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#2026 2024-01-12 00:06:27

Jai Ganesh
Registered: 2005-06-28
Posts: 46,201

Re: Miscellany

2028) ENT Doctor


An ear, nose, and throat doctor (ENT) specializes in everything having to do with those parts of the body. They even perform operations. They're also called otolaryngologists.

Some historians think ear doctors are the oldest medical specialties in the U.S. It started in the 1800s when doctors realized that a person's ears, nose, and throat had delicately connected systems that required special knowledge.

What is the difference between an ENT and otolaryngologist?

A nose doctor, throat doctor, ENT, and otolaryngologist are different names for the same type of specialist. These terms may be used interchangeably because they all mean the same thing.

What Does an ENT Do?

ENTs deal with anything that has to do with the head, neck, and ears in adults and children, including:

* Hearing
* Adenoids and tonsils
* Thyroid
* Sinuses
* Larynx
* Mouth
* Throat
* Ear tubes
* Ear surgeries
* Cancers of the head, neck, and throat
* Reconstructive and cosmetic surgery on the head and neck
* Sleep apnea
* Severe snoring
* Lumps on your face or neck
* Hoarseness or wheezing
* Difficulty swallowing (dyspnea)
* Allergies

Education and Training

ENTs must first get an undergraduate degree. It can be in any subject, but topics like biology or chemistry are useful for medical school.

Next, they must attend medical school for 4 years, followed by a 5-year residency. During this program, they learn about otolaryngology from more experienced doctors.

Finally, ENTs must pass the exam for their state to become a fully licensed doctor.

Some ENTs have 1-2 years of training to specialize further in areas like:

* Neurology
* Sleep medicine
* Pediatrics
* Allergies
* Cosmetic surgery
* Reconstructive surgery
* Balance problems
* Cancers of the head and neck
* Vocal problems
* Swallowing issues
* Sinus issues

Reasons to See an ENT

You may want to see an ENT if you have:

Long-term (chronic) throat, ear, or sinus issues

Ear infections are one of the most common reasons parents take kids to the doctor. ENTs usually treat them with antibiotics, but if the infections keep coming back, they may recommend surgery.

Tonsillitis is an infection of the tonsils. Again, doctors often treat it with antibiotics, but if it persists, they may recommend that you get your tonsils taken out.

Sinus problems that last more than 4 months are called chronic sinusitis. ENTs can help get to the bottom of the issue and treat the underlying problem.

Hearing loss

Hearing loss is normal as you age. But sudden hearing problems can be a sign of something more serious. Either way, an otolaryngologist will be able to figure out what's going on and help you get any treatments you need to hear better. If you need hearing aids, your ENT may send you to an audiologist to get fitted for them.

A lump in your neck

A lump in the neck that lasts more than 2 weeks could be a sign of mouth, throat, thyroid, or blood cancer. Cancers that start in these areas often spread to the lymph nodes in your throat first.

A lump is different from swollen lymph nodes, which can also be a sign of a serious illness but often happen due to common conditions like strep throat or an ear infection.

A child who is a heavy snorer

Snoring is common in adults but unusual in children. It may not be a sign of a serious problem, but it's best to talk to your pediatrician about whether they recommend seeing an ENT. It may be a sign of sleep apnea, which can lead to bedwetting or behavioral or academic problems from lack of sleep.


Whether you call them ear, nose, and throat doctors; ENTs; or otolaryngologists, these doctors specialize in those parts of your body, as well as the head and neck. If you have issues with your sinuses, allergies, sleep apnea, throat, lumps, or more, this is who to call. Your doctor may refer you to an ENT for anything from hearing loss to trouble swallowing.


Otorhinolaryngology (abbreviated ORL and also known as otolaryngology, otolaryngology – head and neck surgery (ORL–H&N or OHNS), or ear, nose, and throat (ENT) ) is a surgical subspeciality within medicine that deals with the surgical and medical management of conditions of the head and neck. Doctors who specialize in this area are called otorhinolaryngologists, otolaryngologists, head and neck surgeons, or ENT surgeons or physicians. Patients seek treatment from an otorhinolaryngologist for diseases of the ear, nose, throat, base of the skull, head, and neck. These commonly include functional diseases that affect the senses and activities of eating, drinking, speaking, breathing, swallowing, and hearing. In addition, ENT surgery encompasses the surgical management of cancers and benign tumors and reconstruction of the head and neck as well as plastic surgery of the face, scalp, and neck.


The term is a combination of Neo-Latin combining forms (oto- + rhino- + laryngo- + -logy) derived from four Ancient Greek words: larynx, "larynx" and logia, "study" ("otorhinolaryngologist").


Otorhinolaryngologists are physicians (MD, DO, MBBS, MBChB, etc.) who complete both medical school and an average of five–seven years of post-graduate surgical training in ORL-H&N. In the United States, trainees complete at least five years of surgical residency training. This comprises three to six months of general surgical training and four and a half years in ORL-H&N specialist surgery. In Canada and the United States, practitioners complete a five-year residency training after medical school.

Following residency training, some otolaryngologist-head & neck surgeons complete an advanced sub-specialty fellowship, where training can be one to two years in duration. Fellowships include head and neck surgical oncology, facial plastic surgery, rhinology and sinus surgery, neuro-otology, pediatric otolaryngology, and laryngology. In the United States and Canada, otorhinolaryngology is one of the most competitive specialties in medicine in which to obtain a residency position following medical school.

In the United Kingdom, entrance to higher surgical training is competitive and involves a rigorous national selection process. The training programme consists of 6 years of higher surgical training after which trainees frequently undertake fellowships in a sub-speciality prior to becoming a consultant.

The typical total length of education, training and post-secondary school is 12–14 years. Otolaryngology is among the more highly compensated surgical specialties in the United States. In 2022, the average annual income was $469,000.

Facial plastic and reconstructive surgery

Facial plastic and reconstructive surgery is a one-year fellowship open to otorhinolaryngologists who wish to begin learning the aesthetic and reconstructive surgical principles of the head, face, and neck pioneered by the specialty of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery.

Microvascular reconstruction repair

Microvascular reconstruction repair is a common operation that is done on patients who see an otorhinolaryngologist. It is a surgical procedure that involves moving a composite piece of tissue from the patient's body and to the head and/or neck. Microvascular head-and-neck reconstruction is used to treat head-and-neck cancers, including those of the larynx and pharynx, oral cavity, salivary glands, jaws, calvarium, sinuses, tongue and skin. The tissue that is most commonly moved during this procedure is from the arms, legs, and back, and can come from the skin, bone, fat, and/or muscle.When doing this procedure, the decision on which is moved is determined on the reconstructive needs. Transfer of the tissue to the head and neck allows surgeons to rebuild the patient's jaw, optimize tongue function, and reconstruct the throat. When the pieces of tissue are moved, they require their own blood supply for a chance of survival in their new location. After the surgery is completed, the blood vessels that feed the tissue transplant are reconnected to new blood vessels in the neck. These blood vessels are typically no more than 1 to 3 millimeters in diameter, which means that these connections need to be made with a microscope, which is why the procedure is called "microvascular surgery".

Additional Information

Otolaryngologyis a medical specialty concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the ear, nose, and throat. Traditionally, treatment of the ear was associated with that of the eye in medical practice. With the development of laryngology in the late 19th century, the connection between the ear and throat became known, and otologists became associated with laryngologists.

The study of ear diseases did not develop a clearly scientific basis until the first half of the 19th century, when Jean-Marc-Gaspard Itard and Prosper Ménière made ear physiology and disease a matter of systematic investigation. The scientific basis of the specialty was first formulated by William R. Wilde of Dublin, who in 1853 published Practical Observations on Aural Surgery, and the Nature and Treatment of Diseases of the Ear. Further advances were made with the development of the otoscope, an instrument that enabled visual examination of the tympanic membrane (eardrum).

The investigation of the larynx and its diseases, meanwhile, was aided by a device that was invented in 1855 by Manuel García, a Spanish singing teacher. This instrument, the laryngoscope, was adopted by Ludwig Türck and Jan Czermak, who undertook detailed studies of the pathology of the larynx; Czermak also turned the laryngoscope’s mirror upward to investigate the physiology of the nasopharyngeal cavity, thereby establishing an essential link between laryngology and rhinology. One of Czermak’s assistants, Friedrich Voltolini, improved laryngoscopic illumination and also adapted the instrument for use with the otoscope.

In 1921 Carl Nylen pioneered in the use of a high-powered binocular microscope to perform ear surgery; the operating microscope opened the way to several new corrective procedures on the delicate structures of the ear. Another important 20th-century achievement was the development in the 1930s of the electric audiometer, an instrument used to measure hearing acuity.

Did you know that nearly half of patients going to primary care offices have some sort of ENT issue?

Think about it. Almost everyone has had a stuffy nose, clogged ears, or sore throat, but ENT specialists treat a diverse range of conditions and disorders of the ears, nose, throat, head, and neck region—from simple to severe, for all persons, at all stages of life.

ENT specialists are not only medical doctors who can treat your sinus headache, your child’s swimmer’s ear, or your dad’s sleep apnea. They are also surgeons who can perform extremely delicate operations to restore hearing of the middle ear, open blocked airways, remove head, neck, and throat cancers, and rebuild these essential structures. This requires an additional five to eight years of intensive, post-graduate training beyond medical school.

Organized ENTs have been setting the treatment standards that pediatric and primary care providers have been following since 1896, making otolaryngology one of the oldest medical specialties in the United States.

What Conditions Do ENTs Treat?

General otolaryngologists do not limit their practice to any one portion of the head and neck, and can treat a variety of conditions. Some ENT specialists, however, pursue additional training in one of these subspecialty areas:

* Ear (otology/neurotology)—Hearing and balance are critical to how we conduct our daily lives. ENT specialists treat conditions such as ear infection, hearing loss, dizziness, ringing in the ears (called tinnitus), ear, face, or neck pain, and more.
* Nose (rhinology)—Our noses facilitate breathing by helping to keep out potentially harmful dirt, allergens, and other agents. In addition to allergies, ENT specialists treat deviated septum, rhinitis, sinusitis, sinus headaches and migraines, nasal obstruction and surgery, skull-base tumors including those inside the cranial cavity, and more.
* Throat (laryngology)—Disorders that affect our ability to speak and swallow properly can have a tremendous impact on our lives and livelihoods. ENT specialists treat sore throat, hoarseness, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), infections, throat tumors, airway and vocal cord disorders, and more.
* Head and Neck/Thyroid—The head and neck include some of our body’s most vital organs, which can be especially susceptible to tumors and cancer. In addition to cancers of the head and neck, ENT specialists treat benign neck masses, thyroid disorders such as benign and malignant tumors, Grave’s disease, enlarged thyroid glands, parathyroid disease, and more.
* Sleep—Being able to breathe and sleep well through the night has an impact on the way we experience life and perform our work. ENT specialists treat sleep-disordered breathing, nasal and airway obstruction, snoring and sleep apnea, and more.
* Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery—Facial trauma and the resulting change in appearance caused by an accident, injury, birth defect, or medical condition side effect can be distressing. ENT specialists in facial plastic surgery treat cleft palates, drooping eyelids, hair loss, ear deformities, facial paralysis, trauma reconstruction, head and neck cancer reconstruction, and cosmetic surgery of the face.
* Pediatrics—Children and their developing bodies and senses often need special attention. ENT specialists treat birth defects of the head and neck, developmental delays, ear infection, tonsil and adenoid infection, airway problems, asthma and allergy, and more.


It appears to me that if one wants to make progress in mathematics, one should study the masters and not the pupils. - Niels Henrik Abel.

Nothing is better than reading and gaining more and more knowledge - Stephen William Hawking.


#2027 2024-01-13 00:15:38

Jai Ganesh
Registered: 2005-06-28
Posts: 46,201

Re: Miscellany

2029) Dermatologist


Dermatologists are medical doctors who specialize in diagnosing and treating diseases of the skin, hair, nails and mucus membrane. Some dermatologists are also surgeons.

Your skin is your largest, heaviest organ, and it has many important functions. It protects you from heat, cold, germs and dangerous substances. It’s also a great indicator of your overall health — changes in the color or feel of your skin can be a sign of a medical problem. It’s important to take proper care of your skin and be aware of its overall health.

Dermatology involves the study, research, diagnosis, and management of any health conditions that may affect the skin, fat hair, nails, and membranes. A dermatologist is the health professional who specializes in this area of healthcare.


Dermatologists are physicians who have specialized knowledge and training to care for patients of any age with diseases and conditions of the skin.  Dermatologists treat conditions that range from life-threatening skin cancers and drug reactions; to life-disrupting conditions such as eczema, psoriasis, and acne; as well as skin changes associated with aging.

There are more than 3,000 diseases of the skin.  Most doctors who are not dermatologists have only one or two months of dermatology education and clinical experience during medical school and residency.

In contrast, board-certified dermatologists have years of specialized training in diseases of the skin, hair and nails and mucous membranes.  To become a dermatologist, you must complete four years of college, plus four years of medical school; then you must complete a year of internship, three years in specialized dermatology training (residency), then pass certifying examinations verifying one’s knowledge of the field, and actively participate in continuing certification activities.

In their three years of residency training, dermatology residents learn how to recognize and diagnose skin diseases in adults and children, how to biopsy and interpret the microscopic presentation of skin disease, how to surgically and medically treat skin diseases (such as skin cancer and rashes) as well as normal skin aging (including Botox, fillers, and age spots).

Some dermatologists focus their practice on specific areas. Physicians who have completed their three years of general dermatology training may continue for an additional year to specialize in pediatric dermatology, in an area focused on skin cancers -- micrographic surgery and dermatologic oncology, or in dermatopathology.

Some of the 3,000 skin conditions and diseases that Dermatologists diagnose and treat:

* Skin cancers
* Rashes and hives
* Itchy, flaky skin, including eczema and psoriasis
* Open sores and blisters of the skin and mouth
* Skin findings associated with internal diseases
* Moles
* Birthmarks
* Acne and rosacea
* Warts and molluscum
* Skin infections caused by bacteria, fungus, yeast, and other organisms
* Cysts and other abnormal bumps and bulges on the skin
* Hair loss
* Abnormal nails
* Discolorations of the skin
* Skin changes associated with aging
* Inherited skin conditions


A dermatologist is a doctor who has expertise in the care of:

* Skin.
* Hair.
* Nails.

They’re experts in diagnosing and treating skin, hair and nail diseases, and they can manage cosmetic disorders, including hair loss and scars.

What do dermatologists do?

Dermatologists diagnose and treat skin conditions. They also recognize symptoms that appear on your skin which may indicate problems inside your body, like organ disease or failure.

Dermatologists often perform specialized diagnostic procedures related to skin conditions. They use treatments including:

* Externally applied or injected medicines.
* Ultraviolet (UV) light therapy.
* A range of dermatologic surgical procedures, such as mole removal and skin biopsies.
* Cosmetic procedures, such as chemical peels, sclerotherapy and laser treatments.

Your skin is your body’s largest organ. It’s also your first line of defense against bacteria, viruses, moisture, heat, and more. It helps to regulate your body temperature and plays an important role in your immune health. It also provides clues about your internal health.

It makes sense that such a large and important organ should have a doctor that specializes in its care. A dermatologist does just that.  Also known as a skin doctor, a dermatologist is a medical doctor that specializes in conditions that affect your skin, hair, and nails. They provide treatment for more than 3,000 conditions that affect these parts of your body, including such ones as psoriasis and skin cancer. If you’re experiencing issues with your skin, a dermatologist can provide the care you need to improve its health.

What Does a Dermatologist Do?

A dermatologist diagnoses and treats a broad array of skin conditions. By looking at your skin, they may also be able to identify symptoms that could point toward an internal condition, such as issues with your stomach, kidneys, or thyroid.

That’s not all dermatologists do. They may perform minor surgical procedures, such as mole removal or skin biopsies. Some specialize in performing larger surgeries, such as removing cysts. Dermatologists also treat skin issues that affect your appearance, and many have the training to provide cosmetic treatments such as Botox, fillers, chemical peels, and more.

Some dermatologists specialize even further:


A dermatopathologist is a dermatologist that diagnoses skin conditions on the microscopic level. They examine tissue samples and skin scrapings using methods such as electron microscopy.

Pediatric Dermatology

While all dermatologists can technically treat children, some skin conditions occur more frequently (or only) in younger individuals. Pediatric dermatologists specialize in treating these conditions.

Mohs Surgery

This type of surgeon is a dermatologist who performs Mohs surgery, a procedure that treats skin cancer. The procedure involves removing thin layers of skin and examining it under a microscope until no cancer cells are visible. 

Education and Training

Dermatologists receive an extensive amount of education and training. The process involves:

* A 4-year bachelor’s degree
* A 4-year medical program to become a medical doctor or doctor of osteopathic medicine
* A 1-year internship
* A 3-year (or more) dermatology residency program

Some dermatologists go on to receive additional training in certain areas of dermatology. Some may also choose to become board certified. If you’re visiting a board-certified dermatologist, you can be assured that you’re receiving care from a highly-skilled, qualified doctor.

What Conditions Does a Dermatologist Treat?

A dermatologist can diagnose and treat more than 3,000 conditions that affect the skin, nails, and hair. Some of the most common conditions they treat include:

* Acne
* Autoimmune diseases
* Dermatitis
* Hemangioma
* Itchy skin
* Psoriasis
* Skin cancer
* Skin infections
* Moles
* Spider and varicose veins
* Hair loss
* Nail conditions

Reasons to See a Dermatologist

There are many reasons why you should see a dermatologist. These include:


A rash occurs as a result of many issues. You may have had an allergic reaction or been exposed to poison ivy. Other rash causes include psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, or a reaction to medication. If your rash is itchy and won’t go away, it’s time to schedule an appointment.

Acne Treatments Aren’t Working

Acne is a common issue in teens. For many, over-the-counter remedies help keep it under control. Sometimes, however, these treatments don’t work. Adults sometimes develop stubborn acne as well, and treatments that worked in the teen years are no longer effective (or make the issue worse). A dermatologist can diagnose different types of acne, prescribe treatments, and help minimize acne scarring.

Hair Loss

If you’ve noticed that you’re beginning to lose your hair, a dermatologist can help determine the cause (such as a scalp condition) and recommend treatments.


Warts are very common and, while they’re not harmful, they can cause pain. They may also affect your appearance. Dermatologists perform different procedures to remove them, such as topical medications, cryotherapy (freezing it off), or surgery.

Changes in a Mole or Skin Patch

If you’ve started to notice a mole or skin patch on your body that’s changing shape or getting larger, it’s time to see a dermatologist. Such signs could indicate skin cancer, so it’s important that you seek a diagnosis sooner rather than later.

Cosmetic Treatments

Fine lines, wrinkles, sagging skin, and other issues that affect your appearance may also affect your confidence. Dermatologists can recommend and perform treatments and procedures to improve these concerns.

What to Expect at the Dermatologist

Before visiting the dermatologist, there are a few things that you should keep in mind. The doctor will check every inch of your skin. You should take off any nail polish and wear long hair down. If you arrive wearing makeup, you may be asked to remove it. When you’re in the exam room, you may be asked to remove your clothes and put on a paper robe.

The visit will likely start with the dermatologist going over your medical and health history. They’ll also go over any specific symptoms you’re experiencing. Then they’ll examine your skin from your scalp to the soles of your feet, checking for anything unusual. If you have specific concerns, they’ll address those as well.

If the dermatologist finds anything of concern, they’ll diagnose it. Sometimes, which might require blood work, allergy testing, a skin scraping, or a biopsy. Then, they’ll provide recommendations for treatment, which may include prescription medications or other procedures. You may then be asked to schedule a follow-up visit.

Additional Information

Dermatology is a medical specialty dealing with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the skin. Dermatology developed as a subspecialty of internal medicine in the 18th century; it was initially combined with the diagnosis and treatment of venereal diseases, because syphilis was an important possible diagnosis in any skin rash. Modern dermatology emerged in the early 20th century, after the discovery of an effective drug therapy for syphilis.

Because of the ease of observation of cutaneous symptoms, dermatology had early become a separate branch of medicine. Its scientific basis, however, was not established until the mid-19th century by the Austrian physician Ferdinand von Hebra. Hebra emphasized an approach to skin diseases based on the microscopic examination of skin lesions. Following Hebra’s work, dermatologists concentrated chiefly on the description and classification of skin diseases, but a new emphasis on the biochemistry and physiology of these diseases, begun by Stephen Rothman in the 1930s, led to the development of more sophisticated and effective treatments in the latter half of the 20th century. Dermatologists have gained the capacity to control fungal diseases of the skin, to recognize and treat skin cancers at an early stage, to control the life-threatening skin diseases pemphigus and lupus erythematosus, and to alleviate psoriasis.


It appears to me that if one wants to make progress in mathematics, one should study the masters and not the pupils. - Niels Henrik Abel.

Nothing is better than reading and gaining more and more knowledge - Stephen William Hawking.


#2028 2024-01-14 00:06:10

Jai Ganesh
Registered: 2005-06-28
Posts: 46,201

Re: Miscellany

2030) Breakfast


Breakfast is the meal which you have when you get up in the morning.


Breakfast is the first meal of the day usually eaten in the morning. The word in English refers to breaking the fasting period of the previous night. Various "typical" or "traditional" breakfast menus exist, with food choices varying by regions and traditions worldwide.


In Old English, a regular morning meal was called morgenmete, and the word dinner, which originated from Gallo-Romance desjunare ("to break one's fast"), referred to a meal after fasting. Around mid-13 century, that meaning of dinner faded away, and around 15th century "breakfast" came into use in written English to describe a morning meal.

Effect on health

While breakfast is commonly referred to as "the most important meal of the day", some contest the positive implications of its "most important" status.

Scientific findings

Some epidemiological research indicates that having breakfast high in rapidly available carbohydrates increases the risk of metabolic syndrome.

Memory was found to be adversely affected in subjects of a study who had not eaten their breakfast (q.v. also Studies using mice under this heading). Intelligence was not affected. Children aged within 8 and 11 years were found to have differing brainwave; EEG activity states, causative to breakfast consumption. Non-breakfasting children were observed to have higher activity of upper and lower theta wave, alpha wave, and delta wave, which indicated a causative relationship of breakfast consumption to memory function in the subjects.

A review of 47 studies associating breakfast to (i) nutrition, (ii) body weight and (iii) academic performance found amongst those who had eaten breakfast: (i) better nutrition profiles, many studies found less weight (ii) irrespective of greater calorific consumption per day, although a number did not find this correlation, (iii) studies suggested a possible link to better academic performance in the breakfast eating groups (q.v. Benton and Parker 1998, under this heading).

The influence of breakfast on managing body weight is unclear.

Healthy choice

Present professional opinion is largely in favor of eating breakfast, but skipping breakfast might be better than eating unhealthy foods.


Breakfast is often called ‘the most important meal of the day’, and for good reason.

As the name suggests, breakfast breaks the overnight fasting period. It replenishes your supply of glucose to boost your energy levels and alertness, while also providing other essential nutrients required for good health.

Many studies have shown the health benefits of eating breakfast. It improves your energy levels and ability to concentrate in the short term, and can help with better weight management, reduced risk of type 2 diabetes and heart disease in the long term.

Despite the benefits of breakfast for your health and wellbeing, many people often skip it, for a variety of reasons. The good news is there are plenty of ways to make it easier to fit breakfast into your day.

Why breakfast is so important

When you wake up from your overnight sleep, you may not have eaten for up to 12 hours. Breakfast replenishes the stores of energy and nutrients in your body.


