripped of his boxing titles. He stayed out of prison while appealing the decision to the Supreme Court, where his conviction was overturned in 1971. However, he had not fought for nearly four years by this point and had lost a period of peak performance as an athlete. Ali's actions as a conscientious objector to the Vietnam War made him an icon for the larger 1960s counterculture generation, and he was a very high-profile figure of racial pride for African Americans during the civil rights movement and throughout his career. As a Muslim, Ali was initially affiliated with Elijah Muhammad's Nation of Islam (NOI). He later disavowed the NOI, adhering to Sunni Islam, and supported racial integration like his former mentor Malcolm X.

He fought in several historic boxing matches, such as his highly publicized fights with Sonny Liston, Joe Frazier (including the Fight of the Century, the biggest boxing event up until then), the Thrilla in Manila, and his fight with George Foreman in The Rumble in the Jungle. Ali thrived in the spotlight at a time when many boxers let their managers do the talking, and he became renowned for his provocative and outlandish persona. He was famous for trash-talking, often free-styled with rhyme schemes and spoken word poetry incorporating elements of hip hop, and often predicted in which round he would knockout his opponent.

Outside boxing, Ali attained success as a spoken word artist, releasing two studio albums: I Am the Greatest! (1963) and The Adventures of Ali and His Gang vs. Mr. Tooth Decay (1976). Both albums received Grammy Award nominations. He also featured as an actor and writer, releasing two autobiographies. Ali retired from boxing in 1981 and focused on religion, philanthropy and activism. In 1984, he made public his diagnosis of Parkinson's syndrome, which some reports attributed to boxing-related injuries, though he and his specialist physicians disputed this. He remained an active public figure globally, but in his later years made fewer public appearances as his condition worsened, and he was cared for by his family.

Details

Muhammad Ali, original name Cassius Marcellus Clay, Jr., (born January 17, 1942, Louisville, Kentucky, U.S.—died June 3, 2016, Scottsdale, Arizona), was an American professional boxer and social activist. Ali was the first fighter to win the world heavyweight championship on three separate occasions; he successfully defended this title 19 times.

Cassius Marcellus Clay, Jr., grew up in the American South in a time of segregated public facilities. His father, Cassius Marcellus Clay, Sr., supported a wife and two sons by painting billboards and signs. His mother, Odessa Grady Clay, worked as a household domestic.

When Clay was 12 years old, he took up boxing under the tutelage of Louisville policeman Joe Martin. After advancing through the amateur ranks, he won a gold medal in the 175-pound division at the 1960 Olympic Games in Rome and began a professional career under the guidance of the Louisville Sponsoring Group, a syndicate composed of 11 wealthy white men.

In his early bouts as a professional, Clay was more highly regarded for his charm and personality than for his ring skills. He sought to raise public interest in his fights by reading childlike poetry and spouting self-descriptive phrases such as “float like a butterfly, sting like a bee.” He told the world that he was “the Greatest,” but the hard realities of boxing seemed to indicate otherwise. Clay infuriated devotees of the sport as much as he impressed them. He held his hands unconventionally low, backed away from punches rather than bobbing and weaving out of danger, and appeared to lack true knockout power. The opponents he was besting were a mixture of veterans who were long past their prime and fighters who had never been more than mediocre. Thus, purists cringed when Clay predicted the round in which he intended to knock out an opponent, and they grimaced when he did so and bragged about each new conquest.

On February 25, 1964, Clay challenged Sonny Liston for the heavyweight championship of the world. Liston was widely regarded as the most intimidating, powerful fighter of his era. Clay was a decided underdog. But in one of the most stunning upsets in sports history, Liston retired to his corner after six rounds, and Clay became the new champion. Two days later Clay shocked the boxing establishment again by announcing that he had accepted the teachings of the Nation of Islam. On March 6, 1964, he took the name Muhammad Ali, which was given to him by his spiritual mentor, Elijah Muhammad.

For the next three years, Ali dominated boxing as thoroughly and magnificently as any fighter ever had. In a May 25, 1965, rematch against Liston, he emerged with a first-round knockout victory. Triumphs over Floyd Patterson, George Chuvalo, Henry Cooper, Brian London, and Karl Mildenberger followed. On November 14, 1966, Ali fought Cleveland Williams. Over the course of three rounds, Ali landed more than 100 punches, scored four knockdowns, and was hit a total of three times. Ali’s triumph over Williams was succeeded by victories over Ernie Terrell and Zora Folley.

Then, on April 28, 1967, citing his religious beliefs, Ali refused induction into the U.S. Army at the height of the war in Vietnam. This refusal followed a blunt statement voiced by Ali 14 months earlier: “I ain’t got no quarrel with them Vietcong.” Many Americans vehemently condemned Ali’s stand. It came at a time when most people in the United States still supported the war in Southeast Asia. Moreover, although exemptions from military service on religious grounds were available to qualifying conscientious objectors who were opposed to war in any form, Ali was not eligible for such an exemption, because he acknowledged that he would be willing to participate in an Islamic holy war.

Ali was stripped of his championship and precluded from fighting by every state athletic commission in the United States for three and a half years. In addition, he was criminally indicted and, on June 20, 1967, convicted of refusing induction into the U.S. armed forces and sentenced to five years in prison. Although he remained free on bail, four years passed before his conviction was unanimously overturned by the U.S. Supreme Court on a narrow procedural ground.

Meanwhile, as the 1960s grew more tumultuous, Ali’s impact upon American society was growing, and he became a lightning rod for dissent. Ali’s message of Black pride and Black resistance to white domination was on the cutting edge of the civil rights movement. Having refused induction into the U.S. Army, he also stood for the proposition that “unless you have a very good reason to kill, war is wrong.” As Black activist Julian Bond later observed, “When a figure as heroic and beloved as Muhammad Ali stood up and said, ‘No, I won’t go,’ it reverberated through the whole society.”

In October 1970, Ali was allowed to return to boxing, but his skills had eroded. The legs that had allowed him to “dance” for 15 rounds without stopping no longer carried him as surely around the ring. His reflexes, while still superb, were no longer as fast as they had once been. Ali prevailed in his first two comeback fights, against Jerry Quarry and Oscar Bonavena. Then, on March 8, 1971, he challenged Joe Frazier, who had become heavyweight champion during Ali’s absence from the ring. It was a fight of historic proportions, billed as the “Fight of the Century.” Frazier won a unanimous 15-round decision.

Following his loss to Frazier, Ali won 10 fights in a row, 8 of them against world-class opponents. Then, on March 31, 1973, a little-known fighter named Ken Norton broke Ali’s jaw in the second round en route to a 12-round upset decision. Ali defeated Norton in a rematch. After that he fought Joe Frazier a second time and won a unanimous 12-round decision. From a technical point of view, the second Ali-Frazier bout was probably Ali’s best performance in the ring after his exile from boxing.

On October 30, 1974, Ali challenged George Foreman, who had dethroned Frazier in 1973 to become heavyweight champion of the world. The bout (which Ali referred to as the “Rumble in the Jungle”) took place in the unlikely location of Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of the Congo). Ali was received by the people of Zaire as a conquering hero, and he did his part by knocking out Foreman in the eighth round to regain the heavyweight title. It was in this fight that Ali employed a strategy once used by former boxing great Archie Moore. Moore called the maneuver “the turtle” but Ali called it “rope-a-dope.” The strategy was that, instead of moving around the ring, Ali chose to fight for extended periods of time leaning back into the ropes in order to avoid many of Foreman’s heaviest blows.

Over the next 30 months, at the peak of his popularity as champion, Ali fought nine times in bouts that showed him to be a courageous fighter but a fighter on the decline. The most notable of these bouts occurred on October 1, 1975, when Ali and Joe Frazier met in the Philippines, 6 miles (9.5 km) outside Manila, to do battle for the third time. In what is regarded by many as the greatest prizefight of all time (the “Thrilla in Manila”), Ali was declared the victor when Frazier’s corner called a halt to the bout after 14 brutal rounds.