The body’s energy source is glucose. Glucose is broken down and absorbed from the carbohydrates you eat. The body stores most of its energy as fat. But your body also stores some glucose as glycogen, most of it in your liver, with smaller amounts in your muscles.

During times of fasting (not eating), such as overnight, the liver breaks down glycogen and releases it into your bloodstream as glucose to keep your blood sugar levels stable. This is especially important for your brain, which relies almost entirely on glucose for energy.

In the morning, after you have gone without food for as long as 12 hours, your glycogen stores are low. Once all of the energy from your glycogen stores is used up, your body starts to break down fatty acids to produce the energy it needs. But without carbohydrate, fatty acids are only partially oxidised, which can reduce your energy levels.

Eating breakfast boosts your energy levels and restores your glycogen levels ready to keep your metabolism up for the day.

Skipping breakfast may seem like a good way to reduce overall energy intake. But research shows that even with a higher intake of energy, breakfast eaters tend to be more physically active in the morning than those who don’t eat until later in the day.

Essential vitamins, minerals and nutrients

Breakfast foods are rich in key nutrients such as:

* folate
* calcium
* iron
* B vitamins
* fibre.

Breakfast provides a lot of your day’s total nutrient intake. In fact, people who eat breakfast are more likely to meet their recommended daily intakes of vitamins and minerals than people who don’t.

Essential vitamins, minerals and other nutrients can only be gained from food, so even though your body can usually find enough energy to make it to the next meal, you still need to top up your vitamin and mineral levels to maintain health and vitality.

Breakfast helps you control your weight

People who regularly eat breakfast are less likely to be overweight or obese. Research is ongoing as to why this is the case. It is thought that eating breakfast may help you control your weight because:

* it prevents large fluctuations in your blood glucose levels, helping you to control your appetite
* breakfast fills you up before you become really hungry, so you’re less likely to just grab whatever foods are nearby * * * when hunger really strikes (for example high energy, high fat foods with added sugars or salt).

Breakfast boosts brainpower

If you don’t have breakfast, you might find you feel a bit sluggish and struggle to focus on things. This is because your brain hasn’t received the energy (glucose) it needs to get going.

Studies suggest that not having breakfast affects your mental performance, including your attention, ability to concentrate and memory. This can make some tasks feel harder than they normally would.

Children and adolescents who regularly eat breakfast also tend to perform better academically compared with those who skip breakfast. They also feel a greater level of connectedness with teachers and other adults at their school, which leads to further positive health and academic outcomes.

A healthy breakfast may reduce the risk of illness

Compared with people who don’t have breakfast, those who regularly eat breakfast tend to have a lower risk of both obesity and type 2 diabetes.

There is also some evidence that people who don’t have breakfast may be at a higher risk of cardiovascular disease.

Breakfast helps you make better food choices

People who eat breakfast generally have more healthy diets overall, have better eating habits and are less likely to be hungry for snacks during the day than people who skip breakfast.

Children who eat an inadequate breakfast are more likely to make poor food choices not only for the rest of the day, but also over the longer term.

People who skip breakfast tend to nibble on snacks during the mid-morning or afternoon. This can be a problem if those snacks are low in fibre, vitamins and minerals, but high in fat and salt. Without the extra energy that breakfast can offer, some people feel lethargic and turn to high-energy food and drinks to get them through the day.

If you do skip breakfast, try a nutritious snack such as fresh fruit, yoghurt, veggie sticks and hummus, or a wholemeal sandwich to help you through that mid-morning hunger.

Skipping breakfast

Skipping breakfast was shown to be common in the most recent national nutrition survey of Australian children and adolescents, although the majority did not skip breakfast consistently.

Those most likely to skip breakfast were older females, and people who:

* are under or overweight
* have a poor diet
* have lower physical activity levels
* do not get enough sleep
* are from single-parent or lower income households.

Some common reasons for skipping breakfast include:

* not having enough time or wanting to spend the extra time being in bed
* trying to lose weight
* too tired to bother
* bored of the same breakfast foods
* don't feel hungry in the morning
* no breakfast foods readily available in the house
* the cost of buying breakfast foods
* cultural reasons.

While skipping breakfast is not recommended, good nutrition is not just about the number of meals you have each day. If you don’t have breakfast, aim to make up for the nutritional content you missed at breakfast with your lunch, dinner and healthy snacks.

Ideas for healthy breakfast foods

Research has shown that schoolchildren are more likely to eat breakfast if easy-to-prepare breakfast foods are readily available at home. Some quick suggestions include:

* porridge made from rolled oats – when choosing quick oats, go for the plain variety and add your own fruit afterwards as the flavoured varieties tend to have a lot of added sugar
* wholegrain cereal (such as untoasted muesli, bran cereals or whole-wheat biscuits) with milk, natural yoghurt and fresh fruit
* fresh fruits and raw nuts
* wholemeal, wholegrain or sourdough toast, or English muffins or crumpets with baked beans, poached or boiled eggs, tomatoes, mushrooms, spinach, salmon, cheese, avocado or a couple of teaspoons of spreads such as hummus or 100% nut pastes (such as peanut or almond butter)
* smoothies made from fresh fruit or vegetables, natural yoghurt and milk
* natural yoghurt with some fresh fruit added for extra sweetness and some raw nuts for crunchiness.

If you’re time poor you can still have breakfast

Early starts, long commutes and busy morning schedules mean many of us don’t make time to sit down to breakfast before heading out for the day. Whatever your reason for being time poor in the morning, there are still ways that you can fit in breakfast.

Some ideas include:

* Prepare some quick and healthy breakfast foods the night before or on the weekend, such as zucchini slice, healthy muffins or overnight oats (rolled oats soaked in milk overnight in the fridge – just add fruit/nuts and serve). A pre-prepared breakfast means you can grab it and eat at home, on the way to work or once you get to your destination.
* Keep some breakfast foods at work (if allowed) to enjoy once you arrive.
* Get in the habit of setting your alarm for 10 to 15 minutes earlier than usual to give you time to have breakfast at home.
* Swap out any time-wasting habits in the morning (such as checking your emails or scrolling social media) and use this time for breakfast instead.
* Prepare for the next day the night before to free up time in the morning to have breakfast.

Can’t face food in the morning?

Some people find they just can’t tolerate food first thing in the morning – perhaps because they have their last meal of the day quite late at night or they don’t find typical breakfast foods appealing, or because food first thing in the morning turns their stomach.

If it’s hard for you to eat food first thing in the morning, you might like to try:

* reducing the size of your meals in the evening and eating them earlier so you’re hungry in the morning
* investigating some new recipes and stocking your cupboards with some different types of foods to increase your breakfast appetite
* switching your breakfast to morning tea or mid-morning snack time instead – perhaps try some of the portable breakfast ideas listed above so you’ve got healthy options ready to go when you feel ready for your mid-morning breakfast.

Additional Information

Breakfast kick-starts your metabolism, helping you burn calories throughout the day. It also gives you the energy you need to get things done and helps you focus at work or at school. Those are just a few reasons why it’s the most important meal of the day.

Many studies have linked eating breakfast to good health, including better memory and concentration, lower levels of “bad” LDL cholesterol, and lower chances of getting diabetes, heart disease, and being overweight.

It’s hard to know, though, if breakfast causes these healthy habits or if people who eat it have healthier lifestyles.

But this much is clear: Skipping the morning meal can throw off your body’s rhythm of fasting and eating. When you wake up, the blood sugar your body needs to make your muscles and brain work their best is usually low. Breakfast helps replenish it.

If your body doesn’t get that fuel from food, you may feel zapped of energy -- and you'll be more likely to overeat later in the day.

Breakfast also gives you a chance to get in some vitamins and nutrients from healthy foods like dairy, grains, and fruits. If you don’t eat it, you aren’t likely to get all of the nutrients your body needs.

Many people skip the a.m. meal because they’re rushing to get out the door. That’s a mistake. You need food in your system long before lunchtime. If you don’t eat first thing, you may get so hungry later on that you snack on high-fat, high-sugar foods.


It appears to me that if one wants to make progress in mathematics, one should study the masters and not the pupils. - Niels Henrik Abel.

Nothing is better than reading and gaining more and more knowledge - Stephen William Hawking.


#2029 2024-01-15 00:02:59

Jai Ganesh
Registered: 2005-06-28
Posts: 46,201

Re: Miscellany

2031) Lunch


A lunch is a meal that you have in the middle of the day.


Lunch is a meal eaten around the middle of the day. It is commonly the second meal of the day, after breakfast, and varies in size by culture and region.


According to the Oxford English Dictionary (OED), the etymology of lunch is uncertain. It may have evolved from lump in a similar way to hunch, a derivative of hump, and bunch, a derivative of bump. Alternatively, it may have evolved from the Spanish lonja, meaning 'slice of ham'. It was first recorded in 1591 with the meaning 'thick piece, hunk' as in "lunch of bacon". The modern definition was first recorded in 1829.

Luncheon has a similarly uncertain origin according to the OED, which they claim is "related in some way" to lunch. It is possible that luncheon is an extension of lunch, as with punch to puncheon and trunch to truncheon. Originally interchangeable with lunch, it is now used in especially formal circumstances. The Oxford Companion to Food claims that luncheon is a Northern England English word that is derived from the Old English word nuncheon or nunchin meaning 'noon drink'.


Meals have become ingrained in each society as being natural and logical. What one society eats may seem extraordinary to another. The same is true of what was eaten long ago in history, as food tastes, menu items, and meal periods have changed dramatically over time. During the Middle Ages, the main meal of the day, then called dinner, for almost everyone, took place late in the morning after several hours of work, when there was no need for artificial lighting. In the early to mid-17th century, the meal could be any time between late morning and mid-afternoon.

During the late 17th and 18th centuries, this meal was gradually pushed back into the evening, creating a greater time gap between breakfast and dinner. A meal called lunch came to fill the gap. The late evening meal, called supper, became squeezed out as dinner advanced into the evening, and often became a snack. But formal "supper parties", artificially lit by candles, sometimes with entertainment, persisted as late as the Regency era, and a ball normally included supper, often served very late.

Until the early 19th century, luncheon was generally reserved for the ladies, who would often have lunch with one another when their husbands were out. The meal was often relatively light, and often included left-overs from the previous night's dinner, which were often plentiful. As late as 1945, Emily Post wrote in the magazine Etiquette that luncheon is "generally given by and for women, but it is not unusual, especially in summer places or in town on Saturday or Sunday, to include an equal number of men" – hence the mildly disparaging phrase, "the ladies who lunch". Lunch was a ladies' light meal; when the Prince of Wales stopped to eat a dainty luncheon with lady friends, he was laughed at for this effeminacy.

Beginning in the 1840s, afternoon tea supplemented this luncheon at four o'clock. Mrs Beeton's Book of Household Management (1861) – a guide to all aspects of running a household in Victorian Britain, edited by Isabella Beeton – had much less to explain about luncheon than about dinners or ball suppers:

The remains of cold joints, nicely garnished, a few sweets, or a little hashed meat, poultry, or game, are the usual articles placed on the table for luncheon, with bread and cheese, biscuits, butter, etc. If a substantial meal is desired, rump-steaks or mutton chops may be served, as also veal cutlets, kidneys... In families where there is a nursery, the mistress of the house often partakes of the meal with the children and makes it her luncheon. In the summer, a few dishes of fresh fruit should be added to the luncheon, or, instead of this, a compote of fruit or fruit tart or pudding.


With the growth of industrialisation in the 19th century, male workers began to work long shifts at the factory, severely disrupting the age-old eating habits of rural life. Initially, workers were sent home for a quick dinner provided by their wives, but as the workplace was moved farther from home, working men took to giving themselves something portable to eat during a break in the middle of the day.

The lunch meal slowly became institutionalised in England when workers with long and fixed-hour jobs at the factory were eventually given an hour off work to eat lunch and thus gain strength for the afternoon shift. Stalls and later chop houses near the factories began to provide mass-produced food for the working class, and the meal soon became an established part of the daily routine, remaining so to this day.

In many countries and regions, lunch is the dinner or main meal. Prescribed lunchtimes allow workers to return to their homes to eat with their families. Consequently, businesses close during lunchtime when lunch is the customary main meal of the day. Lunch also becomes dinner on special days, such as holidays or special events, including, for example, Christmas dinner and harvest dinners such as Thanksgiving; on these special days, dinner is usually served in the early afternoon. The main meal on Sunday, whether at a restaurant or home, is called "Sunday dinner", and for Christians is served after morning church services.


A traditional Bengali lunch is a seven-course meal. Bengali cuisine is a culinary style originating in Bengal, a region in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent, which is now divided between Bangladesh and Indian states of West Bengal, Tripura, Assam's Barak Valley. The first course is shukto, which is a mix of vegetables cooked with few spices and topped with a coconut sauce. The second course consists of rice, dal, and a vegetable curry. The third course consists of rice and fish curry. The fourth course is that of rice and meat curry (generally chevon, mutton, chicken or lamb). The fifth course contains sweet preparations like rasgulla, pantua, rajbhog, sandesh, etc. The sixth course consists of payesh or mishti doi (sweet yogurt). The seventh course is that of paan, which acts as a mouth freshener.

In China today, lunch is not nearly as complicated as it was before industrialisation. Rice, noodles and other mixed hot foods are often eaten, either at a restaurant or brought in a container. Western cuisine is not uncommon.


In Australia, a light meal eaten in the period between 10:30 am and noon is considered morning tea; an actual lunch will be consumed between 12 and 2 PM. While usually consisting of fruit or a cereal product, a typical Australian brunch may include other foods as well such as burgers, sandwiches, other light food items, and hot dishes.[citation needed] Sometimes, a meal during the late afternoon is referred to as "afternoon tea",[citation needed] a meal in which food portions are usually significantly smaller than at lunch, sometimes consisting of nothing more than coffee or other beverages.


Lunch in Denmark, referred to as frokost, is a light meal. Often it includes rye bread with different toppings such as liver pâté, herring, and cheese. Smørrebrød is a Danish lunch delicacy that is often used for business meetings or special events.

Many restaurants serve lunch from a buffet rather than fixed portions.

In Finland, lunch is a full hot meal, served as one course, sometimes with small salads and desserts. Dishes are diverse, ranging from meat or fish courses to soups that are heavy enough to constitute a meal.

In France, the midday meal is taken between noon and 2:00 p.m.

In Italy, lunch is taken around 12:30 in the north and at 2:00 p.m. in the center south; it is a full meal but is lighter than supper.

In Germany, lunch was traditionally the main meal of the day. It is traditionally a substantial hot meal, sometimes with additional courses like soup and dessert. It is usually a savoury dish consisting of protein (e.g., meat), starchy foods (e.g., potatoes), and vegetables or salad. Casseroles and stews are popular as well. There are a few sweet dishes like Germknödel or rice pudding that can serve as a main course, too. Lunch is called Mittagessen – literally, "midday's food".

In the Netherlands, Belgium, and Norway, it is common to eat sandwiches for lunch: slices of bread that people usually carry to work or school and eat in the canteen. The slices of bread are usually filled with sweet or savoury foodstuffs such as chocolate sprinkles (hagelslag), apple syrup, peanut butter, slices of meat, cheese or kroket. The meal typically includes coffee, milk or juice, and sometimes yogurt, some fruit or soup. It is eaten around noon, during a lunch break.

In Portugal, lunch (almoço in Portuguese) consists of a full hot meal, similar to dinner, usually with soup, meat or fish course, and dessert. It is served between noon and 2:00 p.m. It is the main meal of the day throughout the country. The Portuguese word lanches derives from the English word "lunch", but it refers to a lighter meal or snack taken during the afternoon (around 5 pm) due to the fact that, traditionally, Portuguese dinner is served at a later hour than in English-speaking countries.

In Spain, the midday meal, "lunch" takes place between 1:00 and 3:00 p.m. and is effectively dinner, (the main meal of the day); in contrast, supper usually begins between 8:30 and 10:00 p.m. Being the main meal of the day everywhere, it usually consists of a three-course meal: the first course usually consists of an appetizer; the main course of a more elaborate dish, usually meat- or fish-based; the dessert of something sweet, often accompanied by a coffee or small amounts of spirits. Most places of work have a complete restaurant with a lunch break of at least an hour. Spanish schools also have a full restaurant, and students have a one-hour break. Three courses are standard practice at home, workplace, and schools. Most small shops close for between two and four hours – usually between 1:30 to 4:30 p.m. – to allow to go home for a full lunch.

In Sweden, lunch is usually a full hot meal, much as in Finland.

In the United Kingdom, except on Sundays, lunch is often a small meal designed to stave off hunger until returning home from work and eating dinner. It is usually eaten early in the afternoon. Lunch is often purveyed and consumed in pubs. Pub lunch dishes include fish and chips, ploughman's lunch and others. But on Sundays, it is usually the main meal, and typically the largest and most formal meal of the week, to which family or other guests may be invited. It traditionally centres on a Sunday roast joint of meat. It may be served rather later than a weekday lunch, or not.


In Hungary, lunch is traditionally the main meal of the day, following a leves (soup).

In Poland, the main meal of the day (called obiad) is traditionally eaten between 1:00 pm and 5:00 pm,[c] and consists of a soup and a main dish. Most Poles equate the English word "lunch" with "obiad" because it is the second of the three main meals of the day; śniadanie (breakfast), obiad (lunch/dinner) and kolacja (dinner/supper). There is another meal eaten by some called drugie śniadanie, which means "second breakfast". Drugie śniadanie is eaten around 10:00 am and is a light snack, usually consisting of sandwiches, salad, or a thin soup.

In Romania, lunch (prânz in Romanian) is the main hot meal of the day. Lunch normally consists of two dishes: usually, the first course is a soup and the second course, the main course, often consists of meat accompanied by potato, rice or pasta (garnitură). Traditionally, people used to bake and eat desserts, but nowadays it is less common. On Sundays, the lunch is more consistent and is usually accompanied by an appetiser or salad.


In Russia, the midday meal is taken in the afternoon. Usually, lunch is the biggest meal[d] and consists of a first course, usually a soup, and a second course which would be meat and a garnish. Tea is standard.

In Bosnia and Herzegovina, lunch is the day's main meal. It is traditionally a substantial hot meal, sometimes with additional courses like soup and dessert. It is usually a savoury dish, consisting of protein (such as meat), starchy foods (such as potatoes), and a vegetable or salad. It is usually eaten around 2:00 pm.

In Bulgaria lunch is usually eaten between 12:00 PM – 14:00 PM. In the capital of Sofia, people usually order takeaway because lunch breaks are too short to go in place. In other areas, Bulgarians often have salad as first meal and a dish from the national cuisine as second one.

Middle East

In West Asia (Middle East) and in most Arab countries, lunch is eaten before 12:00 pm, usually between 9am and 12:00 pm and is the main meal of the day. It usually consists of meat, rice, vegetables and sauces and is sometimes but not always followed by dessert. Lunch is also eaten as a light meal at times in the Middle East, such as when children arrive at home from school while the parents are still out working. Water is commonly served, which may be iced, and other beverages such as soft drinks or yogurt drinks are also consumed.

North America

In the United States and Canada, lunch is usually a moderately sized meal generally eaten between 11 and 1. During the work week, North Americans generally eat a quick lunch that often includes some type of sandwich, soup, or leftovers from the previous night's dinner (e.g., rice or pasta). Children often bring packed lunches to school, which might consist of a sandwich such as bologna (or other cold cut) and cheese, tuna, chicken, or peanut butter and jelly, as well as in Canada, savoury pie, as well as some fruit, chips, dessert and a drink such as juice, milk, or water. They may also buy meals as provided by their school. Adults may leave work to go out for a quick lunch, which might include some type of hot or cold sandwich such as a hamburger or "sub" sandwich. Salads and soups are also common, as well as a soup and sandwich, tacos, burritos, sushi, bento boxes, and pizza. Lunch may be consumed at various types of restaurants, such as formal, fast casual and fast food restaurants. Canadians and Americans generally do not go home for lunch, and lunch rarely lasts more than an hour except for business lunches, which may last longer. In the United States the three-martini lunch – so called because the meal extends to the amount of time it takes to drink three martinis – has been making a comeback since 2010. In the United States, businesses could deduct 80% of the cost of these extended lunches until the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017. Children generally are given a break in the middle of the school day to eat lunch. Public schools often have a cafeteria where children can buy lunch or eat a packed lunch. Boarding schools and private schools, including universities, often have a cafeteria where lunch is served.

In Mexico, lunch (almuerzo) is usually the main meal of the day and normally takes place between 2:00 pm and 4:00 pm. It usually includes three or four courses: the first is an entrée of rice, noodles or pasta, but also may include a soup or salad. The second consists of a main dish, called a guisado, served with one or two side dishes such as refried beans, cooked vegetables, rice or salad. The main dish is accompanied by tortillas or a bread called bolillo. The third course is a combination of a traditional dessert or sweet, café de olla, and a digestif. During the meal, it is usual to drink aguas frescas, although soft drinks have gained ground in recent years.

South America

In Argentina, lunch is usually the main meal of the day, and normally takes place between noon and 2:00 p.m. People usually eat a wide variety of foods, such as chicken, beef, pasta, salads, and a drink like water, soda or wine, and some dessert. Although at work, people usually take a fast meal which can consist of a sandwich brought from home or bought as fast food.

In Brazil, lunch is the main meal of the day, taking place between 11:30 a.m. and 2:00 p.m. Brazilians basically eat rice with beans, salad, french fries, some kind of meat or pasta dishes, with juice or soft drinks. But the kind of food may vary from region to region. A fast and more simple meal (sandwich, etc.) are common during weekdays. After meal, some kind of dessert or coffee are also common.


Since lunch typically falls in the early-middle of the working day, it can either be eaten on a break from work, or as part of the workday. The difference between those who work through lunch and those who take it off could be a matter of cultural, social class, bargaining power, or the nature of the work. Also, to simplify matters, some cultures refer to meal breaks at work as "lunch" no matter when they occur – even in the middle of the night. This is especially true for jobs that have employees that rotate shifts.


It appears to me that if one wants to make progress in mathematics, one should study the masters and not the pupils. - Niels Henrik Abel.

Nothing is better than reading and gaining more and more knowledge - Stephen William Hawking.


#2030 2024-01-16 00:22:49

Jai Ganesh
Registered: 2005-06-28
Posts: 46,201

Re: Miscellany

2032) Dinner


What is the difference between dinner and supper?

In modern use dinner and supper both usually refer to the main meal of the day eaten in the evening, with dinner being the slightly more formal word. Formerly, dinner typically referred to a main meal eaten in the middle of the day, while supper referred to a light meal eaten in the evening. That meaning of supper is still current in British English and among some speakers of American English.

What time is dinner?

The word dinner typically now refers to the main meal of the day eaten in the evening. In the phrase "Sunday dinner," dinner often refers to a main meal eaten earlier in the day on Sunday.

Why is it called dinner?

The word dinner comes from the Anglo-French (that is, the French spoken in medieval England) word disner, meaning "to dine." It has been in use since the 13th century.


Dinner usually refers to what is in many Western cultures the biggest and most formal meal of the day. Historically, the largest meal used to be eaten around midday, and called dinner. Especially among the elite, it gradually migrated to later in the day over the 16th to 19th centuries. The word has different meanings depending on culture, and may mean a meal of any size eaten at any time of day. In particular, it is still sometimes used for a meal at noon or in the early afternoon on special occasions, such as a Christmas dinner. In hot climates, the main meal is more likely to be eaten in the evening, after the temperature has fallen.


The word is from the Old French (c. 1300) disner, meaning "dine", from the stem of Gallo-Romance desjunare ("to break one's fast"), from Latin dis- (which indicates the opposite of an action) + Late Latin ieiunare ("to fast"), from Latin ieiunus ("fasting, hungry"). The Romanian word dejun and the French déjeuner retain this etymology and to some extent the meaning (whereas the Spanish word desayuno and Portuguese desjejum are related but are exclusively used for breakfast). Eventually, the term shifted to referring to the heavy main meal of the day, even if it had been preceded by a breakfast meal (or even both breakfast and lunch).

Time of day:


Reflecting the typical custom of the 17th century, Louis XIV dined at noon, and had supper at 10:00 pm. But in Europe, dinner began to move later in the day during the 1700s, due to developments in work practices, lighting, financial status, and cultural changes. The fashionable hour for dinner continued to be incrementally postponed during the 18th century, to two and three in the afternoon, and, in 1765, King George III dined at 4:00 pm, though his infant sons had theirs with their governess at 2:00 pm, leaving time to visit the queen as she dressed for dinner with the king. But in France Marie Antoinette, when still Dauphine of France in 1770, wrote that when at the Château de Choisy the court still dined at 2:00 pm, with a supper after the theatre at around 10:00 pm, before bed at 1:00 or 1:30 am.

At the time of the First French Empire an English traveler to Paris remarked upon the "abominable habit of dining as late as seven in the evening". By about 1850 English middle-class dinners were around 5:00 or 6:00 pm, allowing men to arrive back from work, but there was a continuing pressure for the hour to drift later, led by the elite who did not have to work set hours, and as commutes got longer as cities expanded. In the mid-19th century the issue was something of a social minefield, with a generational element. John Ruskin, once he married in 1848, dined at 6:00 pm, which his parents thought "unhealthy". Mrs Gaskell dined between 4:00 and 5:00 pm. The fictional Mr Pooter, a lower middle-class Londoner in 1888-89 and a diner at 5:00 pm, was invited by his son to dine at 8:00 pm, but "[he] said we did not pretend to be fashionable people, and would like the dinner earlier".

The satirical novel Living for Appearances (1855) by Henry Mayhew and his brother Augustus begins with the views of the hero on the matter. He dines at 7:00 pm, and often complains of "the disgusting and tradesman-like custom of early dining", say at 2:00 pm. The "Royal hour" he regards as 8:00 pm, but he does not aspire to that. He tells people "Tell me when you dine, and I will tell you what you are".


In many modern usages, the term dinner refers to the evening meal, which is now typically the largest meal of the day in most Western cultures. When this meaning is used, the preceding meals are usually referred to as breakfast, lunch and perhaps a tea. Supper is now often an alternative term for dinner; originally this was always a later secondary evening meal, after an early dinner.

The divide between different meanings of "dinner" is not cut-and-dried based on either geography or socioeconomic class. The term for the midday meal is most commonly used by working-class people, especially in the English Midlands, North of England and the central belt of Scotland. Even in systems in which dinner is the meal usually eaten at the end of the day, an individual dinner may still refer to a main or more sophisticated meal at any time in the day, such as a banquet, feast, or a special meal eaten on a Sunday or holiday, such as Christmas dinner or Thanksgiving dinner. At such a dinner, the people who dine together may be formally dressed and consume food with an array of utensils. These dinners are often divided into three or more courses. Appetizers consisting of options such as soup or salad, precede the main course, which is followed by the dessert.

Dinner times:

United States

Dinner time in the United States peaks at 6:19 p.m., according to an American Time Use Survey analysis, with most households eating dinner between 5:07 p.m. and 8:19 p.m. According to the data from 2018 to 2022, the states that ate the earliest were Pennsylvania (5:37 p.m. peak) and Maine (5:40 p.m. peak), while the states that ate the latest were Texas and Mississippi (both a 7:02 p.m. peak) and Washington, D.C., which ate at 7:10 p.m. peak.

United Kingdom

A survey by Jacob's Creek, an Australian winemaker, found the average evening meal time in the U.K. to be 7:47pm.


It appears to me that if one wants to make progress in mathematics, one should study the masters and not the pupils. - Niels Henrik Abel.

Nothing is better than reading and gaining more and more knowledge - Stephen William Hawking.


#2031 2024-01-17 00:50:49

Jai Ganesh
Registered: 2005-06-28
Posts: 46,201

Re: Miscellany

2033) Typist


A typist is someone who works in an office typing letters and other documents.


A copy typist is someone who specializes in typing text from a source which they read. Originally appeared as a skill in handling of typewriter, later it transitioned to using computer keyboard with results tracking on computer display and obtaining using printer. Before introduction of computers, an additional skill of proofreading and document editing were critical.

Professional overview

Copy typists learn to touch type at a high speed, which means they can look at the copy they are typing and do not need to look at the keyboard they are typing on.

The source, or original document is called the copy. They have the document to be typed in front of them and the copy is often held in a copyholder. The adjustable arm on the copyholder aids legibility and maximizes the typing speed. There could also be an adjustable ruler and marker to help the typist keep their position when they are interrupted, clips to hold the pages in place, and a light.

The copy can be hand written notes perhaps from an author of a book, a play, or a TV show. It might be their own notes in shorthand — perhaps minutes from a meeting or notes from a talk, lecture, or presentation. In the past when word processors were not available and few people could type they would have typed up dissertations, research papers, and letters that had been hand written by the authors. An urgent letter which was typed up was often signed by the secretary with a pp or was otherwise given back to the sender to sign before dispatch.

A copy typist or a secretary with this skill will quote their speed in words per minute (abbreviated to wpm) on their curriculum vitae and may be asked to demonstrate their speed and accuracy of this skill as part of the interview or application process.

Copy Typist

A copy typist is someone who specializes in typing text from a source which they read. Originally appeared as a skill in handling of typewriter, later it transitioned to using computer keyboard with results tracking on computer display and obtaining using printer. Before introduction of computers, an additional skill of proofreading and document editing were critical.

Professional overview

Copy typists learn to touch type at a high speed, which means they can look at the copy they are typing and do not need to look at the keyboard they are typing on.

The source, or original document is called the copy. They have the document to be typed in front of them and the copy is often held in a copyholder. The adjustable arm on the copyholder aids legibility and maximizes the typing speed. There could also be an adjustable ruler and marker to help the typist keep their position when they are interrupted, clips to hold the pages in place, and a light.

The copy can be hand written notes perhaps from an author of a book, a play, or a TV show. It might be their own notes in shorthand — perhaps minutes from a meeting or notes from a talk, lecture, or presentation. In the past when word processors were not available and few people could type they would have typed up dissertations, research papers, and letters that had been hand written by the authors. An urgent letter which was typed up was often signed by the secretary with a pp or was otherwise given back to the sender to sign before dispatch.

A copy typist or a secretary with this skill will quote their speed in words per minute (abbreviated to wpm) on their curriculum vitae and may be asked to demonstrate their speed and accuracy of this skill as part of the interview or application process.

Data Entry Clerk

A data entry clerk, also known as data preparation and control operator, data registration and control operator, and data preparation and registration operator, is a member of staff employed to enter or update data into a computer system. Data is often entered into a computer from paper documents using a keyboard. The keyboards used can often have special keys and multiple colors to help in the task and speed up the work. Proper ergonomics at the workstation is a common topic considered.

The data entry clerk may also use a mouse, and a manually-fed scanner may be involved.

Speed and accuracy, not necessarily in that order, are the key measures of the job.


The invention of punched card data processing in the 1890s created a demand for many workers, typically women, to run keypunch machines. To ensure accuracy, data was often entered twice; the second time a different keyboarding device, known as a verifier (such as the IBM 056) was used.

In the 1970s, punched card data entry was gradually replaced by the use of video display terminals.


For a mailing company, data entry clerks might be required to type in reference numbers for items of mail which had failed to reach their destination, so that the relevant addresses could be deleted from the database used to send the mail out. If the company was compiling a database from addresses handwritten on a questionnaire, the person typing those into the database would be a data entry clerk. In a cash office, a data entry clerk might be required to type expenses into a database using numerical codes.

Optical character/mark recognition

With to the advance of technology, many data entry clerks no longer work with hand-written documents. Instead, the documents are first scanned by a combined OCR/OMR system (optical character recognition and optical mark recognition,) which attempts to read the documents and process the data electronically. The accuracy of OCR varies widely based upon the quality of the original document as well as the scanned image; hence the ongoing need for data entry clerks. Although OCR technology is continually being developed, many tasks still require a data entry clerk to review the results afterward to check the accuracy of the data and to manually key in any missed or incorrect information.

An example of this system would be one commonly used to document health insurance claims, such as for Medicaid in the United States. In many systems, the hand-written forms are first scanned into digital images (JPEG, PNG, bitmap, etc.). These files are then processed by the optical character recognition system, where many fields are completed by the computerized optical scanner. When the OCR software has low confidence in a data field, it is flagged for review – not the entire record but just the single field. The data entry clerk then manually reviews the data already entered by OCR, corrects it if needed, and fills in any missing data by simultaneously viewing the image on-screen.

The accuracy of personal records, as well as billing or financial information, is usually very important to the general public as well as the healthcare provider. Sensitive or vital information such as this is often checked many times, by both clerk and machine, before being accepted.

Job requirements, security, and pay

Accuracy is usually more important than speed, because detection and correction of errors can be very time-consuming. Staying focused and speed are also required.

The job is usually low-skilled, so veteran staff are often employed on a temporary basis after a large survey or census has been completed. However, most companies handling large amounts of data on a regular basis will spread the contracts and workload across the year and will hire part-time.

The role of data entry clerks working with physical hand-written documents is on the decline in the developed world, because employees within a company frequently enter their own data, as it is collected now, instead of having a different employee do this task. An example of this is an operator working in a call center or a cashier in a shop. Cost is another reason for the decline. Data entry is labor-intensive for large batches and therefore expensive, so large companies will sometimes outsource the work, either locally or to third-world countries where there is no shortage of cheaper unskilled labor.

As of 2016, the median pay was between $19,396 and $34,990 in the United States.

As of 2018, The New York Times was still carrying ads for the job title Data Entry Clerk.


It appears to me that if one wants to make progress in mathematics, one should study the masters and not the pupils. - Niels Henrik Abel.

Nothing is better than reading and gaining more and more knowledge - Stephen William Hawking.


#2032 2024-01-18 00:05:09

Jai Ganesh
Registered: 2005-06-28
Posts: 46,201

Re: Miscellany

2034) BASE Jumping


In its purest form, BASE jumping involves highly trained extreme athletes who climb to great heights on manmade structures or tall cliff faces to make their leaps. Unlike skydiving, BASE jumpers don't use an aircraft of any kind, but instead choose to jump from the top of a fixed structure. But the two sports are similar in that both use a parachute to arrest their fall and gently deliver jumpers back to the ground.

The "BASE" in BASE jumping is actually an acronym for the four types of fixed objects that athletes can potentially leap from while taking part in the sport: Building, antenna, spans (often referring to bridges), and the Earth (meaning cliffs or other rock formations).

Unlike skydiving, which typically takes place at higher altitudes, BASE jumping usually occurs closer to the ground and often in proximity to structures. This gives athletes less time to react to shifting conditions or equipment failure, with far less chance of recovery from a bad jump. This can sometimes result in serious injury or even death.


BASE jumping is the recreational sport of jumping from fixed objects, using a parachute to descend safely to the ground. "BASE" is an acronym that stands for four categories of fixed objects from which one can jump: buildings, antennae (referring to radio masts), spans (bridges), and earth (cliffs). Participants exit from a fixed object such as a cliff, and after an optional freefall delay, deploy a parachute to slow their descent and land. A popular form of BASE jumping is wingsuit BASE jumping.

In contrast to other forms of parachuting, such as skydiving from airplanes, BASE jumps are performed from fixed objects which are generally at much lower altitudes, and BASE jumpers only carry one parachute. BASE jumping is significantly more hazardous than other forms of parachuting, and is widely considered to be one of the most dangerous extreme sports.


Fausto Veranzio is widely believed to have been the first person to build and test a parachute, by jumping from St Mark's Campanile in Venice in 1617 when he was over 65 years old. However, these and other sporadic incidents were one-time experiments, not the actual systematic pursuit of a new form of parachuting.

Birth of B.A.S.E. jumping

There are precursors to the sport dating back hundreds of years. In 1966, Michael Pelkey and Brian Schubert jumped from El Capitan in Yosemite National Park. The acronym "B.A.S.E." (now more commonly "BASE") was later coined by filmmaker Carl Boenish, his wife Jean Boenish, Phil Smith, and Phil Mayfield. Carl Boenish was an important catalyst behind modern BASE jumping, and in 1978 he filmed jumps from El Capitan, made using ram-air parachutes and the freefall tracking technique. While BASE jumps had been made prior to that time, the El Capitan activity was the effective birth of what is now called BASE jumping.

After 1978, the filmed jumps from El Capitan were repeated, not as an actual publicity exercise or as a movie stunt, but as a true recreational activity. It was this that popularized BASE jumping more widely among parachutists. Carl Boenish continued to publish films and informational magazines on BASE jumping until his death in 1984 after a BASE jump off the Troll Wall. By this time, the concept had spread among skydivers worldwide, with hundreds of participants making fixed-object jumps.

During the early eighties, nearly all BASE jumps were made using standard skydiving equipment, including two parachutes (main and reserve), and deployment components. Later on, specialized equipment and techniques were developed specifically for the unique needs of BASE jumping.

BASE numbers

BASE numbers are awarded to those who have made at least one jump from each of the four categories (buildings, antennae, spans and earth). When Phil Smith and Phil Mayfield jumped together from a Houston skyscraper on 18 January 1981, they became the first to attain the exclusive BASE numbers (BASE #1 and #2, respectively), having already jumped from an antenna, spans, and earthen objects. Jean and Carl Boenish qualified for BASE numbers 3 and 4 soon after. A separate "award" was soon enacted for Night BASE jumping when Mayfield completed each category at night, becoming Night BASE #1, with Smith qualifying a few weeks later.

Upon completing a jump from all of the four object categories, a jumper may choose to apply for a "BASE number", awarded sequentially. The 1000th application for a BASE number was filed in March 2005 and BASE #1000 was awarded to Matt "Harley" Moilanen of Grand Rapids, Michigan. As of May 2017, over 2,000 BASE numbers have been issued.


In the early days of BASE jumping, people used modified skydiving gear, such as by removing the deployment bag and slider, stowing the lines in a tail pocket, and fitting a large pilot chute. However, modified skydiving gear is then prone to kinds of malfunction that are rare in normal skydiving (such as "line-overs" and broken lines). Modern purpose-built BASE jumping equipment is considered to be much safer and more reliable.


The biggest difference in gear is that skydivers jump with both a main and a reserve parachute, while BASE jumpers carry only one parachute. BASE jumping parachutes are larger than skydiving parachutes and are typically flown with a wing loading of around 3.4 kg/m^2 (0.7 lb/sq ft). Vents are one element that make a parachute suitable for BASE jumping. BASE jumpers often use extra large pilot chutes to compensate for lower airspeed parachute deployments. On jumps from lower altitudes, the slider is removed for faster parachute opening.

Harness and container

BASE jumpers use a single-parachute harness and container system. Since there is only a single parachute, BASE jumping containers are mechanically much simpler than skydiving containers. This simplicity contributes to the safety and reliability of BASE jumping gear by eliminating many malfunctions that can occur with more complicated skydiving equipment. Since there is no reserve parachute, there is little need to cut-away their parachute, and many BASE harnesses do not contain a 3-ring release system. A modern ultralight BASE system including parachute, container, and harness can weigh as little as 3.9 kilograms (8.6 lb).


When jumping from high mountains, BASE jumpers will often use special clothing to improve control and flight characteristics in the air. Wingsuit flying has become a popular form of BASE jumping in recent years, that allows jumpers to glide over long horizontal distances. Tracking suits inflate like wingsuits to give additional lift to jumpers, but maintain separation of arms and legs to allow for greater mobility and safety.


BASE jumps can be broadly classified into low jumps and high jumps. The primary distinguishing characteristic of low BASE jumps versus high BASE jumps is the use of a slider reefing device to control the opening speed of the parachute, and whether the jumper falls long enough to reach terminal velocity.

Low BASE jumps

Low BASE jumps are those where the jumper does not reach terminal velocity. Sometimes referred to as "slider down" jumps because they are typically performed without a slider reefing device on the parachute. The lack of a slider enables the parachute to open more quickly. Other techniques for low BASE jumps include the use of a static line, direct bag, or P.C.A. (pilot chute assist). These devices form an attachment between the parachute and the jump platform, which stretches out the parachute and suspension lines as the jumper falls, before separating and allowing the parachute to inflate. This enables the very lowest jumps—below 60 metres (200 ft) to be made. It is common in the UK to jump from around the 50 metres (150 ft) mark, due to the number of low cliffs at this height. Base jumpers have been known to jump from objects as low as 30 metres (100 ft), which leaves little to no canopy time and requires an immediate flare to land safely.

High BASE jumps

Many BASE jumpers are motivated to make jumps from higher objects involving free fall. High BASE jumps are those which are high enough for the jumper to reach terminal velocity. High BASE jumps are often called "slider up" jumps due to the use of a slider reefing device. High BASE jumps present different hazards than low BASE jumps. With greater height and airspeed, jumpers can fly away from the cliff during freefall, allowing them to deploy their parachute far away from the cliff they jumped from and significantly reduce the chance of object striking. However, high BASE jumps also present new hazards such as complications resulting from the use of a wingsuit.

Tandem BASE jumps

Tandem BASE jumping is when a skilled pilot jumps with a passenger attached to their front. It is similar to skydiving and is offered in the US and many other countries. Tandem BASE is becoming a more accessible and legal form of BASE jumping.

Additional Information

BASE jumping is a fringe sport in which a person jumps from a fixed place and uses a parachute to slow down before the ground is reached. "BASE" is an acronym that stands for each of the four jump location categories: from buildings, antennas, spans (bridges) and the earth. This last is similar to jumping off a cliff. BASE jumping is an extreme sport. This means it involves speed, height, danger or spectacular stunts.

History from skydiving

The idea for BASE jumping came from skydiving. BASE jumping is much more dangerous than skydiving from aircraft.

BASE jumps are usually made from much lower altitudes than skydives. Also, the jumper leaps closer to the platform or standing space. BASE jumpers fall through the air at slower speeds than skydivers, because they begin the jump closer to the ground. As a skydiver falls, he accelerates while falling and gains speed with each second. So a BASE jumper does not always reach terminal velocity. Because faster speed while falling through the air gives jumpers more control of their bodies, and a quicker parachute opening, the longer the delay in the air, the safer.

Another danger is that most BASE jumpers have very small areas in which to land. A beginner skydiver, after the parachute opens, may have about three minutes or more of a parachute ride to reach the ground. A BASE jump from 500 feet will only have a parachute ride of 10 to 15 seconds.


BASE jumping has a death rate averaging about one fatality for every sixty jumpers. It is one of the most dangerous sporting activities in the world. It has a fatality and injury rate 43 times higher than parachuting from a plane.

As of the end of July 2015, at least 264 people have died during a BASE jump.

Dean Potter and Graham Hunt were killed in a BASE jump attempt at Yosemite National Park in California on May 16, 2015. Potter was a well known rock climber. They jumped at dusk from about 3000 feet up. They both quickly smashed into the rocks of the cliff on the way down. Neither jumper used a parachute that might have saved them.

American BASE jumper Ian Flanders died in Kemaliye, Turkey on July 21, 2015. His parachute got tangled in his feet after he jumped and did not open. He fell 900 feet into the Karasu river at a high speed. The jump was being shown live on a local television station.

Russian BASE jumper Valery Rozov died on November 11, 2017, while jumping from the Ama Dablam Mountain in Nepal.

After the death in Turkey, a fellow jumper said to People Magazine, "There's just this very thin margin of how things can go from 'totally fine' to 'it's over'. And it's really hard to do this sport a lot and have that margin not catch up with you."

In the news

In September 2013, three men jumped off the incompletely built One World Trade Center in New York City. They filmed their jump using cameras on their heads and later showed the video on YouTube. In March 2014, the three jumpers and one helper on the ground were arrested after turning themselves in.


It appears to me that if one wants to make progress in mathematics, one should study the masters and not the pupils. - Niels Henrik Abel.

Nothing is better than reading and gaining more and more knowledge - Stephen William Hawking.


#2033 2024-01-18 23:18:46

Jai Ganesh
Registered: 2005-06-28
Posts: 46,201

Re: Miscellany

2035) Certified Public Accountant


A certified public accountant (CPA) is an accounting professional whose knowledge and abilities meet elevated, standardized requirements. CPAs can also perform professional functions that uncertified accountants cannot legally offer.

Most people who earn CPAs practice as accountants. However, the credential also transfers to other career paths. These include forensic accounting, auditing, financial planning, and compliance.


What Is a Certified Public Accountant (CPA)?

A certified public accountant (CPA) is a designation provided to licensed accounting professionals. The CPA license is provided by the Board of Accountancy for each state. The American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA) provides resources on obtaining the license. The CPA designation helps enforce professional standards in the accounting industry.

Other countries have certifications equivalent to the CPA designation, notably, the chartered accountant (CA) designation.


* The certified public accountant (CPA) is a professional designation given to qualified accountants.
* To become a CPA, you must pass a rigorous exam, known as the Uniform CPA Exam.
* Certified public accountants must meet education, work, and examination requirements—including holding a bachelor’s degree in business administration, finance, or accounting, and completing 150 hours of education.
* Other requirements for the CPA designation include having two or more years of public accounting.
* CPAs generally hold various positions in public and corporate accounting, as well as executive positions, such as the controller or chief financial officer (CFO).

Understanding a Certified Public Accountant (CPA)

Not all accountants are CPAs. Those who earn the CPA credential distinguish themselves by signaling dedication, knowledge, and skill. CPAs are involved with accounting tasks such as producing reports that accurately reflect the business dealings of the companies and individuals for which they work. They are also involved in tax reporting and filing for both individuals and businesses. A CPA can help people and companies choose the best course of action in terms of minimizing taxes and maximizing profitability.

Obtaining the certified public accountant (CPA) designation requires a bachelor’s degree in business administration, finance, or accounting. Individuals are also required to complete 150 hours of education and have no fewer than two years of public accounting experience. To receive the CPA designation, a candidate also must pass the Uniform CPA Exam.

Additionally, keeping the CPA designation requires completing a specific number of continuing education hours yearly.

The CPA Exam

The CPA exam has 276 multiple-choice questions, 28 task-based simulations, and three writing portions. These are divided into four main sections:

* Auditing and Attestation (AUD)
* Financial Accounting and Reporting (FAR)
* Regulation (REG)
* Business Environment and Concepts (BEC)

Multiple-choice questions count for 50% of the total score and tasked-based simulations count for the other 50%. You must score at least 75% to pass each section.

Candidates have four hours to complete each section, with a total exam time of 16 hours. Each section is taken individually, and candidates can choose the order in which they take them. Candidates must pass all four sections of the exam within 18 months. The beginning of the 18-month time frame varies by jurisdiction.

The CPA designation is specific to the country in which the exam is taken, though it is a well-known program that is offered in many countries around the world. International equivalency exams are also offered so that CPAs can work in countries other than the one in which they were certified.