The final performances of Ali’s ring career were sad to behold. In 1978 he lost his title to Leon Spinks, a novice boxer with an Olympic gold medal but only seven professional fights to his credit. Seven months later Ali regained the championship with a 15-round victory over Spinks. Then he retired from boxing, but two years later he made an ill-advised comeback and suffered a horrible beating at the hands of Larry Holmes in a bout that was stopped after 11 rounds. The final ring contest of Ali’s career was a loss by decision to Trevor Berbick in 1981.

Ali’s place in boxing history as one of the greatest fighters ever is secure. His final record of 56 wins and 5 losses with 37 knockouts has been matched by others, but the quality of his opponents and the manner in which he dominated during his prime placed him on a plateau with boxing’s immortals. Ali’s most-tangible ring assets were speed, superb footwork, and the ability to take a punch. But perhaps more important, he had courage and all the other intangibles that go into making a great fighter.

Ali’s later years were marked by physical decline. Damage to his brain caused by blows to the head resulted in slurred speech, slowed movement, and other symptoms of Parkinson syndrome. However, his condition differed from chronic encephalopathy, or dementia pugilistica (which is commonly referred to as “punch drunk” in fighters), in that he did not suffer from injury-induced intellectual deficits.

Ali’s religious views also evolved over time. In the mid-1970s he began to study the Qurʾān seriously and turned to Orthodox Islam. His earlier adherence to the teachings of Elijah Muhammad (e.g., that white people are “devils” and there is no heaven or hell) were replaced by a spiritual embrace of all people and preparation for his own afterlife. In 1984 Ali spoke out publicly against the separatist doctrine of Louis Farrakhan, declaring, “What he teaches is not at all what we believe in. He represents the time of our struggle in the dark and a time of confusion in us, and we don’t want to be associated with that at all.”

Ali married his fourth wife, Lonnie (née Yolanda Williams), in 1986. He had nine children, most of whom avoided the spotlight of which Ali was so fond. One of his daughters, however, Laila Ali, pursued a career as a professional boxer during which she went undefeated in 24 bouts between 1999 and 2007 while capturing a number of titles in various weight classes.

In 1996 Ali was chosen to light the Olympic flame at the start of the Games of the XXVI Olympiad in Atlanta, Georgia. The outpouring of goodwill that accompanied his appearance confirmed his status as one of the most-beloved athletes in the world. The dramatic period of his life from 1964 to 1974 was the basis of the film Ali (2001), in which Will Smith starred as the boxer. His life story is told in the documentary film I Am Ali (2014), which includes audio recordings that he made throughout his career and interviews with his intimates. He also was the subject of the docuseries What’s My Name (2019) and Muhammad Ali (2021), the latter of which was codirected by Ken Burns. Ali was a member of the inaugural class of the International Boxing Hall of Fame in 1990, and in 2005 he was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom.

cc1d19a0-03b0-11ed-97b8-a3a73689e5ed


It appears to me that if one wants to make progress in mathematics, one should study the masters and not the pupils. - Niels Henrik Abel.

Nothing is better than reading and gaining more and more knowledge - Stephen William Hawking.

Online

#1159 Today 00:15:59

ganesh
Administrator
Registered: 2005-06-28
Posts: 38,066

Re: crème de la crème

1124) Andrew Schally

Summary

Andrzej Viktor "Andrew" Schally (born 30 November 1926) is an American endocrinologist of Polish ancestry, who was a corecipient, with Roger Guillemin and Rosalyn Sussman Yalow, of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. This award recognized his research in the discovery that the hypothalamus controls hormone production and release by the pituitary gland, which controls the regulation of other hormones in the body. Later in life Schally utilized his knowledge of hypothalamic hormones to research possible methods for birth control and cancer treatment.