Certified Public Accountant (CPA) is the title of qualified accountants in numerous countries in the English-speaking world. It is generally equivalent to the title of chartered accountant in other English-speaking countries. In the United States, the CPA is a license to provide accounting services to the public. It is awarded by each of the 50 states for practice in that state. Additionally, all states except Hawaii have passed mobility laws to allow CPAs from other states to practice in their state. State licensing requirements vary, but the minimum standard requirements include passing the Uniform Certified Public Accountant Examination, 150 semester units of college education, and one year of accounting-related experience.

Continuing professional education (CPE) is also required to maintain licensure. Individuals who have been awarded the CPA but have lapsed in the fulfillment of the required CPE or who have requested conversion to inactive status are in many states permitted to use the designation "CPA Inactive" or an equivalent phrase. In most U.S. states, only CPAs are legally able to provide attestation (including auditing) opinions on financial statements. Many CPAs are members of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants and their state CPA society.

State laws vary widely regarding whether a non-CPA is even allowed to use the title "accountant". For example, Texas prohibits the use of the designations "accountant" and "auditor" by a person not certified as a Texas CPA, unless that person is a CPA in another state, is a non-resident of Texas, and otherwise meets the requirements for practice in Texas by out-of-state CPA firms and practitioners.

CPA in various countries

In the United States, "CPA" is an initialism for Certified Public Accountant which is a designation given by a state governing agency, whereas other countries around the world have their own designations, which may be equivalent to "CPA".

In the United Kingdom, "CPA" is an initialism for Certified Public Accountant as well, but refers to an accounting and finance professional who is a member of the Certified Public Accountants Association (formerly the Association of Certified Public Accountants).

In Australia, the term "CPA" is an initialism for Certified Practicing Accountant. To become a CPA in Australia, it also requires a certain amount of education and experience to be eligible working in some specific areas in the accounting field.

In Canada, "CPA" is an initialism for Chartered Professional Accountant. This designation is for someone who would like to be a Canadian CPA. In order to be qualified for this certificate, candidates who major in accounting will get accepted to enter CPA Professional Education Program (CPA PEP). Provinces in Canada also allow non-accounting majors and international candidates to meet the requirements if they get into the CPA Prerequisite Education Program (CPA PREP).

History of profession

In 1660, the first person who would conduct an audit was chosen in order to be able to manage the money that was raised by England in Virginia, United States. With the help of chartered accountants from England and Scotland for training Americans to learn the procedures of accounting, many firms were established in America. The first American one was in 1895.

On July 28, 1882, the Institute of Accountants and Bookkeepers of the City of New York became the first accounting corporation which supports the need of people in the accounting field and for educational purposes. With the accountancy and industry growing in the world, the need of looking for services from professional accountants who had higher standards and were recognized had been considered. In 1887, the American Association of Public Accountants was created to set moral standards for the practice of accounting.

On April 17, 1896, Chapter 312 of the Laws of the State of New York established that the Regents of the University of the State of New York would provide a Certificate of Public Accountancy to individuals over age 21, of good moral character, and who possessed or intended to declare citizenship in the United States with appropriate accounting education or experience either through examination or previous experience. This was the first time the title "Certified Public Accountant" was regulated. Examinations were held in both Buffalo and New York City. Frank Broaker was licensee #1 and he received his certificate solely through previous experience as a public accountant and did not take an examination, commonly referred to as grandfathering. Broaker died on November 12, 1941. The first person to receive the CPA through examination and previous experience was Joseph Hardcastle, who would go on to become an accounting theorist and New York University professor. Hardcastle died on June 16, 1906, after being thrown from a horse after an accident with a wagon. The Chapter was introduced by New York Senator Albert Wray, New York Assemblyman Henry Marshall, and signed by New York Governor Morton as part of business reform. The Regents appointed a Board of Examiners, similar to today's NASBA, the first members of which were Charles Sprague, Frank Broaker, and C. W. Haskins.

Many accounting professionals believed the 150 credit requirement—implemented in several states first in 1988 and then expanded to nearly all states in 2001—would lead to more knowledgeable, experienced CPAs. The National Association of State Board of Accountancy (NASBA) collected and analyzed data from 1996 to 1998 to verify the effectiveness of the measure. Researchers studied more than 116,000 candidates who took the exam between 1996 and 1998. 33% of respondents had more than 150 college credit hours, while 67% had less than 150 credit hours. The research reveals that for candidates with less than 150 credits, only 13% passed the CPA exam on their first try. Conversely, for candidates with 150 or more credits, 21% passed the CPA exam on their first try. Some suggest extraneous variables—including the additional study time those possessing 150 credits likely have while still enrolled in university—could distort the verifiability of the study.

Services provided

One important function performed by CPAs relates to assurance services. The most commonly performed assurance services are financial audit services where CPAs attest to the reasonableness of disclosures, the freedom from material misstatement, and the adherence to the applicable generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) in financial statements. CPAs can also be employed within corporations (termed "the private sector" or "industry") in finance or operations positions such as financial analyst, finance manager, controller, chief financial officer (CFO), or chief executive officer (CEO). These CPAs do not provide services directly to the public.

Although some CPA firms serve as business consultants, the consulting role has been under scrutiny following the Enron scandal where Arthur Andersen simultaneously provided audit and consulting services which affected its ability to maintain independence in its audit duties. This incident resulted in many accounting firms divesting their consulting divisions, but this trend has since reversed. In audit engagements, CPAs are (and have always been) required by professional standards and federal and state laws to maintain independence (both in fact and in appearance) from the entity for which they are conducting an attestation (audit and review) engagement. Although most individual CPAs who work as consultants do not also work as auditors, if the CPA firm is auditing the same company that the firm also does consulting work for, then there is a conflict of interest. This conflict voids the CPA firm's independence for multiple reasons, including: the CPA firm would be auditing its own work or the work the firm suggested, and, the CPA firm may be pressured into unduly giving a positive (unmodified) audit opinion so as not to jeopardize the consulting revenue the firm receives from the client.

CPAs also have a niche within the income tax return preparation industry. Many small to mid-sized firms have both a tax and an auditing department. Along with attorneys and Enrolled Agents, CPAs may represent taxpayers in matters before the Internal Revenue Service (IRS). Although the IRS regulates the practice of tax representation, it has no authority to regulate tax return preparers.

Some states also allow unlicensed accountants to work as public accountants. For example, California allows unlicensed accountants to work as public accountants if they work under the control and supervision of a CPA. However, the California Board of Accountancy itself has determined that the terms "accountant" and "accounting" are misleading to members of the public, many of whom believe that a person who uses these terms must be licensed. As part of the California Poll, survey research showed that 55 percent of Californians believe that a person who advertises as an "accountant" must be licensed, 26 percent did not believe a license was required, and 19 percent did not know.

Whether providing services directly to the public or employed by corporations or associations, CPAs can operate in virtually any area of finance including:

* Assurance and attestation services
* Corporate finance (merger and acquisition, initial public offerings, share and debt issuings)
* Corporate governance
* Estate planning
* Financial accounting
* Governmental accounting
* Financial analysis
* Financial planning
* Forensic accounting (preventing, detecting, and investigating financial frauds)
* Income tax
* Information technology, especially as applied to accounting and auditing
* Management consulting and performance management
* Tax preparation and planning
* Venture capital
* Financial reporting
* Regulatory compliance
* SOC engagements

(System and Organization Controls (SOC), (also sometimes referred to as service organizations controls) as defined by the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICPA), is the name of a suite of reports produced during an audit. It is intended for use by service organizations (organizations that provide information systems as a service to other organizations) to issue validated reports of internal controls over those information systems to the users of those services. The reports focus on controls grouped into five categories called Trust Service Criteria. The Trust Services Criteria were established by The AICPA through its Assurance Services Executive Committee (ASEC) in 2017 (2017 TSC). These control criteria are to be used by the practitioner/examiner (Certified Public Accountant, CPA) in attestation or consulting engagements to evaluate and report on controls of information systems offered as a service. The engagements can be done on an entity wide, subsidiary, division, operating unit, product line or functional area basis. The Trust Services Criteria were modeled in conformity to The Committee of Sponsoring Organizations of the Treadway Commission (COSO) Internal Control - Integrated Framework (COSO Framework). In addition, the Trust Services Criteria can be mapped to NIST SP 800 - 53 criteria and to EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) Articles. The AICPA auditing standard Statement on Standards for Attestation Engagements no. 18 (SSAE 18), section 320, "Reporting on an Examination of Controls at a Service Organization Relevant to User Entities' Internal Control Over Financial Reporting", defines two levels of reporting, type 1 and type 2. Additional AICPA guidance materials specify three types of reporting: SOC 1, SOC 2, and SOC 3.)


It appears to me that if one wants to make progress in mathematics, one should study the masters and not the pupils. - Niels Henrik Abel.

Nothing is better than reading and gaining more and more knowledge - Stephen William Hawking.


#2034 2024-01-20 00:07:09

Jai Ganesh
Registered: 2005-06-28
Posts: 46,201

Re: Miscellany

2036) Cost Accounting


Cost accounting is the reporting and analysis of a company's cost structure. Cost accounting involves assigning costs to cost objects that can include a company's products, services, and any business activities.


Cost accounting is a method of managerial accounting which aims to capture the total production cost of a business by measuring the variable costs of each production phase as well as fixed costs, such as a lease expense.

Historians believe that cost accounting was first introduced during the industrial revolution when the new global supply and demand economies forced producers to begin monitoring their fixed and variable costs to automate their manufacturing processes.

Cost accounting allowed rail and steel companies to manage costs and make themselves more competitive. By the early 20th century, cost accounting had become a widely discussed subject in the literature of business management.

A company's internal management department uses cost accounting to define both variable and fixed costs associated with the manufacturing process. It will first individually calculate and report these costs, then compare input costs with production results to assist in assessing financial performance and in making potential business decisions.


Cost accounting is a form of managerial accounting that aims to capture a company's total cost of production by assessing the variable costs of each step of production as well as fixed costs, such as a lease expense.

Cost accounting is not GAAP-compliant, and can only be used for internal purposes.


* Cost accounting is used internally by management in order to make fully informed business decisions.
* Unlike financial accounting, which provides information to external financial statement users, cost accounting is not required to adhere to set standards and can be flexible to meet the particular needs of management.
* As such, cost accounting cannot be used on official financial statements and is not GAAP-compliant.
* Cost accounting considers all input costs associated with production, including both variable and fixed costs.

Types of cost accounting include standard costing, activity-based costing, lean accounting, and marginal costing.

Understanding Cost Accounting

Cost accounting is used by a company's internal management team to identify all variable and fixed costs associated with the production process. It will first measure and record these costs individually, then compare input costs to output results to aid in measuring financial performance and making future business decisions. There are many types of costs involved in cost accounting, each performing its own function for the accountant.

Types of Costs

Fixed costs are costs that don't vary depending on the level of production. These are usually things like the mortgage or lease payment on a building or a piece of equipment that is depreciated at a fixed monthly rate. An increase or decrease in production levels would cause no change in these costs.

Variable costs are costs tied to a company's level of production. For example, a floral shop ramping up its floral arrangement inventory for Valentine's Day will incur higher costs when it purchases an increased number of flowers from the local nursery or garden center.

Operating costs are costs associated with the day-to-day operations of a business. These costs can be either fixed or variable depending on the unique situation.

Direct costs are costs specifically related to producing a product. If a coffee roaster spends five hours roasting coffee, the direct costs of the finished product include the labor hours of the roaster and the cost of the coffee beans.

Indirect costs are costs that cannot be directly linked to a product. In the coffee roaster example, the energy cost to heat the roaster would be indirect because it is inexact and difficult to trace to individual products.

Cost Accounting vs. Financial Accounting

While cost accounting is often used by management within a company to aid in decision-making, financial accounting is what outside investors or creditors typically see. Financial accounting presents a company's financial position and performance to external sources through financial statements, which include information about its revenues, expenses, assets, and liabilities. Cost accounting can be most beneficial as a tool for management in budgeting and in setting up cost-control programs, which can improve net margins for the company in the future.

One key difference between cost accounting and financial accounting is that, while in financial accounting the cost is classified depending on the type of transaction, cost accounting classifies costs according to the information needs of the management. Cost accounting, because it is used as an internal tool by management, does not have to meet any specific standard such as generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) and, as a result, varies in use from company to company or department to department.

Cost-accounting methods are typically not useful for figuring out tax liabilities, which means that cost accounting cannot provide a complete analysis of a company's true costs.

Types of Cost Accounting

Standard Costing

Standard costing assigns "standard" costs, rather than actual costs, to its cost of goods sold (COGS) and inventory. The standard costs are based on the efficient use of labor and materials to produce the good or service under standard operating conditions, and they are essentially the budgeted amount. Even though standard costs are assigned to the goods, the company still has to pay actual costs. Assessing the difference between the standard (efficient) cost and the actual cost incurred is called variance analysis.

If the variance analysis determines that actual costs are higher than expected, the variance is unfavorable. If it determines the actual costs are lower than expected, the variance is favorable. Two factors can contribute to a favorable or unfavorable variance. There is the cost of the input, such as the cost of labor and materials. This is considered to be a rate variance.

Additionally, there is the efficiency or quantity of the input used. This is considered to be a volume variance. If, for example, XYZ company expected to produce 400 widgets in a period but ended up producing 500 widgets, the cost of materials would be higher due to the total quantity produced.

Activity-Based Costing

Activity-based costing (ABC) identifies overhead costs from each department and assigns them to specific cost objects, such as goods or services. The ABC system of cost accounting is based on activities, which refer to any event, unit of work, or task with a specific goal, such as setting up machines for production, designing products, distributing finished goods, or operating machines. These activities are also considered to be cost drivers, and they are the measures used as the basis for allocating overhead costs.

Traditionally, overhead costs are assigned based on one generic measure, such as machine hours. Under ABC, an activity analysis is performed where appropriate measures are identified as the cost drivers. As a result, ABC tends to be much more accurate and helpful when it comes to managers reviewing the cost and profitability of their company's specific services or products.

For example, cost accountants using ABC might pass out a survey to production-line employees who will then account for the amount of time they spend on different tasks. The costs of these specific activities are only assigned to the goods or services that used the activity. This gives management a better idea of where exactly the time and money are being spent.

To illustrate this, assume a company produces both trinkets and widgets. The trinkets are very labor-intensive and require quite a bit of hands-on effort from the production staff. The production of widgets is automated, and it mostly consists of putting the raw material in a machine and waiting many hours for the finished good. It would not make sense to use machine hours to allocate overhead to both items because the trinkets hardly used any machine hours. Under ABC, the trinkets are assigned more overhead related to labor and the widgets are assigned more overhead related to machine use.

Lean Accounting

The main goal of lean accounting is to improve financial management practices within an organization. Lean accounting is an extension of the philosophy of lean manufacturing and production, which has the stated intention of minimizing waste while optimizing productivity. For example, if an accounting department is able to cut down on wasted time, employees can focus that saved time more productively on value-added tasks.

When using lean accounting, traditional costing methods are replaced by value-based pricing and lean-focused performance measurements. Financial decision-making is based on the impact on the company's total value stream profitability. Value streams are the profit centers of a company, which is any branch or division that directly adds to its bottom-line profitability.

Marginal Costing

Marginal costing (sometimes called cost-volume-profit analysis) is the impact on the cost of a product by adding one additional unit into production. It is useful for short-term economic decisions. Marginal costing can help management identify the impact of varying levels of costs and volume on operating profit. This type of analysis can be used by management to gain insight into potentially profitable new products, sales prices to establish for existing products, and the impact of marketing campaigns.

The break-even point—which is the production level where total revenue for a product equals total expense—is calculated as the total fixed costs of a company divided by its contribution margin. The contribution margin, calculated as the sales revenue minus variable costs, can also be calculated on a per-unit basis in order to determine the extent to which a specific product contributes to the overall profit of the company.

History of Cost Accounting

Scholars believe that cost accounting was first developed during the industrial revolution when the emerging economics of industrial supply and demand forced manufacturers to start tracking their fixed and variable expenses in order to optimize their production processes.

Cost accounting allowed railroad and steel companies to control costs and become more efficient. By the beginning of the 20th century, cost accounting had become a widely covered topic in the literature on business management.

How Does Cost Accounting Differ From Traditional Accounting Methods?

In contrast to general accounting or financial accounting, the cost-accounting method is an internally focused, firm-specific system used to implement cost controls. Cost accounting can be much more flexible and specific, particularly when it comes to the subdivision of costs and inventory valuation. Cost-accounting methods and techniques will vary from firm to firm and can become quite complex.

Why Is Cost Accounting Used?

Cost accounting is helpful because it can identify where a company is spending its money, how much it earns, and where money is being lost. Cost accounting aims to report, analyze, and lead to the improvement of internal cost controls and efficiency. Even though companies cannot use cost-accounting figures in their financial statements or for tax purposes, they are crucial for internal controls.

Which Types of Costs Go Into Cost Accounting?

These will vary from industry to industry and firm to firm, however certain cost categories will typically be included (some of which may overlap), such as direct costs, indirect costs, variable costs, fixed costs, and operating costs.

What Are Some Advantages of Cost Accounting?

Since cost-accounting methods are developed by and tailored to a specific firm, they are highly customizable and adaptable. Managers appreciate cost accounting because it can be adapted, tinkered with, and implemented according to the changing needs of the business. Unlike the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB)-driven financial accounting, cost accounting need only concern itself with insider eyes and internal purposes. Management can analyze information based on criteria that it specifically values, which guides how prices are set, resources are distributed, capital is raised, and risks are assumed.

What Are Some Drawbacks of Cost Accounting?

Cost-accounting systems ,and the techniques that are used with them, can have a high start-up cost to develop and implement. Training accounting staff and managers on esoteric and often complex systems takes time and effort, and mistakes may be made early on. Higher-skilled accountants and auditors are likely to charge more for their services when evaluating a cost-accounting system than a standardized one like GAAP.

The Bottom Line

Cost accounting is an informal set of flexible tools that a company's managers can use to estimate how well the business is running. Cost accounting looks to assess the different costs of a business and how they impact operations, costs, efficiency, and profits. Individually assessing a company's cost structure allows management to improve the way it runs its business and therefore improve the value of the firm. These are meant to be internal metrics and figures only. Since they are not GAAP-compliant, cost accounting cannot be used for a company's audited financial statements released to the public.

Additional Information

Cost accounting is defined by the Institute of Management Accountants as "a systematic set of procedures for recording and reporting measurements of the cost of manufacturing goods and performing services in the aggregate and in detail. It includes methods for recognizing, allocating, aggregating and reporting such costs and comparing them with standard costs". Often considered a subset of managerial accounting, its end goal is to advise the management on how to optimize business practices and processes based on cost efficiency and capability. Cost accounting provides the detailed cost information that management needs to control current operations and plan for the future.

Cost accounting information is also commonly used in financial accounting, but its primary function is for use by managers to facilitate their decision-making.

Origins of cost accounting

All types of businesses, whether manufacturing, trading or producing services, require cost accounting to track their activities. Cost accounting has long been used to help managers understand the costs of running a business. Modern cost accounting originated during the industrial revolution when the complexities of running large scale businesses led to the development of systems for recording and tracking costs to help business owners and managers make decisions. Various techniques used by cost accountants include standard costing and variance analysis, marginal costing and cost volume profit analysis, budgetary control, uniform costing, inter firm comparison, etc. Evaluation of cost accounting is mainly due to the limitations of financial accounting. Moreover, maintenance of cost records has been made compulsory in selected industries as notified by the government from time to time.

In the early industrial age most of the costs incurred by a business were what modern accountants call "variable costs" because they varied directly with the amount of production. Money was spent on labour, raw materials, the power to run a factory, etc., in direct proportion to production. Managers could simply total the variable costs for a product and use this as a rough guide for decision-making processes.

Some costs tend to remain the same even during busy periods, unlike variable costs, which rise and fall with volume of work. Over time, these "fixed costs" have become more important to managers. Examples of fixed costs include the depreciation of plant and equipment, and the cost of departments such as maintenance, tooling, production control, purchasing, quality control, storage and handling, plant supervision and engineering.

In the early nineteenth century, these costs were of little importance to most businesses. However, with the growth of railroads, steel and large scale manufacturing, by the late nineteenth century these costs were often more important than the variable cost of a product, and allocating them to a broad range of products led to bad decision making[citation needed]. Managers must understand fixed costs in order to make decisions about products and pricing.

For example: A company produced railway coaches and had only one product. To make each coach, the company needed to purchase $60 of raw materials and components and pay 6 labourers $40 each. Therefore, the total variable cost for each coach was $300. Knowing that making a coach required spending $300, managers knew they could not sell below that price without losing money on each coach. Any price above $300 would make a contribution to the fixed costs of the company. If the fixed costs were, say, $1000 per month for rent, insurance and owner's salary, the company could therefore sell 5 coaches per month for a total of $3000 (priced at $600 each), or 10 coaches for a total of $4500 (priced at $450 each), and make a profit of $500 in each case.


It appears to me that if one wants to make progress in mathematics, one should study the masters and not the pupils. - Niels Henrik Abel.

Nothing is better than reading and gaining more and more knowledge - Stephen William Hawking.


#2035 2024-01-21 00:04:47

Jai Ganesh
Registered: 2005-06-28
Posts: 46,201

Re: Miscellany

2037) E-mail


E-mail are messages transmitted and received by digital computers through a network. An e-mail system allows computer users on a network to send text, graphics, sounds, and animated images to other users. The "at sign" (@) in the middle of an email address, separating the name of the emailer from the domain name of the hosting terminal, is now one of the most popularly used and immediately recognizable symbols in the world.

On most networks, data can be simultaneously sent to a universe of users or to a select group or individual. Network users typically have an electronic mailbox that receives, stores, and manages their correspondence. Recipients can elect to view, print, save, edit, answer, forward, or otherwise react to communications. Many e-mail systems have advanced features that alert users to incoming messages or permit them to employ special privacy features. Large corporations and institutions use e-mail systems as an important communication link between employees and other people allowed on their networks. E-mail is also available on major public online and bulletin board systems, many of which maintain free or low-cost global communication networks.


Email (electronic mail) is the exchange of computer-stored messages from one user to one or more recipients via the internet. Emails are a fast, inexpensive and accessible way to communicate for business or personal use. Users can send emails from anywhere as long as they have an internet connection, which is typically provided by an internet service provider.

Email is exchanged across computer networks, primarily the internet, but it can also be exchanged between both public and private networks, such as a local area network. Email can be distributed to lists of people as well as to individuals. A shared distribution list can be managed using an email reflector. Some mailing lists enable users to subscribe by sending a request to the mailing list administrator. A mailing list that's administered automatically is called a list server.

The TCP/IP suite of protocols provides a flexible email system that's built on basic protocols, including Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) for sending mail, and Post Office Protocol 3 (POP3) for receiving mail. Alternatively, the Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) can be used for receiving mail, as it enables access to email from any device, anywhere. With POP3, the email message is downloaded from the email service and stored on the requesting device and can only be accessed using the same device.

Email messages are usually encoded in American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) format. However, users can also send non-text files -- such as graphic images and sound files -- as file attachments. Email was one of the first activities performed over the internet and is still the most popular use. A large percentage of the total traffic over the internet is email.


Electronic mail, commonly shortened to “email,” is a communication method that uses electronic devices to deliver messages across computer networks. "Email" refers to both the delivery system and individual messages that are sent and received.

Email has existed in some form since the 1970s, when programmer Ray Tomlinson created a way to transmit messages between computer systems on the Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET). Modern forms of email became available for widespread public use with the development of email client software (e.g. Outlook) and web browsers, the latter of which enables users to send and receive messages over the Internet using web-based email clients (e.g. Gmail).

Today, email is one of the most popular methods of digital communication. Its prevalence and security vulnerabilities also make it an appealing vehicle for cyber attacks like phishing, domain spoofing, and business email compromise (BEC).

How does email work?

Email messages are sent from software programs and web browsers, collectively referred to as email ‘clients.’ Individual messages are routed through multiple servers before they reach the recipient’s email server, similar to the way a traditional letter might travel through several post offices before it reaches its recipient’s mailbox.

Once an email message has been sent, it follows several steps to its final destination:

* The sender’s mail server, also called a Mail Transfer Agent (MTA), initiates a Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) connection.
* The SMTP checks the email envelope data — the text that tells the server where to send a message — for the recipient’s email address, then uses the Domain Name System (DNS) to translate the domain name into an IP address.
* The SMTP looks for a mail exchange (MX) server associated with the recipient’s domain name. If one exists, the email is forwarded to the recipient’s mail server.
* The email is stored on the recipient’s mail server and may be accessed via the Post Office Protocol (POP)* or Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP). These two protocols function slightly differently: POP downloads the email to the recipient’s device and deletes it from the mail server, while IMAP stores the email within the email client, allowing the recipient to access it from any connected device.

To continue the postal system analogy, imagine Alice writes a thank-you note to Bob. She hands the letter to the mail carrier (MTA), who brings it to the post office to be sorted. At the post office, a processing clerk (SMTP) verifies the address written on the envelope. If the address appears to be written correctly and corresponds to a location that can receive mail (MX server), another mail carrier delivers the letter to Bob’s mailbox. After picking up the mail, Bob might keep the note in his desk drawer, where he can only access it at that location (POP) or put it in his pocket to read at any location (IMAP).

The current version of the POP protocol is named POP3.

What are the parts of an email?

An individual email is made up of three primary components: the SMTP envelope, the header, and the body.

SMTP envelope

The SMTP “envelope” is the data communicated between servers during the email delivery process. It consists of the sender’s email address and the recipient’s email address. This envelope data tells the mail server where to send the message, just as a mail carrier references the address on an envelope in order to deliver a letter to the correct location. During the email delivery process, this envelope is discarded and replaced every time the email is transferred to a different server.


Like the SMTP envelope, the email header provides critical information about the sender and recipient. Most of the time, the header matches the information provided in the SMTP envelope, but this may not always be the case. For instance, a scammer may disguise the source of a message by using a legitimate email address in the header of an email. Because the recipient only sees the header and body of an email — not the envelope data — they may not know the message is malicious.

The header may also contain a number of optional fields that allow the recipient to reply to, forward, categorize, archive, or delete the email. Other header fields include the following:

* The ‘Date’ field contains the date the email is sent. This is a mandatory header field.
* The ‘From’ field contains the email address of the sender. If the email address is associated with a display name, that may be shown in this field as well. This is also a mandatory header field.
* The ‘To’ field contains the email address of the recipient. If the email address is associated with a display name, that may be shown in this field as well.
* The ‘Subject’ field contains any contextual information about the message the sender wants to include. It is displayed as a separate line above the body of an email.
* The ‘Cc’ (carbon copy) field allows the sender to send a copy of the email to additional recipients. The recipients marked in the ‘To’ field can see the email address(es) listed in the ‘Cc’ field.
* The ‘Bcc’ (blind carbon copy) field allows the sender to send a copy of the email to additional recipients. The recipients marked in the ‘To’ field cannot see the email address(es) listed in the ‘Bcc’ field.


The body of an email contains any information the sender wishes to send: text, images, links, videos, and/or other file attachments, provided that they do not exceed the email client’s size restrictions. Alternatively, an email can be sent without any information in the body field.

Depending on the options provided by the email client, the body of an email can be formatted in plain text or HTML. Plain text emails do not contain any special formatting (like non-black font colors) or multimedia (like images). They are compatible with all devices and email clients. HTML emails do allow formatting and multimedia within the body field, though some HTML elements may get flagged as spam by email filtering systems or may not display properly on incompatible devices or clients.

What is an email client?

An email client is a software program or web application* that enables users to send, receive, and store emails. Popular email clients include Outlook, Gmail, and Apple Mail.

Software- and web-based email clients each have advantages and disadvantages. Desktop email clients often come with more robust security capabilities, streamline email management across multiple accounts, provide offline access, and allow users to back up emails to their computers. By contrast, web-based clients are usually cheaper and easier to access — since users can log in to their account from any web browser — but are reliant on an Internet connection and can be more susceptible to cyber attacks.

Originally, ‘email’ referred to desktop email clients and ‘webmail’ referred to web-based email clients. Today, the term ‘email’ encompasses both systems.

What is an email address?

An email address is a unique string of characters that identifies an email account, or ‘mailbox,’ where messages can be sent and received. Email addresses are formatted in three distinct parts: a local-part, an “@” symbol, and a domain.

For example, in the email address, “employee” denotes the local-part and “” denotes the domain.

Imagine addressing a letter: the domain signifies the city where the recipient lives, while the local-part specifies the street and house number at which the letter can be received.


The local-part tells the server the final location of an email message. It may include a combination of letters, numbers, and certain punctuation marks (like underscores). The maximum number of characters for an email address (including both the local-part and domain) is 320, though the recommended length is capped at 254 characters.


The domain may be a domain name, like, or an IP address, like In the former case, the SMTP protocol uses DNS to translate a domain name into its IP address before delivering the message to the next server.

Like the local-part, the domain also has to adhere to certain formatting requirements established by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). Approved domain names may include a combination of uppercase and lowercase letters, numbers, and hyphens. An email address can also be formatted with an IP address in brackets instead of a domain name, although this is rare. The character limit for a domain name is 63.

Is email secure?

Although email is often used to exchange confidential information, it is not a secure system by design. This makes it an attractive target for attackers, who may intercept an unencrypted message, spread malware, or impersonate legitimate organizations. Other email security threats include social engineering, domain spoofing, ransomware, spam, and more.

One of email’s most significant vulnerabilities is its lack of built-in encryption, leaving the contents of an email visible to any unauthorized party that might intercept or otherwise gain access to the message.

In an attempt to make email more secure, many email clients offer one of two basic encryption capabilities: Transport Layer Security encryption (or ‘TLS encryption’) and end-to-end encryption (or 'E2EE'). During TLS encryption, messages are encrypted during transit (from user to server or server to user), and the email service provider retains possession of the private key used to set up this encryption. The email service provider can therefore see the unencrypted contents of the email. During end-to-end encryption (from user to user), messages can only be decrypted by the sender and recipient of the email.

How does Cloudflare help secure email?

Cloudflare Area 1 Email Security is a cloud-based email security solution that helps prevent a number of email threats, including phishing, malware, Business Email Compromise (BEC), and email supply chain attacks. It uses robust machine learning models to identify risks before they reach user inboxes, and integrates with common cloud email providers to enhance existing detection and mitigation capabilities.

Additional Information

Electronic mail (email or e-mail) is a method of transmitting and receiving messages using electronic devices. It was conceived in the late–20th century as the digital version of, or counterpart to, mail. Email is a ubiquitous and very widely used communication medium; in current use, an email address is often treated as a basic and necessary part of many processes in business, commerce, government, education, entertainment, and other spheres of daily life in most countries.

Email operates across computer networks, primarily the Internet, and also local area networks. Today's email systems are based on a store-and-forward model. Email servers accept, forward, deliver, and store messages. Neither the users nor their computers are required to be online simultaneously; they need to connect, typically to a mail server or a webmail interface to send or receive messages or download it.

Originally an ASCII text-only communications medium, Internet email was extended by Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) to carry text in other character sets and multimedia content attachments. International email, with internationalized email addresses using UTF-8, is standardized but not widely adopted.


The term electronic mail has been in use with its modern meaning since 1975, and variations of the shorter E-mail have been in use since 1979:

* email is now the common form, and recommended by style guides. It is the form required by IETF Requests for Comments (RFC) and working groups. This spelling also appears in most dictionaries.
* e-mail is the form favored in edited published American English and British English writing as reflected in the Corpus of Contemporary American English data, but is falling out of favor in some style guides.
* E-mail is sometimes used. The original usage in June 1979 occurred in the journal Electronics in reference to the United States Postal Service initiative called E-COM, which was developed in the late 1970s and operated in the early 1980s.
* Email is also used.
* EMAIL was used by CompuServe starting in April 1981, which popularized the term.
* EMail is a traditional form used in RFCs for the "Author's Address".

The service is often simply referred to as mail, and a single piece of electronic mail is called a message. The conventions for fields within emails—the "To", "From", "CC", "BCC" etc.—began with RFC-680 in 1975.

An Internet email consists of an envelope and content; the content consists of a header and a body.


It appears to me that if one wants to make progress in mathematics, one should study the masters and not the pupils. - Niels Henrik Abel.

Nothing is better than reading and gaining more and more knowledge - Stephen William Hawking.


#2036 2024-01-22 00:03:22

Jai Ganesh
Registered: 2005-06-28
Posts: 46,201

Re: Miscellany

2038) Website


A website is a group of World Wide Web pages usually containing hyperlinks to each other and made available online by an individual, company, educational institution, government, or organization.


A Website is a collection of files and related resources accessible through the World Wide Web and the Internet via a domain name. Organized around a "homepage" (or "landing page"), it is one of the foremost vehicles for mass communication and mass media.

Typical files found at a website are HTML documents with their associated graphic image files (GIF, JPEG, etc.), scripted programs (in Perl, PHP, Java, etc.), and similar resources. The site’s files are usually accessed through hypertext or hyperlinks embedded in other files. A website may consist of a single HTML file, or it may comprise hundreds or thousands of related files. A website’s usual starting point or opening page, called a home page, usually functions as a table of contents or index, with links to other sections of the site. Websites are hosted on one or more Web servers, which transfer files to client computers or other servers that request them using the HTTP protocol. Many websites are made with content management systems like WordPress. Although the term site implies a single physical location, the files and resources of a website may actually be spread among several servers in different geographic locations. The particular file desired by a client is specified by a URL that is either typed into a browser or accessed by selecting a hyperlink.


A website (also written as a web site) is a collection of web pages and related content that is identified by a common domain name and published on at least one web server. Websites are typically dedicated to a particular topic or purpose, such as news, education, commerce, entertainment or social networking. Hyperlinking between web pages guides the navigation of the site, which often starts with a home page. As of May 2023, the top 5 most visited websites are Google Search, YouTube, Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram.

All publicly accessible websites collectively constitute the World Wide Web. There are also private websites that can only be accessed on a private network, such as a company's internal website for its employees. Users can access websites on a range of devices, including desktops, laptops, tablets, and smartphones. The app used on these devices is called a web browser.


The World Wide Web (WWW) was created in 1989 by the British CERN computer scientist Tim Berners-Lee. On 30 April 1993, CERN announced that the World Wide Web would be free to use for anyone, contributing to the immense growth of the Web. Before the introduction of the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP), other protocols such as File Transfer Protocol and the gopher protocol were used to retrieve individual files from a server. These protocols offer a simple directory structure in which the user navigates and where they choose files to download. Documents were most often presented as plain text files without formatting or were encoded in word processor formats.


While "web site" was the original spelling (sometimes capitalized "Web site", since "Web" is a proper noun when referring to the World Wide Web), this variant has become rarely used, and "website" has become the standard spelling. All major style guides, such as The Chicago Manual of Style and the AP Stylebook, have reflected this change.

In February 2009, Netcraft, an Internet monitoring company that has tracked Web growth since 1995, reported that there were 215,675,903 websites with domain names and content on them in 2009, compared to just 19,732 websites in August 1995. After reaching 1 billion websites in September 2014, a milestone confirmed by Netcraft in its October 2014 Web Server Survey and that Internet Live Stats was the first to announce—as attested by this tweet from the inventor of the World Wide Web himself, Tim Berners-Lee—the number of websites in the world have subsequently declined, reverting to a level below 1 billion. This is due to the monthly fluctuations in the count of inactive websites. The number of websites continued growing to over 1 billion by March 2016 and has continued growing since. Netcraft Web Server Survey in January 2020 reported that there are 1,295,973,827 websites and in April 2021 reported that there are 1,212,139,815 sites across 10,939,637 web-facing computers, and 264,469,666 unique domains. An estimated 85 percent of all websites are inactive.

Static website

A static website is one that has Web pages stored on the server in the format that is sent to a client Web browser. It is primarily coded in Hypertext Markup Language (HTML); Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) are used to control appearance beyond basic HTML. Images are commonly used to create the desired appearance and as part of the main content. Audio or video might also be considered "static" content if it plays automatically or is generally non-interactive. This type of website usually displays the same information to all visitors. Similar to handing out a printed brochure to customers or clients, a static website will generally provide consistent, standard information for an extended period of time. Although the website owner may make updates periodically, it is a manual process to edit the text, photos, and other content and may require basic website design skills and software. Simple forms or marketing examples of websites, such as a classic website, a five-page website or a brochure website are often static websites, because they present pre-defined, static information to the user. This may include information about a company and its products and services through text, photos, animations, audio/video, and navigation menus.

Static websites may still use server side includes (SSI) as an editing convenience, such as sharing a common menu bar across many pages. As the site's behavior to the reader is still static, this is not considered a dynamic site.

Dynamic website

A dynamic website is one that changes or customizes itself frequently and automatically. Server-side dynamic pages are generated "on the fly" by computer code that produces the HTML (CSS are responsible for appearance and thus, are static files). There are a wide range of software systems, such as CGI, Java Servlets and Java Server Pages (JSP), Active Server Pages and ColdFusion (CFML) that are available to generate dynamic Web systems and dynamic sites. Various Web application frameworks and Web template systems are available for general-use programming languages like Perl, PHP, Python and Ruby to make it faster and easier to create complex dynamic websites.

A site can display the current state of a dialogue between users, monitor a changing situation, or provide information in some way personalized to the requirements of the individual user. For example, when the front page of a news site is requested, the code running on the webserver might combine stored HTML fragments with news stories retrieved from a database or another website via RSS to produce a page that includes the latest information. Dynamic sites can be interactive by using HTML forms, storing and reading back browser cookies, or by creating a series of pages that reflect the previous history of clicks. Another example of dynamic content is when a retail website with a database of media products allows a user to input a search request, e.g. for the keyword Beatles. In response, the content of the Web page will spontaneously change the way it looked before, and will then display a list of Beatles products like CDs, DVDs, and books. Dynamic HTML uses JavaScript code to instruct the Web browser how to interactively modify the page contents. One way to simulate a certain type of dynamic website while avoiding the performance loss of initiating the dynamic engine on a per-user or per-connection basis is to periodically automatically regenerate a large series of static pages.

Multimedia and interactive content

Early websites had only text, and soon after, images. Web browser plug-ins were then used to add audio, video, and interactivity (such as for a rich Web application that mirrors the complexity of a desktop application like a word processor). Examples of such plug-ins are Microsoft Silverlight, Adobe Flash Player, Adobe Shockwave Player, and Java SE. HTML 5 includes provisions for audio and video without plugins. JavaScript is also built into most modern web browsers, and allows for website creators to send code to the web browser that instructs it how to interactively modify page content and communicate with the web server if needed. The browser's internal representation of the content is known as the Document Object Model (DOM).

WebGL (Web Graphics Library) is a modern JavaScript API for rendering interactive 3D graphics without the use of plug-ins. It allows interactive content such as 3D animations, visualizations and video explainers to presented users in the most intuitive way.

A 2010-era trend in websites called "responsive design" has given the best viewing experience as it provides a device-based layout for users. These websites change their layout according to the device or mobile platform, thus giving a rich user experience.


Websites can be divided into two broad categories—static and interactive. Interactive sites are part of the Web 2.0 community of sites and allow for interactivity between the site owner and site visitors or users. Static sites serve or capture information but do not allow engagement with the audience or users directly. Some websites are informational or produced by enthusiasts or for personal use or entertainment. Many websites do aim to make money using one or more business models, including:

* Posting interesting content and selling contextual advertising either through direct sales or through an advertising network.
* E-commerce: products or services are purchased directly through the website
* Advertising products or services available at a brick-and-mortar business
* Freemium: basic content is available for free, but premium content requires a payment (e.g., WordPress website, it is an open-source platform to build a blog or website).
* Some websites require user registration or subscription to access the content. Examples of subscription websites include many business sites, news websites, academic journal websites, gaming websites, file-sharing websites, message boards, Web-based email, social networking websites, websites providing real-time stock market data, as well as sites providing various other services.


It appears to me that if one wants to make progress in mathematics, one should study the masters and not the pupils. - Niels Henrik Abel.

Nothing is better than reading and gaining more and more knowledge - Stephen William Hawking.


#2037 2024-01-23 00:22:39

Jai Ganesh
Registered: 2005-06-28
Posts: 46,201

Re: Miscellany

2039) Sound Engineering


What does a sound engineer do?

Audio engineers are responsible for capturing, mixing, or reproducing sound using electronic audio equipment. The field is broad, since it's applied to music, television, film, and other media channels. Audio engineers could work in many different settings and with several types of artists or clients.

Sound engineers operate, assemble and maintain sound equipment used for radio, television, theatre and live concerts. Sound Engineers develop a first-rate recording of music, talk and sound effects in studios. Sound engineer uses specific instruments to convey sound for film, radio, TV.


Audio engineers are sometimes called sound technicians. While there are many different types of audio engineers, such as live venue sound engineers, video game sound designers, and studio recording engineers, they all have one thing in common: They’re accustomed to using audio engineering programs. Whether you’re working on a live event, a movie soundtrack, or an artist's latest album, you’ll use your technical skills to ensure that everything sounds as good as possible. 

Audio engineering may be a good career for you if you love working with technology and working on creative projects. It requires you to be detail-oriented and able to work well under pressure, while also being innovative and adventurous.

What is audio engineering?

Audio engineering is a profession that involves the scientific, aesthetic, and technological aspects of manipulating, recording, and reproducing audio. It’s the process of applying electronic, digital, acoustic, and electrical principles to the recording and production of music, voices, and sounds.

Popular audio engineering techniques

As a music producer, making something sound fantastic often means using audio engineering techniques. Here are some popular techniques you'll learn in audio engineering that you can use in your productions:

* Mastering: The process of getting the final mix (or master) ready for distribution.

* Ducking: A technique used to reduce the volume of one sound in response to the presence of another sound, often used for background music and voice-overs.

* EQ Matching: The process of matching the tonal characteristics of one sound source with another sound source

* Mix Bus Compression: Using compression on the mix bus (the main fader) in order to glue together the various elements of your mix

* Sidechaining: Lowering the level of one signal in response to another signal

* Compression: An audio processing technique designed to reduce the dynamic range of a signal by lowering its loudest parts while bringing up its quietest parts

* Reverb: A type of audio effect that simulates an acoustic environment, producing reflections and reverberations to create the illusion of space within a track or recording

What do audio engineers do?

Audio engineers are responsible for capturing, mixing, or reproducing sound using electronic audio equipment. The field is broad, since it’s applied to music, television, film, and other media channels.

Audio engineers could work in many different settings and with several types of artists or clients. While most audio engineers work in music recording studios, you can also find work in other areas such as:

* Film production (sound effects and tracks)
* Movie theaters (sound designers)
* Broadcasting (audio production)
* Colleges and universities (teaching audio engineering
* Live theater (audio playback and live sound management).

As an audio engineer, you may have the following duties:

* Recording: Recording sound or capturing audio data is the first step in creating a finished piece of music or other audio.
* Editing: You’ll use computer software to edit and manipulate recorded sounds. You’ll combine these sounds with effects like reverb, delay, or distortion to make them fit for the intended purpose, such as movie soundtracks or commercial jingles.
* Mixing: You’ll use mixing techniques, such as equalization (EQ) and compression to alter the timbre of an instrument, voice, or track. You also may use dynamics processing, such as gating or limiting, to control volume levels within an audio track.
* Mastering: Mastering is a process used by many musicians and audio engineers to ensure tracks are compatible in various media formats for commercial distribution. Mastering also encompasses other technical aspects, such as creating tracks that will sound good on various playback systems, such as car stereos, home stereos, laptops, and portable devices.

Audio engineers can specialize in certain types of media productions, like music, film, TV, or radio broadcasting. You may want to gain proficiency  with specific types of equipment and software to succeed as an audio engineer. For example, if you're an audio engineer working in radio broadcasting, you'll need to learn to use computer hardware and software for editing and broadcast automation.

As an audio engineer working in live sound systems, you’ll know how to manipulate sound using equalizers and other control devices to create quality sound output from loudspeakers to reach throughout the venue.


An audio engineer (also known as a sound engineer or recording engineer) helps to produce a recording or a live performance, balancing and adjusting sound sources using equalization, dynamics processing and audio effects, mixing, reproduction, and reinforcement of sound. Audio engineers work on the "technical aspect of recording—the placing of microphones, pre-amp knobs, the setting of levels. The physical recording of any project is done by an engineer... the nuts and bolts."

Sound engineering is increasingly seen as a creative profession where musical instruments and technology are used to produce sound for film, radio, television, music and video games. Audio engineers also set up, sound check and do live sound mixing using a mixing console and a sound reinforcement system for music concerts, theatre, sports games and corporate events.

Alternatively, audio engineer can refer to a scientist or professional engineer who holds an engineering degree and who designs, develops and builds audio or musical technology working under terms such as acoustical engineering, electronic/electrical engineering or (musical) signal processing.

Research and development

Research and development audio engineers invent new technologies, audio software, equipment and techniques, to enhance the process and art of audio engineering. They might design acoustical simulations of rooms, shape algorithms for audio signal processing, specify the requirements for public address systems, carry out research on audible sound for video game console manufacturers, and other advanced fields of audio engineering. They might also be referred to as acoustic engineers.


Audio engineers working in research and development may come from backgrounds such as acoustics, computer science, broadcast engineering, physics, acoustical engineering, electrical engineering and electronics. Audio engineering courses at university or college fall into two rough categories: (i) training in the creative use of audio as a sound engineer, and (ii) training in science or engineering topics, which then allows students to apply these concepts while pursuing a career developing audio technologies. Audio training courses provide knowledge of technologies and their application to recording studios and sound reinforcement systems, but do not have sufficient mathematical and scientific content to allow someone to obtain employment in research and development in the audio and acoustic industry.

Audio engineers in research and development usually possess a bachelor's degree, master's degree or higher qualification in acoustics, physics, computer science or another engineering discipline. They might work in acoustic consultancy, specializing in architectural acoustics. Alternatively they might work in audio companies (e.g. headphone manufacturer), or other industries that need audio expertise (e.g., automobile manufacturer), or carry out research in a university. Some positions, such as faculty (academic staff) require a Doctor of Philosophy. In Germany a Toningenieur is an audio engineer who designs, builds and repairs audio systems.


The listed subdisciplines are based on PACS (Physics and Astronomy Classification Scheme) coding used by the Acoustical Society of America with some revision.

Audio signal processing

Audio engineers develop audio signal processing algorithms to allow the electronic manipulation of audio signals. These can be processed at the heart of much audio production such as reverberation, Auto-Tune or perceptual coding (e.g. MP3 or Opus). Alternatively, the algorithms might perform echo cancellation, or identify and categorize audio content through music information retrieval or acoustic fingerprint.

Architectural acoustics

Architectural acoustics is the science and engineering of achieving a good sound within a room. For audio engineers, architectural acoustics can be about achieving good speech intelligibility in a stadium or enhancing the quality of music in a theatre. Architectural Acoustic design is usually done by acoustic consultants.