Details

Andrew V. Schally, in full Andrew Victor Schally, (born November 30, 1926, Wilno, Poland [now Vilnius, Lithuania]), is a Polish-born American endocrinologist and corecipient, with Roger Guillemin and Rosalyn Yalow, of the 1977 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. He was noted for isolating and synthesizing three hormones that are produced by the region of the brain known as the hypothalamus; these hormones control the activities of other hormone-producing glands.

Schally fled Poland with his family in 1939. He attended the University of London and worked for three years at the National Institute for Medical Research in London before traveling to Montreal to enter McGill University. He graduated in 1955 and two years later took a Ph.D. in biochemistry. From 1957 to 1962 he was associated with Baylor University in Houston, Texas, and in 1962 he became a U.S. citizen. That same year Schally was made chief of endocrine and polypeptide laboratories at the Veterans Administration (VA) Medical Center in New Orleans, Louisiana. At the same time he joined the medical faculty of the Tulane University School of Medicine, becoming a professor in 1967. He became senior medical investigator with the VA in 1973.

Among Schally’s chief accomplishments were the synthesis of TRH (thyrotropin-releasing hormone), the isolation and synthesis of LHRH (luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone), and studies of the action of the peptide somatostatin. His research helped elucidate pathways of hormone regulation in males and females and contributed to the development of fertility treatments and contraceptives. In 1975 Schally and Guillemin received the Albert Lasker Basic Medical Research Award.

Additional Information

Dr. Andrew V. Schally, endocrine oncologist, is the discoverer of hypothalamic hormones and has pioneered the application of their analogs in the field of cancer treatment. For his work, he was awarded to Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1977. He is Tulane University’s and the South’s only Nobel Laureate. Today, thousands of cancer patients worldwide are benefiting and receiving treatment because of Dr. Schally's discoveries.

Fluent in several languages, Dr. Schally has 46 awards and 26 honorary degrees to his credit and belongs to more than 40 scientific organizations worldwide. In 1978, he was listed as the most cited author in the field of endocrinology. Dr. Schally received his training in England and Canada. He became a naturalized citizen of the United States in 1962 and, in the same year, joined the staff of the Veterans Administration Hospital, subsequently becoming a faculty member of Tulane University School of Medicine.

Since 1978, Dr. Schally has been working intensively on hormone- dependent tumors and is, at present, Chief of the Endocrine, Polypeptide and Cancer Institute at the V. A. Medical Center in New Orleans, Head of the Section of Experimental Medicine at Tulane University School of Medicine, Professor of Medicine, Tulane University School of Medicine, and Distinguished Medical Research Scientist of the Veterans Affairs Department. He was married to a Brazilian Endocrinologist, the late Dr. Ana Maria Comaru-Schally, F.A.C.P. Dr. Schally is author or co-author of more than 2,200 publications (articles, abstracts, reviews, books).

Honors: Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology, 1977; Elected to US National Academy of Sciences, 1978; Lasker Award, 1975; Officer in the French Legion of Honor, 2004; Borden Award in Medical Research, 1975; Gairdner Award, 1974; Mickle Prize for Practical Medical Advances, 1974; Tyler Award for Reproduction, 1975; Middleton (highest VA) Award, 1970; Endocrine Society Award, 1969; Van Meter Am. Thyroid Prize, 1969; Laude Award, Spain, 1975. Elected, Academy of Medicine, Mexico, 1971; Brazil, 1983; Venezuela, 1986; Poland, 1994; Spain, 2004; Hungarian Academy of Science, 1986; Russian Academy of Science, 1991; Academy of Science, Mexico, 1998 numerous other awards.

show-photo.jpg?id=1874921&cache=false


It appears to me that if one wants to make progress in mathematics, one should study the masters and not the pupils. - Niels Henrik Abel.

Nothing is better than reading and gaining more and more knowledge - Stephen William Hawking.

Online

Board footer

Powered by FluxBB