Electroacoustics is concerned with the design of headphones, microphones, loudspeakers, sound reproduction systems and recording technologies. Examples of electroacoustic design include portable electronic devices (e.g. mobile phones, portable media players, and tablet computers), sound systems in architectural acoustics, surround sound and wave field synthesis in movie theater and vehicle audio.

Musical acoustics

Musical acoustics is concerned with researching and describing the science of music. In audio engineering, this includes the design of electronic instruments such as synthesizers; the human voice (the physics and neurophysiology of singing); physical modeling of musical instruments; room acoustics of concert venues; music information retrieval; music therapy, and the perception and cognition of music.


Psychoacoustics is the scientific study of how humans respond to what they hear. At the heart of audio engineering are listeners who are the final arbitrator as to whether an audio design is successful, such as whether a binaural recording sounds immersive.


The production, computer processing and perception of speech is an important part of audio engineering. Ensuring speech is transmitted intelligibly, efficiently and with high quality; in rooms, through public address systems and through mobile telephone systems are important areas of study.

A variety of terms are used to describe audio engineers who install or operate sound recording, sound reinforcement, or sound broadcasting equipment, including large and small format consoles. Terms such as "audio technician", "sound technician", "audio engineer", "audio technologist", "recording engineer", "sound mixer", "mixing engineer" and "sound engineer" can be ambiguous; depending on the context they may be synonymous, or they may refer to different roles in audio production. Such terms can refer to a person working in sound and music production; for instance, a "sound engineer" or "recording engineer" is commonly listed in the credits of commercial music recordings (as well as in other productions that include sound, such as movies). These titles can also refer to technicians who maintain professional audio equipment. Certain jurisdictions specifically prohibit the use of the title engineer to any individual not a registered member of a professional engineering licensing body.

In the recording studio environment, a sound engineer records, edits, manipulates, mixes, or masters sound by technical means to realize the creative vision of the artist and record producer. While usually associated with music production, an audio engineer deals with sound for a wide range of applications, including post-production for video and film, live sound reinforcement, advertising, multimedia, and broadcasting. In larger productions, an audio engineer is responsible for the technical aspects of a sound recording or other audio production, and works together with a record producer or director, although the engineer's role may also be integrated with that of the producer. In smaller productions and studios the sound engineer and producer are often the same person.

In typical sound reinforcement applications, audio engineers often assume the role of producer, making artistic and technical decisions, and sometimes even scheduling and budget decisions.

Education and training

Audio engineers come from backgrounds or postsecondary training in fields such as audio, fine arts, broadcasting, music, or electrical engineering. Training in audio engineering and sound recording is offered by colleges and universities. Some audio engineers are autodidacts with no formal training, but who have attained professional skills in audio through extensive on-the-job experience.

Audio engineers must have extensive knowledge of audio engineering principles and techniques. For instance, they must understand how audio signals travel, which equipment to use and when, how to mic different instruments and amplifiers, which microphones to use and how to position them to get the best quality recordings. In addition to technical knowledge, an audio engineer must have the ability to problem-solve quickly. The best audio engineers also have a high degree of creativity that allows them to stand out amongst their peers. In the music realm, an audio engineer must also understand the types of sounds and tones that are expected in musical ensembles across different genres—rock and pop music, for example. This knowledge of musical style is typically learned from years of experience listening to and mixing music in recording or live sound contexts. For education and training, there are audio engineering schools all over the world.

Role of women

According to Women's Audio Mission (WAM), a nonprofit organization based in San Francisco dedicated to the advancement of women in music production and the recording arts, less than 5% of the people working in the field of sound and media are women. "Only three women have ever been nominated for best producer at the Brits or the Grammys" and none won either award. According to Susan Rogers, audio engineer and professor at Berklee College of Music, women interested in becoming an audio engineer face "a boys' club, or a guild mentality". The UK "Music Producers' Guild says less than 4% of its members are women" and at the Liverpool Institute of Performing Arts, "only 6% of the students enrolled on its sound technology course are female."

Women's Audio Mission was started in 2003 to address the lack of women in professional audio by training over 6,000 women and girls in the recording arts and is the only professional recording studio built and run by women. Notable recording projects include the Grammy Award-winning Kronos Quartet, Angelique Kidjo (2014 Grammy winner), author Salman Rushdie, the Academy Award-nominated soundtrack to "Dirty Wars", Van-Ahn Vo (NPR's top 50 albums of 2013), Grammy-nominated St. Lawrence Quartet, and world music artists Tanya Tagaq and Wu Man.

There certainly are efforts to chronicle women's role and history in audio. Leslie Gaston-Bird wrote Women in Audio, which includes 100 profiles of women in audio through history. Sound Girls is an organization focused on the next generation of women in audio, but also has been building up resources and directories of women in audio. Women in Sound is another organization that has been working to highlight women and nonbinary people in all areas of live and recorded sound through an online zine and podcast featuring interviews of current audio engineers and producers.


It appears to me that if one wants to make progress in mathematics, one should study the masters and not the pupils. - Niels Henrik Abel.

Nothing is better than reading and gaining more and more knowledge - Stephen William Hawking.


#2038 2024-01-24 00:02:59

Jai Ganesh
Registered: 2005-06-28
Posts: 46,201

Re: Miscellany

2040) Industrialist


An industrialist one owning or engaged in the management of an industry.


Industry is a group of productive enterprises or organizations that produce or supply goods, services, or sources of income. In economics, industries are generally classified as primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary; secondary industries are further classified as heavy and light.

Primary industry

This sector of a nation’s economy includes agriculture, forestry, fishing, mining, quarrying, and the extraction of minerals. It may be divided into two categories: genetic industry, including the production of raw materials that may be increased by human intervention in the production process; and extractive industry, including the production of exhaustible raw materials that cannot be augmented through cultivation.

The genetic industries include agriculture, forestry, and livestock management and fishing—all of which are subject to scientific and technological improvement of renewable resources. The extractive industries include the mining of mineral ores, the quarrying of stone, and the extraction of mineral fuels.

Primary industry tends to dominate the economies of undeveloped and developing nations, but as secondary and tertiary industries are developed, its share of the economic output tends to decrease.

Secondary industry

This sector, also called manufacturing industry, (1) takes the raw materials supplied by primary industries and processes them into consumer goods, or (2) further processes goods that other secondary industries have transformed into products, or (3) builds capital goods used to manufacture consumer and nonconsumer goods. Secondary industry also includes energy-producing industries (e.g., hydroelectric industries) as well as the construction industry.

Secondary industry may be divided into heavy, or large-scale, and light, or small-scale, industry. Large-scale industry generally requires heavy capital investment in plants and machinery, serves a large and diverse market including other manufacturing industries, has a complex industrial organization and frequently a skilled specialized labour force, and generates a large volume of output. Examples would include petroleum refining, steel and iron manufacturing (see metalwork), motor vehicle and heavy machinery manufacture, cement production, nonferrous metal refining, meat-packing, and hydroelectric power generation.

Light, or small-scale, industry may be characterized by the nondurability of manufactured products and a smaller capital investment in plants and equipment, and it may involve nonstandard products, such as customized or craft work. The labour force may be either low skilled, as in textile work and clothing manufacture, food processing, and plastics manufacture, or highly skilled, as in electronics and computer hardware manufacture, precision instrument manufacture, gemstone cutting, and craft work.

Tertiary industry

This broad sector, also called the service industry, includes industries that, while producing no tangible goods, provide services or intangible gains or generate wealth. This sector generally includes both private and government enterprises.

The industries of this sector include, among others, banking, finance, insurance, investment, and real estate services; wholesale, retail, and resale trade; transportation; professional, consulting, legal, and personal services; tourism, hotels, restaurants, and entertainment; repair and maintenance services; and health, social welfare, administrative, police, security, and defense services.

Quaternary industry

An extension of tertiary industry that is often recognized as its own sector, quaternary industry, is concerned with information-based or knowledge-oriented products and services. Like the tertiary sector, it comprises a mixture of private and government endeavours. Industries and activities in this sector include information systems and information technology (IT); research and development, including technological development and scientific research; financial and strategic analysis and consulting; media and communications technologies and services; and education, including teaching and educational technologies and services.


A business magnate, also known as an industrialist or tycoon, is a person who has achieved immense wealth through the creation or ownership of multiple lines of enterprise. The term characteristically refers to a powerful entrepreneur and investor who controls, through personal enterprise ownership or a dominant shareholding position, a firm or industry whose goods or services are widely consumed. Such individuals have been known by different terms throughout history, such as robber barons, captains of industry, moguls, oligarchs, plutocrats, or tai-pans.


The term magnate derives from the Latin word magnates (plural of magnas), meaning "great man" or "great nobleman".

The term mogul is an English corruption of mughal, Persian or Arabic for "Mongol". It alludes to emperors of the Mughal Empire in Early Modern India, who possessed great power and storied riches capable of producing wonders of opulence, such as the Taj Mahal.

The term tycoon derives from the Japanese word taikun, which means "great lord", used as a title for the shōgun. The word entered the English language in 1857 with the return of Commodore Perry to the United States. US President Abraham Lincoln was humorously referred to as the Tycoon by his aides John Nicolay and John Hay. The term spread to the business community, where it has been used ever since.


Modern business magnates are entrepreneurs that amass on their own or wield substantial family fortunes in the process of building or running their own businesses. Some are widely known in connection with these entrepreneurial activities, others through highly-visible secondary pursuits such as philanthropy, political fundraising and campaign financing, and sports team ownership or sponsorship.

The terms mogul, tycoon, and baron were often applied to late-19th- and early-20th-century North American business magnates in extractive industries such as mining, logging and petroleum, transportation fields such as shipping and railroads, manufacturing such as automaking and steelmaking, in banking, as well as newspaper publishing. Their dominance was known as the Second Industrial Revolution, the Gilded Age, or the Robber Baron Era.

Examples of business magnates in the western world include historical figures such as oilmen John D. Rockefeller and Fred C. Koch, automobile pioneer Henry Ford, aviation pioneer Howard Hughes, shipping and railroad veterans Aristotle Onassis, Cornelius Vanderbilt, Leland Stanford, Jay Gould and James J. Hill, steel innovator Andrew Carnegie, newspaper publisher William Randolph Hearst, poultry entrepreneur Arthur Perdue, retail merchant Sam Walton, and banker J. P. Morgan. Contemporary industrial tycoons include e-commerce entrepreneur Jeff Bezos, investor Warren Buffett, computer programmers Bill Gates and Paul Allen, technology innovator Steve Jobs, media proprietors Sumner Redstone and Rupert Murdoch, industrial entrepreneur Elon Musk, steel investor Lakshmi Mittal, telecommunications investor Carlos Slim, Virgin Group founder Sir Richard Branson, Formula 1 executive Bernie Ecclestone, and internet entrepreneurs Larry Page and Sergey Brin.

Additional Information

The journey from being a businessperson to becoming an industrialist in a family business involves significant growth, expansion, and transformation. It represents the transition from operating as an individual or small-scale enterprise to becoming a prominent player in the industry. Here’s a typical progression of this journey:

Founding and Early Growth:

The journey often starts with the founding of a small family business by an entrepreneur or a group of family members. The focus at this stage is on establishing a viable business model, identifying market opportunities, and building a customer base. The founder(s) typically handle various aspects of the business, from operations to sales and finance.

Strategic Expansion:

As the family business gains traction and experiences initial success, the focus shifts towards strategic expansion. This involves exploring new markets, diversifying product or service offerings, and expanding the customer base. The business may invest in research and development, acquire new technologies, or form partnerships to drive growth. The objective is to increase market share, establish a strong presence, and gain a competitive edge.


As the family business continues to grow, it reaches a stage where professionalization becomes necessary. This involves introducing formal structures, processes, and systems to enhance efficiency, accountability, and transparency. Professional managers may be brought on board to lead different functions or departments, bringing in external expertise and fresh perspectives. The goal is to establish a more professional and well-organized business operation that can adapt to changing market dynamics.

Scale and Industrialization:

At this stage, the family business moves beyond being a small enterprise and aims to become an industrial powerhouse. The focus is on achieving economies of scale, optimizing production processes, and expanding the business’s manufacturing capabilities. Investments in infrastructure, technology, and talent are made to enhance productivity and competitiveness. The business may establish multiple production facilities, adopt advanced manufacturing techniques, and explore global markets.

Industry Leadership and Influence:

As the family business continues to grow and solidify its position, it may emerge as an industry leader and influencer. It becomes recognized for its expertise, innovation, and impact within the sector. The business may actively participate in industry associations, contribute to policy-making discussions, and shape the direction of the industry through thought leadership. It becomes a respected player, with its actions and decisions having a significant impact on the broader business landscape.

Legacy and Succession:

As the founder(s) approach retirement or exit the business, the focus shifts to ensuring the continuity of the family business. Succession planning becomes crucial to maintain the legacy and values established by the founding generation. The next generation of family members is groomed and prepared to take on leadership roles. A smooth transition is facilitated, ensuring the business’s long-term sustainability and growth.

Throughout this journey, family businesses face challenges and opportunities unique to their nature. Balancing family dynamics with professional management, fostering innovation, and adapting to market disruptions are critical factors for success. By navigating this journey effectively, family businesses can transform from individual entrepreneurs to influential industrialists, leaving a lasting legacy in their industry.


It appears to me that if one wants to make progress in mathematics, one should study the masters and not the pupils. - Niels Henrik Abel.

Nothing is better than reading and gaining more and more knowledge - Stephen William Hawking.


#2039 2024-01-25 00:07:54

Jai Ganesh
Registered: 2005-06-28
Posts: 46,201

Re: Miscellany

2041) Surgeon


In modern medicine, a surgeon is a medical doctor who performs surgery. Although there are different traditions in different times and places, a modern surgeon is also a licensed physician or received the same medical training as physicians before specializing in surgery.

A surgeon is a doctor who specializes in evaluating and treating conditions that may require surgery, or physically changing the human body.

The word surgeon comes from the Greek kheirourgos, which is a fancy way of saying "done by the hand." Whereas a doctor-at-large might treat his patients by chatting with them, asking questions, and prescribing medications, a surgeon's work is much more hands-on, you might say. A surgeon specializes in cutting open the body, usually to heal his patients.


A surgeon is a medical doctor who specializes in performing surgical procedures to diagnose, treat, and manage various medical conditions. Surgeons use their extensive medical knowledge, expertise, and surgical skills to perform operations that can be life-saving or improve a patient's quality of life. They operate on various parts of the body, ranging from internal organs to bones and tissues, to address conditions such as cancer, trauma, congenital anomalies, and chronic diseases.

Surgeons undergo rigorous and specialized training, which typically includes completing a medical degree, followed by several years of residency in surgical specialties. During their training, they gain hands-on experience, learn advanced surgical techniques, and develop the ability to make critical decisions in the operating room. Surgeons work in hospitals, clinics, and surgical centers, collaborating with other healthcare professionals to provide comprehensive patient care. Their dedication to precision, patient safety, and innovative medical advancements has made surgery an indispensable component of modern medicine.

Duties and Responsibilities

Surgeons have a wide range of duties and responsibilities related to performing surgical interventions on patients. Some of their primary responsibilities include:

* Conducting Pre-Operative Assessments: Before performing any surgery, a surgeon must evaluate the patient's medical history and current condition. They may order diagnostic tests and consult with other healthcare professionals to determine the best course of treatment.
* Planning and Performing Surgeries: Surgeons must use their knowledge of anatomy, physiology, and medical techniques to perform surgical procedures. They may work alone or with a team of other medical professionals, including anesthesiologists, nurses, and surgical technicians.
* Post-Operative Care: After surgery, the surgeon is responsible for monitoring the patient's recovery and ensuring that they are receiving appropriate care. They may order follow-up tests or treatments and adjust the patient's medications as needed.
* Communicating with Patients and Families: Surgeons must be able to communicate effectively with patients and their families before, during, and after surgery. They must be able to explain the risks and benefits of the procedure, answer questions, and provide emotional support.
* Continuing Education: As medical science and surgical techniques evolve, surgeons must stay up-to-date with the latest developments in their field. They may attend conferences, participate in research, or pursue additional training to enhance their skills.


Surgery is a branch of medicine that is concerned with the treatment of injuries, diseases, and other disorders by manual and instrumental means. Surgery involves the management of acute injuries and illnesses as differentiated from chronic, slowly progressing diseases, except when patients with the latter type of disease must be operated upon.

A general treatment of surgery follows.


Surgery is as old as humanity, for anyone who has ever stanched a wound has acted as a surgeon. In some ancient civilizations surgery reached a rather high level of development, as in India, China, Egypt, and Hellenistic Greece. In Europe during the Middle Ages, the practice of surgery was not taught in most universities, and ignorant barbers instead wielded the knife, either on their own responsibility or upon being called into cases by physicians. The organization of the United Company of Barber Surgeons of London in 1540 marked the beginning of some control of the qualifications of those who performed operations. This guild was the precursor of the Royal College of Surgeons of England.

In the 18th century, with increasing knowledge of anatomy, such operative procedures as amputations of the extremities, excision of tumours on the surface of the body, and removal of stones from the urinary bladder had helped to firmly establish surgery in the medical curriculum. Accurate anatomical knowledge enabled surgeons to operate more rapidly; patients were sedated with opium or made drunk with alcohol, tied down, and a leg amputation, for example, could then be done in three to five minutes. The pain involved in such procedures, however, continued to limit expansion of the field until the introduction of ether anesthesia in 1846. The number of operations thereafter increased markedly, but only to accentuate the frequency and severity of “surgical infections.”

In the mid-19th century the French microbiologist Louis Pasteur developed an understanding of the relationship of bacteria to infectious diseases, and the application of this theory to wound sepsis by the British surgeon Joseph Lister from 1867 resulted in the technique of antisepsis, which brought about a remarkable reduction in the mortality rate from wound infections after operations. The twin emergence of anesthesia and antisepsis marked the beginning of modern surgery.

Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen’s discovery of X-rays at the turn of the 20th century added an important diagnostic tool to surgery, and the discovery of blood types in 1901 by Austrian biologist Karl Landsteiner made transfusions safer. New techniques of anesthesia involving not only new agents for inhalation but also regional anesthesia accomplished by nerve blocking (spinal and local anesthesia) were also introduced. The use of positive pressure and controlled respiration techniques (to prevent the lung from collapsing when the pleural cavity was opened) made chest surgery practical and relatively safe for the first time. The intravenous administration (injection into the veins) of anesthetic agents was also adopted. In the period from the 1930s to the 1960s, the replenishment of body fluids by intravenous infusion, the introduction of chemicals and antibiotics to fight infection and to treat the metabolically disturbed body, and the development of heart-lung machines helped bring surgery to a state in which every body cavity, system, organ, and area could safely be operated on.

Present-day surgery

Contemporary surgical therapy is greatly helped by monitoring devices that are used during surgery and during the postoperative period. Blood pressure and pulse rate are monitored during an operation because a fall in the former and a rise in the latter give evidence of a critical loss of blood. Other items monitored are the heart contractions as indicated by electrocardiograms; tracings of brain waves recorded by electroencephalograms, which reflect changes in brain function; the oxygen level in arteries and veins; carbon dioxide partial pressure in the circulating blood; and respiratory volume and exchange. Intensive monitoring of the patient usually continues into the critical postoperative stage.

Asepsis, the freedom from contamination by pathogenic organisms, requires that all instruments and dry goods coming in contact with the surgical field be sterilized. This is accomplished by placing the materials in an autoclave, which subjects its contents to a period of steam under pressure. Chemical sterilization of some instruments is also used. The patient’s skin is sterilized by chemicals, and members of the surgical team scrub their hands and forearms with antiseptic or disinfectant soaps. Sterilized gowns, caps, and masks that filter the team’s exhaled air and sterilized gloves of disposable plastic complete the picture. Thereafter, attention to avoiding contact with nonsterilized objects is the basis of maintaining asepsis.

During an operation, hemostasis (the arresting of bleeding) is achieved by use of the hemostat, a clamp with ratchets that grasps blood vessels or tissue; after application of hemostats, suture materials are tied around the bleeding vessels. Absorbent sterile napkins called sponges, made of a variety of natural and synthetic materials, are used for drying the field. Bleeding may also be controlled by electrocautery, the use of an instrument heated with an electric current to cauterize, or burn, vessel tissue. The most commonly used instruments in surgery are still the scalpel (knife), hemostatic forceps, flexible tissue-holding forceps, wound retractors for exposure, crushing and noncrushing clamps for intestinal and vascular surgery, and the curved needle for working in depth.

The most common method of closing wounds is by sutures. There are two basic types of suture materials; absorbable ones such as catgut (which comes from sheep intestine) or synthetic substitutes; and nonabsorbable materials, such as nylon sutures, steel staples, or adhesive tissue tape. Catgut is still used extensively to tie off small blood vessels that are bleeding, and since the body absorbs it over time, no foreign materials are left in the wound to become a focus for disease organisms. Nylon stitches and steel staples are removed when sufficient healing has taken place.

There are three general techniques of wound treatment; primary intention, in which all tissues, including the skin, are closed with suture material after completion of the operation; secondary intention, in which the wound is left open and closes naturally; and third intention, in which the wound is left open for a number of days and then closed if it is found to be clean. The third technique is used in badly contaminated wounds to allow drainage and thus avoid the entrapment of microorganisms. Military surgeons use this technique on wounds contaminated by shell fragments, pieces of clothing, and dirt.

The 20th and 21st centuries witnessed several new surgical technologies to supplement the techniques of manual incision. Lasers became widely used to destroy tumours and other pigmented lesions, some of which are inaccessible by conventional surgery. They are also used to surgically weld detached retinas back in place and to coagulate blood vessels to stop them from bleeding. Stereotaxic surgery uses a three-dimensional system of coordinates obtained by X-ray photography to accurately focus high-intensity radiation, cold, heat, or chemicals on tumours located deep in the brain that could not otherwise be reached. Cryosurgery uses extreme cold to destroy warts and precancerous and cancerous skin lesions and to remove cataracts. Some traditional techniques of open surgery were replaced by the use of a thin flexible fibre-optic tube equipped with a light and a video connection; the tube, or endoscope, is inserted into various bodily passages and provides views of the interior of hollow organs or vessels. Accessories added to the endoscope allow small surgical procedures to be executed inside the body without making a major incision.

Preoperative and postoperative care both have the same object: to restore patients to as near their normal physiologic state as possible. Blood transfusions, intravenous administration of fluids, and the use of measures to prevent common complications such as lung infection and blood clotting in the legs are the principal features of postoperative care.

There are four major categories of surgery: (1) wound treatment, (2) extirpative surgery, (3) reconstructive surgery, and (4) transplantation surgery. The technical aspects of wound surgery, already partly discussed, centre on procuring good healing and the avoidance of infection. Extirpative surgery involves the removal of diseased tissue or organs. Cancer surgery usually falls into this category, with mastectomy (removal of the breast), cholecystectomy (removal of the gallbladder), and hysterectomy (removal of the uterus) among the most frequent procedures. Reconstructive surgery deals with the replacement of lost tissues, whether from fractures, burns, or degenerative-disease processes, and is especially prominent in the practice of plastic surgery and orthopedic surgery. Grafts from the patient or from others are frequently used to replace lost tissues. Reconstructive surgery also uses artificial devices (prostheses) to replace damaged or diseased organs or tissues. Common examples are the use of metal in reconstructing hip joints and the use of plastic valves to replace heart valves. Transplantation surgery involves the use of organs transplanted from other bodies to replace diseased organs in patients. Kidneys are the most commonly transplanted organs.

The major medical specialties involving surgery are general surgery, plastic surgery, orthopedic surgery, obstetrics and gynecology, neurosurgery, thoracic surgery, colon and rectal surgery, otolaryngology, ophthalmology, and urology. General surgery is the parent specialty and now centres on operations involving the stomach, intestines, breast, blood vessels in the extremities, endocrine glands, tumours of soft tissues, and amputations. Plastic surgery is concerned with the bodily surface and with reconstructive work of the face and exposed parts. Orthopedic surgery deals with the bones, tendons, ligaments, and muscles; fractures of the extremities and congenital skeletal defects are common targets of treatment. Obstetricians perform cesarean sections, while gynecologists operate to remove tumours from the uterus and ovaries. Neurosurgeons operate to remove brain tumours, treat injuries to the brain resulting from skull fractures, and treat ruptured intravertebral disks that affect the spinal cord. Thoracic surgeons treat disorders of the lungs; the subspecialty of cardiovascular surgery is concerned with the heart and its major blood vessels and has become a major field of surgical endeavour. Colon and rectal surgery deals with disorders of the large intestine. Otolaryngologic surgery is performed in the area of the ear, nose, and throat (e.g., tonsillectomy), while ophthalmologic surgery deals with disorders of the eyes. Urologic surgery treats diseases of the urinary tract and, in males, of the genital apparatus.

Additional Information

Surgery is a medical specialty that uses manual and/or instrumental techniques to physically reach into a subject's body in order to investigate or treat pathological conditions such as a disease or injury, to alter bodily functions (e.g. bariatric surgery such as gastric bypass), to improve appearance (cosmetic surgery), or to remove/replace unwanted tissues (body fat, glands, scars or skin tags) or foreign bodies. The subject receiving the surgery is typically a person (i.e. a patient), but can also be a non-human animal (i.e. veterinary surgery).

The act of performing surgery may be called a surgical procedure or surgical operation, or simply "surgery" or "operation". In this context, the verb "operate" means to perform surgery. The adjective surgical means pertaining to surgery; e.g. surgical instruments, surgical facility or surgical nurse. Most surgical procedures are performed by a pair of operators: a surgeon who is the main operator performing the surgery, and a surgical assistant who provides in-procedure manual assistance during surgery. Modern surgical operations typically require a surgical team that typically consists of the surgeon, the surgical assistant, an anaesthetist (often also complemented by an anaesthetic nurse), a scrub nurse (who handles sterile equipment), a circulating nurse and a surgical technologist, while procedures that mandate cardiopulmonary bypass will also have a perfusionist. All surgical procedures are considered invasive and often require a period of postoperative care (sometimes intensive care) for the patient to recover from the iatrogenic trauma inflicted by the procedure. The duration of surgery can span from several minutes to tens of hours depending on the specialty, the nature of the condition, the target body parts involved and the circumstance of each procedure, but most surgeries are designed to be one-off interventions that are typically not intended as an ongoing or repeated type of treatment.

In common colloquialism, the term "surgery" can also refer to the facility where surgery is performed, or, in British English, simply the office/clinic of a physician, dentist or veterinarian.


Surgery underway at the Red Cross Hospital in Tampere, Finland during the 1918 Finnish Civil War.
As a general rule, a procedure is considered surgical when it involves cutting of a person's tissues or closure of a previously sustained wound. Other procedures that do not necessarily fall under this rubric, such as angioplasty or endoscopy, may be considered surgery if they involve "common" surgical procedure or settings, such as use of antiseptic measures and sterile fields, sedation/anesthesia, proactive hemostasis, typical surgical instruments, suturing or stapling. All forms of surgery are considered invasive procedures; the so-called "noninvasive surgery" ought to be more appropriately called minimally invasive procedures, which usually refers to a procedure that utilize natural orifices (e.g. most urological procedures) or does not penetrate the structure being excised (e.g. endoscopic polyp excision, rubber band ligation, laser eye surgery) or to a radiosurgical procedure (e.g. irradiation of a tumor).


It appears to me that if one wants to make progress in mathematics, one should study the masters and not the pupils. - Niels Henrik Abel.

Nothing is better than reading and gaining more and more knowledge - Stephen William Hawking.


#2040 2024-01-26 00:07:32

Jai Ganesh
Registered: 2005-06-28
Posts: 46,201

Re: Miscellany

2042) Inventory Management


Inventory management refers to the process of ordering, storing, using, and selling a company's inventory. This includes the management of raw materials, components, and finished products, as well as warehousing and processing of such items.


Inventory management is the supervision of noncapitalized assets -- or inventory -- and stock items. As a component of supply chain management, inventory management supervises the flow of goods from manufacturers to warehouses and from these facilities to point of sale. A key function of inventory management is to keep a detailed record of each new or returned product as it enters or leaves a warehouse or point of sale.

Organizations from small to large businesses can make use of inventory management to track their flow of goods. There are numerous inventory management techniques, and using the right one can lead to providing the correct goods at the correct amount, place and time.

Inventory control is a separate area of inventory management that is concerned with minimizing the total cost of inventory, while maximizing the ability to provide customers with products in a timely manner. In some countries, the two terms are used synonymously.

Why is inventory management important?

Effective inventory management enables businesses to balance the amount of inventory they have coming in and going out. The better a business controls its inventory, the more money it can save in business operations.

A business that has too much stock has overstock. Overstocked businesses have money tied up in inventory, limiting cash flow and potentially creating a budget deficit. This overstocked inventory, which is also called dead stock, will often sit in storage, unable to be sold, and eat into a business's profit margin.

But if a business doesn't have enough inventory, it can negatively affect customer service. Lack of inventory means that a business may lose sales. Telling customers they don't have something, and continually backordering items, can cause customers to take their business elsewhere.

An inventory management system can help businesses strike the balance between being under- and overstocked for optimal efficiency and profitability.


Inventory management, a critical element of the supply chain, is the tracking of inventory from manufacturers to warehouses and from these facilities to a point of sale. The goal of inventory management is to have the right products in the right place at the right time.

Inventory management requires inventory visibility — knowing when to order, how much to order and where to store stock. Multichannel order fulfillment operations typically have inventory spread across many places throughout the supply chain. Businesses need an accurate view of inventory to guarantee fulfillment of customer orders, reduce shipment turnaround times, and minimize stockouts, oversells and markdowns.

How does inventory management work?

The basic steps of inventory management include:

* Purchasing inventory: Ready-to-sell goods are purchased and delivered to the warehouse or directly to the point of sale.
* Storing inventory: Inventory is stored until needed. Goods or materials are transferred across your fulfillment network until ready for shipment.
* Profiting from inventory: The amount of product for sale is controlled. Finished goods are pulled to fulfill orders. Products are shipped to customers.

What is inventory management?

Inventory management, a critical element of the supply chain, is the tracking of inventory from manufacturers to warehouses and from these facilities to a point of sale. The goal of inventory management is to have the right products in the right place at the right time.

Inventory management requires inventory visibility — knowing when to order, how much to order and where to store stock. Multichannel order fulfillment operations typically have inventory spread across many places throughout the supply chain. Businesses need an accurate view of inventory to guarantee fulfillment of customer orders, reduce shipment turnaround times, and minimize stockouts, oversells and markdowns.

What are the types of inventory management?

The periodic inventory system is a method of inventory valuation for financial reporting purposes in which a physical count of the inventory is performed at specific intervals. This accounting method takes inventory at the beginning of a period, adds new inventory purchases during the period and deducts ending inventory to derive the cost of goods sold (COGS).

Barcode inventory management

Businesses use barcode inventory management systems to assign a number to each product they sell. They can associate several data points to the number, including the supplier, product dimensions, weight, and even variable data, such as how many are in stock.

RFID inventory management

RFID or radio frequency identification is a system that wirelessly transmits the identity of a product in the form of a unique serial number to track items and provide detailed product information. The warehouse management system based on RFID can improve efficiency, increase inventory visibility and ensure the rapid self-recording of receiving and delivery.

What is an inventory management system?

Spreadsheets, hand-counted stock levels and manual order placement have largely been replaced by advanced inventory tracking software. An inventory management system can simplify the process of ordering, storing and using inventory by automating end-to-end production, business management, demand forecasting and accounting.

The future of inventory management

Globalization, technology and empowered consumers are changing the way businesses manage inventory. Supply chain operators will use technologies that provide significant insights into how supply chain performance can be improved. They’ll anticipate anomalies in logistics costs and performance before they occur and have insights into where automation can deliver significant scale advantages.

In the future, these technologies will continue to transform inventory management:

Artificial intelligence

Intelligent, self-correcting AI will make inventory monitoring more accurate and reduce material waste.

Internet of Things

Data from IoT sensors will provide insight into inventory location and status.


Disparate parties will be connected through a unified and immutable record of all transactions.

Intelligent order management

Supply chains will master inventory visibility with improved demand forecasting and automation.

Quantum computing

Unprecedented computational power will solve previously unsolvable problems.

Additional Information

Inventory management helps companies identify which and how much stock to order at what time. It tracks inventory from purchase to the sale of goods. The practice identifies and responds to trends to ensure there’s always enough stock to fulfill customer orders and proper warning of a shortage.

Once sold, inventory becomes revenue. Before it sells, inventory (although reported as an asset on the balance sheet) ties up cash. Therefore, too much stock costs money and reduces cash flow.

One measurement of good inventory management is inventory turnover. An accounting measurement, inventory turnover reflects how often stock is sold in a period. A business does not want more stock than sales. Poor inventory turnover can lead to deadstock, or unsold stock.

Why Is Inventory Management Important?

Inventory management is vital to a company’s health because it helps make sure there is rarely too much or too little stock on hand, limiting the risk of stockouts and inaccurate records.

Public companies must track inventory as a requirement for compliance with Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) rules and the Sarbanes-Oxley (SOX) Act. Companies must document their management processes to prove compliance.

Benefits of Inventory Management

The two main benefits of inventory management are that it ensures you’re able to fulfill incoming or open orders and raises profits. Inventory management also:

Saves Money:

Understanding stock trends means you see how much of and where you have something in stock so you’re better able to use the stock you have. This also allows you to keep less stock at each location (store, warehouse), as you’re able to pull from anywhere to fulfill orders — all of this decreases costs tied up in inventory and decreases the amount of stock that goes unsold before it’s obsolete.

Improves Cash Flow:

With proper inventory management, you spend money on inventory that sells, so cash is always moving through the business.

Satisfies Customers:

One element of developing loyal customers is ensuring they receive the items they want without waiting.

Inventory Management Challenges

The primary challenges of inventory management are having too much inventory and not being able to sell it, not having enough inventory to fulfill orders, and not understanding what items you have in inventory and where they’re located. Other obstacles include:

Getting Accurate Stock Details:

If you don’t have accurate stock details,there’s no way to know when to refill stock or which stock moves well.

Poor Processes:

Outdated or manual processes can make work error-prone and slow down operations.

Changing Customer Demand:

Customer tastes and needs change constantly. If your system can’t track trends, how will you know when their preferences change and why?

Using Warehouse Space Well:

Staff wastes time if like products are hard to locate. Mastering inventory management can help eliminate this challenge.

Learn more about the challenges and benefits of inventory management.

What Is Inventory?

Inventory is the raw materials, components and finished goods a company sells or uses in production. Accounting considers inventory an asset. Accountants use the information about stock levels to record the correct valuations on the balance sheet.

Inventory vs. Stock

Inventory is often called stock in retail businesses: Managers frequently use the term “stock on hand” to refer to products like apparel and housewares. Across industries, “inventory” more broadly refers to stored sales goods and raw materials and parts used in production.

Some people also say that the word “stock” is used more commonly in the U.K. to refer to inventory. While there is a difference between the two, the terms inventory and stock are often interchangeable.

What Are the Different Types of Inventory?

There are 12 different types of inventory: raw materials, work-in-progress (WIP), finished goods, decoupling inventory, safety stock, packing materials, cycle inventory, service inventory, transit, theoretical, excess and maintenance, repair and operations (MRO). Some people do not recognize MRO as a type of inventory.


It appears to me that if one wants to make progress in mathematics, one should study the masters and not the pupils. - Niels Henrik Abel.

Nothing is better than reading and gaining more and more knowledge - Stephen William Hawking.


#2041 2024-01-27 00:11:08

Jai Ganesh
Registered: 2005-06-28
Posts: 46,201

Re: Miscellany

2043) Personnel Management


Personnel management is an administrative function within an organization that oversees the hiring, organization and support of employee positions. A branch of human resources, personnel management focuses on recruiting the right individuals to fit a position and supporting those already working for the company.


Whether employees pursue a new job or remain at a company for a long time, personnel management is likely involved. This area of human resources provides assistance for new and experienced staff members. Learning more about the functions of this department can help you understand the important role these professionals fill in an organization. In this article, we explain personnel management and how it can improve business operations.

What is personnel management?

Personnel management is an administrative function within an organization that oversees the hiring, organization and support of employee positions. A branch of human resources, personnel management focuses on recruiting the right individuals to fit a position and supporting those already working for the company. This area also functions as a tool for evaluating the hiring process and gaining insight into employee satisfaction. Personnel management professionals work to provide the resources and tools staff members need to thrive in their work environment every day.

Types of personnel management

Here is an overview of the main types of personnel management used in staffing decisions and employee support operations:


Strategic personnel management focuses on planning how to best support staff members. This includes current and future strategies such as managing turnover rates, determining recruitment policies and maintaining employee satisfaction. Strategic personnel management also aims to provide ongoing training to help employees grow within the organization to encourage longevity and satisfaction in workplace positions.


Tactical personnel management involves administrative planning. This includes determining how to schedule current staff members. It also includes predicting the amount of staff necessary to fill positions in the short and long term. Tactical personnel management focuses on recruiting the most qualified candidates through a specific selection process. This type of management also handles training and onboarding for new employees. It is sometimes organized into three parts of staff resources, including technical, functional and organic.


Operational personnel management refers to the daily functions of human resources in employee relations. Support personnel in HR use operational personnel management to handle the basic needs of new employees like providing equipment and passwords to company technology platforms. This area of personnel management is also involved in organizing how employees receive benefits and ongoing support.

Elements of personnel management

Personnel management can be broken down into several elements as listed below:

* Job analysis: This function of personnel management determines how a position fits into the overall company framework. It's a measure of the role and not the employee.
* Strategic personnel planning: Also called strategic workforce planning, this element involves hiring the most qualified individual to fit a necessary role in an organization. It ensures that hiring processes are consistent, fair and effective.
* Performance appraisals: Identifying how employees are evaluated is the function of this element of personnel management. Using this element, professionals in personnel management decide how often employees are assessed and the methods used to rate employee performance.
* Benefit coordination: Determining the type of benefits employees receive and planning for their distribution is an essential part of personnel management. This element also involves choosing plans such as personal health care benefits.
* Continuing education: To keep staff involved in growing their career and investing in their workplace, personnel management oversees employee development through continuing education. This may include offering seminars, learning lunches or arranging for staff to attend professional conferences.
* Pay and salary distribution: Another part of the operational activities of personnel management staff is to ensure employee payroll functions correctly. It may also involve setting pay scales or job levels.
* Attendance and leave: Managing personnel also means overseeing time off for sick and personal days. This function also involves leaves of absence or short-term disability.

Personnel management objectives

With an overall goal to provide an excellent and stimulating environment for employees, personnel management objectives focus on certain issues in the workplace. Here are the main objectives in personnel management:

Retain staff

Employee turnover is a big concern for many businesses and personnel management works to keep numbers low. Creating a strategic hiring process is one way to minimize high turnover rates. By providing transparent information about job roles and workplace expectations, personnel management teams work to keep staff satisfied from their onboarding and after. Incentives like competitive salary and benefits packages are also ways personnel managers plan to retain employees.

Equip staff

Ensuring staff members have the tools they need to perform their jobs to the best of their ability is a key concern for personnel management team members. Providing relevant continuing education can be an important element to equip staff with resources and knowledge for their roles. Personnel management strives to create a culture of learning where staff members feel they have the necessary training to fulfill their job duties.

Engage staff

Helping staff work more productively is a main goal of personnel management services. Eliminating unnecessary operations to maximize workflow is another area personnel management professionals strategize to improve. Engaging employees through other opportunities like social activities can also encourage staff engagement.

Benefits of personnel management

Personnel management can provide an advantage for employers and employees. Here are the main benefits of using personnel management strategies in any organization:

* Puts the employee first: When an organization focuses on personnel management, the employee is considered the most important aspect of the company. This becomes an important part of a brand's image to prospective and current employees.
* Improves staff morale: Working for an organization that prioritizes employee support can create a positive environment where staff members feel valued. This can also affect their work output and longevity with a company.
* Encourages employee development: Emphasizing professional development and training creates a stronger workforce with employees who are able to meet challenges and find solutions based on increased knowledge of their industry.
* Decreases employee turnover: Lower staff turnover saves money and makes an organization more productive. Retaining employees also builds a stronger community among staff members.
* Creates strategic growth plans: Personnel management gives organizations the foundation to create plans for company expansion through employee growth. This also includes recruiting practices that focus on the number of roles necessary in both current and future operations.
* Organizes employee operations: Using personnel management strategies helps businesses organize how daily employee functions like payroll and recruiting work. Providing a common set of guidelines and staff dedicated to employee operations can simplify a company's human resource needs.
* Uses digital technology: Many organizations use digital tools to help organize personnel management for their human resources staff. Some platforms combine functions while others focus on a specific element like benefit coordination.

Additional Information

Personnel management is defined as an administrative specialization that focuses on hiring and developing employees to become more valuable to the company. It is sometimes considered to be a sub-category of human resources that only focuses on administration.

Personnel Management Areas of Interest

Managing personnel concentrates on certain administrative human resource categories. It includes job analyses, strategic personnel planning, performance appraisals and benefit coordination. It also involves recruitment, screening and new employee orientation and training. Lastly, it involves wages, dispute resolution and other record keeping duties.

Personnel Duties Defined

Personnel managers will be in charge of various job analyses. This will involve evaluating job positions to ensure that the wage rate is adequate. It will also involve collective assessments of all positions that are used to determine the company’s current and future labor needs. One of the biggest responsibilities of a personnel manager will be to recruit the right employees. However, this is an ongoing, complex process that will require the personnel manager to intimately understand every position and corresponding duties.

Posting job ads, reviewing resumes, conducting interviews and making a final decision with management is a very time consuming process. However, it must be carefully performed in order to avoid hiring the wrong person. HR experts estimate that it can cost between two to five thousand dollars to re-hire and train a new employee for an open position. Finally, personnel managers must ensure compliance with applicable state and federal employment laws and occupational health and safety regulations. As the industry becomes more manual labor driven, the health and safety rules become stricter and more specific.

Personnel Manager Job Description

A personnel manager will direct and coordinate select human resources activities, such as benefits, training, hiring, compensation, labor relations and employee services. They will analyze salary data and reports to determine competitive compensation rates. They will write policies designed to guide department managers regarding compensation, employee benefits and equal employment opportunities. Personnel managers will act as legal counsel to ensure that company policies comply with state and federal laws.

They must develop and maintain a human resources system that meets the company’s information needs. Thus, personnel managers must oversee the maintenance of required records. They must also maintain benefit records such as insurance, retirement and workers’ compensation plans. This will include personnel activities regarding hires, promotions and transfers. Personnel managers must ensure that adequate labor relation policies and procedures are in place. Thus, they must continually monitor changing laws, legislation movements, arbitration decisions and collective bargaining contracts. Personnel managers must continually deliver presentations to management and executives regarding current and future human resources policies and practices.

How is HR Different?

The biggest difference between personnel and human resource management is that the latter is a comprehensive, modern approach to managing people and organizations. Personnel managers have a limited job scope and thus primarily perform record-keeping duties and functions designed to maintain proper employment conditions. On the other hand, human resource management integrates personnel functions, as well as various activities designed to enhance employee and organizational efficiency and productivity. Thus, HR managers are often in charge of running safety programs, publicly representing the company and ensuring legal compliance with applicable state and federal laws.

In the end, personnel management is an HR specialization that is limited to compliance, administrative and record keeping duties.


It appears to me that if one wants to make progress in mathematics, one should study the masters and not the pupils. - Niels Henrik Abel.

Nothing is better than reading and gaining more and more knowledge - Stephen William Hawking.


#2042 2024-01-28 00:08:03

Jai Ganesh
Registered: 2005-06-28
Posts: 46,201

Re: Miscellany

2044) Finance Management


Financial management is all about monitoring, controlling, protecting, and reporting on a company's financial resources. Companies have accountants or finance teams responsible for managing their finances, including all bank transactions, loans, debts, investments, and other sources of funding.


In business, financial management is the practice of handling a company’s finances in a way that allows it to be successful and compliant with regulations. That takes both a high-level plan and boots-on-the-ground execution.

What Is Financial Management?

At its core, financial management is the practice of making a business plan and then ensuring all departments stay on track. Solid financial management enables the CFO or VP of finance to provide data that supports creation of a long-range vision, informs decisions on where to invest, and yields insights on how to fund those investments, liquidity, profitability, cash runway and more.

ERP software can help finance teams achieve these goals: A financial management system combines several financial functions, such as accounting, fixed-asset management, revenue recognition and payment processing. By integrating these key components, a financial management system ensures real-time visibility into the financial state of a company while facilitating day-to-day operations, like period-end close processes.


Finance management merges management and accounting, using the financial management cycle to create strategic plans for clients. Learn about this growing field, the education requirements, and different career paths.

Finance management is the strategic planning and managing of an individual or organization’s finances to better align their financial status to their goals and objectives. Depending on the size of a company, finance management seeks to optimize shareholder value, generate profit, mitigate risk, and safeguard the company's financial health in the short and long term. When working with individuals, finance management may entail planning for retirement, college savings, and other personal investments.

Purpose of financial management

The purpose of financial management is to guide businesses or individuals on financial decisions that affect financial stability both now and in the future. To provide good guidance, financial management professionals will analyze finances and investments along with many other forms of financial data to help clients make decisions that align with goals.

Financial management can also offer clients increased financial stability and profitability when there’s a strategic plan for where, why, and how finances are allocated and used. How financial management professionals help clients reach goals will depend on whether the client is a company or an individual.

Types of financial management

Finance management professionals handle three main types of financial management for companies. These types involve various aspects of the internal decisions a company will likely need to make about cash flow, profits, investments, and holding debt. Many of these decisions will depend significantly on factors like company size, industry, and financial goals. Financial management professionals help companies reach financial goals by guiding in these areas of financing, investment, and dividends.


Financial management professionals assist companies in major decisions that involve acquiring funds, managing debt, and assessing risk when borrowing money for purchases or to build the company. Financing is also required when raising capital. Companies can make better, more strategic financing decisions to raise capital or obtain funds when they have information on cash flow, market trends, and other financial stats on the health of a company.


Financial management professionals can help companies choose where to invest, what to invest in, and how to invest. The financial professional’s job is to determine the number of assets (both fixed and long term) a company will need to hold and where cash flow goes based on current working capital. In essence, this type of financial management is about assessing assets for risk and return ratios. Financial managers will consider a company’s profits, rate of return, cash flow, and other criteria to assist companies in making investment decisions.


Companies should have a dividend disbursement plan and policy in place, with guidance from a financial management professional who can create and implement that plan, suggest modifications when needed, and monitor payouts if and when they occur. Any time a financial decision is made, it’s essential to consider dividend payments since you may hold dividends to fund certain financial decisions within the company.

It’s also important to have a flexible long-term plan that can grow with the company. Some more mature companies may pay out dividends at certain times or once a year; the payout schedule depends on many factors. Other companies may retain or reinvest dividend payments back into the company if the company is in a growth phase.

What is the financial management cycle?

The financial management cycle is a financial planning process critical to a company's growth and development. It includes:

* Planning and budgeting
* Resource allocation
* Operations and monitoring
* Evaluation and reporting

Effective financial management aligned with an organization’s goals and objectives can lead to greater efficiency and stability. These parts of the financial management cycle must work together to be the most effective.

1. Planning and budgeting
During this analytical phase in the financial management cycle, a company uses past and current financial data to set financial targets, modify objectives, and make changes to the current budget. This phase will typically involve detailed planning as well as a big picture one, meaning a company will look at day-to-day operations, long-term financial plans, and try to link financial targets to these activities.

The goal is to create a strategic financial plan for the company that aligns with objectives for the next three to five years. When setting specific budgets, a company may budget for one fiscal year at a time. A big reason for this is that a budget involves many moving parts that are subject to change by market fluctuations.

2. Resource allocation
Financial managers assign value to capital resources ( anything a company uses to manufacture/produce goods/services) and offer advice on allocating these resources based on criteria like projected company growth and financial goals. Resource allocation is important because it allows a company to have a long-term financial plan focused on its business objectives. Financial management professionals help companies by providing a framework for using capital resources and creating a portfolio that will generate the most revenue, given the company's financial status.

3. Operations and monitoring
This phase is critical to protect against fraudulent activity, errors, compliance issues, or other variances in the allocation of funds, etc. Financial management professionals should run regular financial reviews of business operations and cash flow. These periodic reviews can help mitigate fraud and identify other issues. It is a preventative step that ensures the continuity of business operations by securing the validity and accuracy of a company's financial processes.

4. Evaluation and reporting
Financial management professionals should evaluate a company’s current financial management system and propose changes when necessary. Financial reports and financial data can be helpful when assessing the efficiency and success of an existing system.

Some criteria a financial management professional may consider when evaluating a financial management system include security, compliance, company data needs, and level of support needed. These criteria vary by the company’s size, industry, current financial situation, and long-term goals.

Financial management professionals should be able to offer research-based suggestions that can help a company securely store and manage financial data in compliance with relevant laws and harness that data when needed.

How to work in finance management

To work in finance management, you’ll need a bachelor’s degree in business, economics, finance, or a related field. While there's no mandatory licensure for careers in financial management, certification is highly recommended. In many cases, employers like to see at least five years of professional experience before hiring into a financial management position. Typical jobs that individuals may pursue as an entry point to finance management may include loan officer, junior tax accountant, personal finance advisor, or accountant.

Educational requirements

A bachelor’s degree in finance, business management, or a related field is the minimum requirement to work in finance management. A master’s degree may be required for senior-level positions. Typical coursework for bachelor’s degree programs in finance or business management may include accounting, economics, finance, and human resources. Many master's programs will offer internships, along with some bachelor’s programs. Internships are highly recommended.


Certification is optional but suggested if you plan on a long-term career in finance management. Professional trade organizations typically offer certification. The type of certification you earn can be specialized to your job title or role. Common certifications that financial management professionals hold include:

Certified Management Account (CMA) certification is offered by the Institute of Management Accountants (IMA) and is ideal for anyone wanting to work in financial management. Requirements include at least two years of professional experience and a bachelor’s degree.

Chartered Financial Analyst (CFA) certification offered by the CFA institute focuses on investment analysis. This certification is for financial management professionals who want to work in senior-level positions like CFO. Educational and experiential requirements are also necessary to enroll in the CFA program.

Certified Government Financial Manager (CGFM) certification offered by the Association of Government Accountants (AGA) is for professionals who work in government financial management specifically. You’ll need at least two years of professional experience in government financial management to earn certification.

Certified Treasury Professional (CTP) certification offered by the Association of Financial Professionals (AFP) can benefit anyone who wants to work in corporate treasury. This certification focuses on risk management, corporate liquidity, and ethics. You'll need to meet educational and experiential requirements for this certification, with several options available for admittance into the CTP program.


Careers in finance management require a mix of financial skills and business skills. It’s essential to understand business operations, but proficiency in accounting, financial, and data analytics is equally important. Finance management merges management and finance. You may find success working in the field of finance management if you hold these skills:

* Workplace skills
* Good communication
* Problem-solving skills
* Organized
* Quality leader
* Proficiency in public speaking and presentation
* Ability to manage a group of people
* Detail-oriented
* Analytical skills
* Strong decision-making skills
* Ethical
* Technical skills
* Basic and advanced math skills (algebra, statistics, basic computing)
* Computer skills
* Proficiency in financial management systems
* Understanding of statistical modeling software and spreadsheets
* Industry-specific knowledge
* Proficiency in accounting principles and techniques
* Understanding investment principles


Professional experience in finance or business management is key if you want to advance into upper-level finance management positions. Expect to work at least five years in an entry to mid-level finance position before being eligible to work in finance management. Remember, finance management careers are managerial positions, so requirements like experience and education matter. It’s not just the quantity of experience but also the quality that matters. Try to find jobs in finance or accounting. It’s also helpful to find jobs that can help you move into the specific industry that you want to work in.

Careers in finance management

The scope of careers in the finance management field is vast. From entry-level positions in bookkeeping to management positions like a financial manager or management accountant, you’ll have many career pathway choices.

The career you choose will depend on factors like education, certifications, professional experience, industry, employer, and location. Salaries among finance management jobs will also differ based on these factors. Individuals in senior-level positions like CFO and vice president of financial planning and analysis will be among the top-tier earners in finance management.

Additional Information

Financial management is the business function concerned with profitability, expenses, cash and credit. These are often grouped together under the rubric of maximizing the value of the firm for stockholders. The discipline is then tasked with the "efficient acquisition and deployment" of both short- and long-term financial resources, to ensure the objectives of the enterprise are achieved.

Financial managers (FM) are specialized professionals directly reporting to senior management, often the financial director (FD); the function is seen as 'staff', and not 'line'.


Financial management is generally concerned with short term working capital management, focusing on current assets and current liabilities, and managing fluctuations in foreign currency and product cycles, often through hedging. The function also entails the efficient and effective day-to-day management of funds, and thus overlaps treasury management. It is also involved with long term strategic financial management, focused on i.a. capital structure management, including capital raising, capital budgeting (capital allocation between business units or products), and dividend policy; these latter, in large corporates, being more the domain of "corporate finance."

Specific tasks:

* Profit maximization happens when marginal cost is equal to marginal revenue. This is the main objective of financial management.
* Maintaining proper cash flow is a short run objective of financial management. It is necessary for operations to pay the day-to-day expenses e.g. raw material, electricity bills, wages, rent etc. A good cash flow ensures the survival of company;
* Minimization on capital cost in financial management can help operations gain more profit.
* Estimating the requirement of funds: Businesses make forecast on funds needed in both short run and long run, hence, they can improve the efficiency of funding. The estimation is based on the budget e.g. sales budget, production budget;
* Determining the capital structure: Capital structure is how a firm finances its overall operations and growth by using different sources of funds. Once the requirement of funds has estimated, the financial manager should decide the mix of debt and equity and also types of debt.


It appears to me that if one wants to make progress in mathematics, one should study the masters and not the pupils. - Niels Henrik Abel.

Nothing is better than reading and gaining more and more knowledge - Stephen William Hawking.


#2043 2024-01-29 00:24:24

Jai Ganesh
Registered: 2005-06-28
Posts: 46,201

Re: Miscellany

2045) Advocate


An advocate is a person whose profession is to conduct lawsuits for clients or to advise about legal rights and obligations.


Advocate, in law, is a person who is professionally qualified to plead the cause of another in a court of law. As a technical term, advocate is used mainly in those legal systems that derived from the Roman law. In Scotland the word refers particularly to a member of the bar of Scotland, the Faculty of Advocates. In France avocats were formerly an organized body of pleaders, while the preparation of cases was done by avoués; today this distinction exists only before the appellate courts. In Germany, until the distinction between counselor and pleader was abolished in 1879, the Advokat was the adviser rather than the pleader. The term has traditionally been applied to pleaders in courts of canon law, and thus in England those who practiced before the courts of civil and canon law were called advocates. In the United States the term advocate has no special significance, being used interchangeably with such terms as attorney, counsel, or lawyer.

A Lawyer is one trained and licensed to prepare, manage, and either prosecute or defend a court action as an agent for another and who also gives advice on legal matters that may or may not require court action.

Lawyers apply the law to specific cases. They investigate the facts and the evidence by conferring with their clients and reviewing documents, and they prepare and file the pleadings in court. At the trial, they introduce evidence, interrogate witnesses, and argue questions of law and fact. If they do not win the case, they may seek a new trial or relief in an appellate court.

In many instances, lawyers can bring about the settlement of a case without trial through negotiation, reconciliation, and compromise. In addition, the law gives individuals the power to arrange and determine their legal rights in many matters and in various ways, as through wills, contracts, or corporate bylaws, and lawyers aid in many of these arrangements. Since the 20th century a rapidly developing field of work for lawyers has been the representation of clients before administrative committees and courts and before legislative committees.

Lawyers have several loyalties in their work, including loyalties to their clients, to the administration of justice, to the community, to their associates in practice, and to themselves. When these loyalties conflict, the standards of the profession are intended to effect a reconciliation.

Legal practice varies from country to country. In England lawyers are divided into barristers, who plead in the higher courts, and solicitors, who do office work and plead in the lower courts. In the United States attorneys often specialize in limited areas of law, such as criminal, divorce, corporate, probate, or personal injury, though many are involved in general practice.

In France numerous types of professionals and even nonprofessionals handle various aspects of legal work. The most prestigious is the avocat, who is equal in rank to a magistrate or law professor. Roughly comparable to the English barrister, the avocat’s main function is to plead in court. In France, as in most civil-law countries, the examination of witnesses is conducted by the magistrate rather than the attorney, as in common-law countries. In their pleading, avocats develop their argument and point out discrepancies in the testimony of witnesses; this is the primary means open to avocats to persuade the court on legal and factual points. Formerly, in addition to the avocats, there were also avoués and agréés; the former represented litigants in all procedural matters except the oral presentation, prepared briefs, and negotiated settlements, while the latter, few in number, were responsible for pleading in certain commercial courts. Today the distinction between avoués and avocats has been abolished in all but the appellate courts, where avoués continue to practice as before.

In addition to these professional groups, there are nonprofessional legal counselors who give advice on various legal problems and are often employed by business firms. In almost all civil-law countries, there are notaries (see notary), who have exclusive rights to deal with such office work as marriage settlements and wills.

In Germany the chief distinction is between lawyers and notaries. The German attorney, however, plays an even smaller courtroom role than the French avocat, largely because presentations on points of law are limited, and litigation is often left to junior partners. Attorneys are often restricted to practice before courts in specific territories. There are further restrictions in that certain attorneys practice only before appeals courts, often necessitating a new attorney for each level of litigation. In Germany lawyers are employed in the administration of government to a greater extent than in common-law countries.


An advocate is a professional in the field of law. Different countries' legal systems use the term with somewhat differing meanings. The broad equivalent in many English law–based jurisdictions could be a barrister or a solicitor. However, in Scottish, Manx, South African, Italian, French, Spanish, Portuguese, Scandinavian, Polish, Israeli, South Asian and South American jurisdictions, "advocate" indicates a lawyer of superior classification.

"Advocate" is in some languages an honorific for lawyers, such as "Adv. Sir Alberico Gentili". "Advocate" also has the everyday meaning of speaking out to help someone else, such as patient advocacy or the support expected from an elected politician; this article does not cover those senses.


United Kingdom and Crown dependencies

England and Wales

In England and Wales, Advocates and proctors practiced civil law in the Admiralty Courts and also, but in England only, in the ecclesiastical courts of the Church of England, in a similar way to barristers, attorneys and solicitors in the common law and equity courts.

Advocates, who formed the senior branch of the legal profession in their field, were Doctors of Law of the University of Oxford, Cambridge, or Dublin and Fellows of the Society of Doctors' Commons.

Advocates lost their exclusive rights of audience in probate and divorce cases when the Crown took these matters over from the church in 1857, and in Admiralty cases in 1859. The Society of Advocates was never formally wound up, but its building was sold off in 1865 and the last advocate died in 1912.

Barristers were admitted to the Court of Arches of the Church of England in 1867. More recently, Solicitor Advocates have also been allowed to play this role.


Advocates are regulated by the Faculty of Advocates in Edinburgh. The Faculty of Advocates has about 750 members, of whom about 460 are in private practice. About 75 are King's Counsel. The Faculty is headed by the Dean of the Faculty who, along with the Vice-Dean, Treasurer, and Clerk are elected annually by secret ballot.

The Faculty has a service company, Faculty Services Ltd, to which almost all Advocates belong, which organized the stables (sets of Advocates or barristers' chambers) and fee collection. This gives a guarantee to all newly called Advocates of a place. Until the end of 2007, there was an agreement with the Law Society of Scotland, which is the professional body for Scottish solicitors, as to the payment of fees, but this has now been replaced by the Law Society. It remains the case that Advocates are not permitted to sue for their fees, as they have no contractual relationship with their instructing solicitor or with the client. Their fees are honoraria.

Advocates wear wigs, white bow-ties (or falls in the case of senior counsel), straps and gowns as a dress in court.

Becoming an advocate

The process of becoming an advocate is referred to as devilling. All intrants will be Scottish solicitors, i.e. hold a Bachelor of Laws degree and the Diploma in Legal Practice, and must have completed the traineeships of two years (which in some cases may be reduced to eighteen months) required to qualify as a solicitor; or else will be members of the bar in another common law jurisdiction.

Admission to the Faculty of Advocates

At the end of the devilling period, a devil's admission to the Faculty is dependent on certification by the principal devil master that the devil is a fit and proper person to be an advocate and that the devil has been involved in a wide range of work in the course of devilling. A devil's competence in a number of aspects of written and oral advocacy is assessed during devilling, and a devil will not be admitted to the Faculty if assessed as not competent. Further details of this process can be found in the assessment section.

Recent developments

In recent years, increasing numbers of Advocates have come to the Scottish Bar after some time as solicitors, but it is possible to qualify with a law degree, after twenty-one months traineeship in a solicitor's office and almost a year as a 'devil', or apprentice advocate. There are exceptions for lawyers who are qualified in other European jurisdictions, but all must take the training course as 'devils'.

Until 2007, a number of young European lawyers were given a placement with Advocates under the European Young Lawyers Scheme organized by the British Council. They are known as 'Eurodevils', in distinction to the Scottish 'devils'. This scheme was withdrawn by the British Council. In January 2009, a replacement scheme began.

Lawyers qualified in other European Union states (but not in England and Wales) may have limited rights of audience in the Scottish supreme courts if they appear with an advocate, and a few solicitors known as 'solicitor-Advocates' have rights of audience, but for practical purposes, Advocates have almost exclusive rights of audience in the supreme courts – the High Court of Justiciary (criminal), and the Court of Session (civil). Advocates share the right of audience with solicitors in the sheriff courts and justice of the peace courts.

It used to be the case that Advocates were completely immune from suit etc. while conducting court cases and pre-trial work, as they had to act 'fearlessly and independently'; the rehearing of actions was considered contrary to public interest; and Advocates are required to accept clients, they cannot pick and choose. However, the seven-judge English ruling of Arthur J.S. Hall & Co. (a firm) v. Simons 2000 (House of Lords) declared that none of these reasons justified the immunity strongly enough to sustain it. This has been followed in Scotland in Wright v Paton Farrell (2006) obiter[6] insofar as civil cases are concerned.

Isle of Man

Advocates are the only lawyers with rights of audience in the courts of the Isle of Man. An advocate's role is to advise on all matters of law: it may involve representing a client in the civil and criminal courts or advising a client on matters such as matrimonial and family law, trusts and estates, regulatory matters, property transactions, and commercial and business law. In court, Advocates wear a horsehair wig, stiff collar, bands, and a gown in the same way as barristers do elsewhere.

To become an advocate, it is normally necessary to hold either a qualifying law degree with no less than lower second class (2:2) honors, or else a degree in another subject with no less than lower second class (2:2) honors complemented by the Common Professional Examination. It is then necessary to obtain a legal professional qualification such as the Bar Professional Training Course or the Legal Practice Course. It is not, however, necessary actually to be admitted as an English barrister or solicitor to train as an advocate.

Trainee Advocates (as articled clerks are now more usually known) normally undertake a period of two years’ training articled to a senior advocate; in the case of English barristers or solicitors who have been practicing or admitted for three years this training, the period is reduced to one year. Foreign lawyers who have been registered as legal practitioners in the Isle of Man for a certain time may also undertake a shorter period of training and supervision. During their training, all trainee Advocates are required to pass the Isle of Man bar examinations, which include papers on civil and criminal practice, constitutional and land law, and company law and taxation, as well as accounts. The examinations are rigorous and candidates are limited to three attempts to pass each paper.

Senior English barristers are occasionally licensed to appear as Advocates in cases expected to be unusually long or complex, without having to pass the bar examination or undertake further training: they are permitted only to act in relation to the matter for which they have been licensed. Similarly, barristers and solicitors employed as public prosecutors may be licensed to appear as Advocates without having to pass the bar examination or undertake further training: they are permitted only to act as such only for the duration of that employment.

The professional conduct of Advocates is regulated by the Isle of Man Law Society, which also maintains a library for its members in Douglas. While Advocates in the Isle of Man have not traditionally prefixed their names with 'Advocate' in the Channel Islands manner, some Advocates have now started to adopt this practice.

Jersey and the Bailiwick of Guernsey

Jersey and the Bailiwick of Guernsey are two separate legal jurisdictions, have largely two different sets of laws and have two separate, but similar, legal professions. In both jurisdictions, Advocates—properly called Advocates of the Royal Court—are the only lawyers with general rights of audience in their courts.

To be eligible to practice as an advocate in Jersey, it is necessary first to have a law degree from a British university or a Graduate Diploma in Law and to have qualified as a recognized legal professional in England and Wales, Scotland or Northern Ireland. Thereafter, a candidate must undertake two years of practical experience in a law office dealing with Jersey law, enrol on the Jersey Law Course provided by the Institute of Law, Jersey[8] and pass examinations in six subjects. Alternatively, a person may apply to become a Jersey advocate two years after qualifying as a Jersey solicitor.

To become an advocate in Guernsey, one has to possess a valid law degree or diploma, plus a qualification as an English barrister or solicitor, or a French avocat. They must then study for the Guernsey Bar. Three months of study of Norman law at the Université de Caen (University of Caen) is required; this is no longer required for entry into the legal profession in Jersey.

Guernsey Advocates dress in the same way as barristers, but substitute a black biretta-like toque for a wig, while those in Jersey go bare-headed. Advocates are entitled to prefix their names with 'Advocate'; e.g. Mr. Tostevin is called to the Guernsey Bar and is henceforth known as Advocate Tostevin.

The head of the profession of advocate in each bailiwick is called the Bâtonnier.


In the Netherlands, the professional conduct and the professional education of the advocates is regulated by the Dutch bar association (Nederlandse orde van advocaten) pursuant to the Advocates Act (Advocatenwet).

Dutch advocates are admitted to the bar conditionally, and have full rights of audience with the district courts and court of appeal. In order to obtain unconditional qualification, the advocate has to complete the Dutch bar education (Beroepsopleiding Advocaten) and fulfil certain requirements (which may vary among the various judicial regions within the Netherlands) under the supervision of a senior advocate (the patroon) for a period of at least three years, called the stage. During this time, the advocate is referred to as an advocaat-stagiair(e).

In court, advocates must wear a long black robe (a toga) and a white pleated band (a bef).

Nordic countries

The Nordic countries have a united legal profession, which means that they do not draw a distinction between lawyers who plead in court and those who do not. To get an official recognition with an Advocates title, the candidate must have a legal degree, that is, completed ca. 5–6 years of legal studies from an accredited university in his or own country, and in addition have worked for some time (around 2 – 5 years) under the auspices of a qualified advocate and have some experience from court. When qualified, the candidate may obtain a license as an advocate, the equivalent of being called to the bar. In all the Scandinavian languages the title is advokat; in Finland advokat is the Swedish title for such a qualified lawyer, with the equivalent title in Finnish being asianajaja.

However, one does not necessarily have to be an advocate to represent a party in the Nordic countries legally. In Norway, a person with an appropriate law degree, for example, can practice law as a registered legal advisor (rettshjelper) instead, which gives many of the same rights as an advocate's title. Both in Sweden and Norway any adult, in theory, can represent a party in court without any prior approval, training, license or advocate title. In practice it's unusual, and in Norway, it's subject to the approval of the court, which is unlikely to give it except in very simple cases.

In English, the Scandinavian title of advokat is interchangeably also translated as barrister, lawyer or attorney-at-law.


In Russia, anyone with a legal education (lawyer) can practice law, but only a member of the Advokatura (Адвокатура) may practice before a criminal court (other person can be a defence counsel in criminal proceeding along with a member of Advokatura but not in lieu him) and Constitutional Court (leaving aside persons having academic degree of candidate or doctor in juridical sciences who also can represent parties in constitutional proceeding). Specialist degree in law is the most commonly awarded academic degree in Russian jurisprudence but after Russia's accession to the Bologna process only bachelor of laws and master of laws academic degrees are available in Russian institutions of higher education. An "advocate" is a lawyer who has demonstrated qualification and belongs to an organizational structure of Advocates specified by law, known as being "called to the bar" in Commonwealth countries.

An examination is administered by the qualifications commission of regional advocate's chamber for admission to its Advokatura. To sit for the exam, one must have a higher legal education and also two years of experience in legal work after graduation or a training program in a law firm after graduation. The exam is both written and oral, but the main test is oral. The written exam takes place in the form of computer testing and includes issues of the professional conduct of advocate and advocate's professional responsibility. After successfully passing of the written exam the candidates are allowed to take the oral exam. As part of the oral exam, the candidate must demonstrate his knowledge in various bodies of law and solve some mimic a real-life legal tasks. The candidate who does not pass the qualification exam can try to pass it again after 1 year only. The qualifications commission is composed of seven Advocates, two judges, two representatives of the regional legislature, and two representatives of the Ministry of Justice.

After successful passing the qualification exam a candidate should take the oath of advocate. From the moment of taking the oath, he becomes an advocate and a member of the advocate's chamber of the relevant federal subject of Russia. Advocate's chamber sends relevant information to the territorial subdivision of the Ministry of Justice of the Russian Federation, which includes the new advocate in the register of Advocates of the relevant federal subject of Russia and issues to him an advocate's certificate, which is the only official document confirming the status of an advocate, on the basis of this information. The status of an advocate is granted for an indefinite period and is not limited by any age. There is only 1 advocate's chamber in each federal subject of Russia. Each advocate can be the member of only 1 advocate's chamber and can be listed in the register of Advocates of the relevant federal subject of Russia only. In case of relocation to another region, the advocate ceases to be a member of the advocate's chamber and should be excluded from register of Advocates at the old place of residence (advocate's certificate should be returned to the subdivision of the Ministry of Justice of the Russian Federation, which issued it), and after that he becomes a member of the advocate's chamber and is included in the register of Advocates at the new place of residence (where he receive new advocate's certificate) without any exams. Each advocate can carry out his professional activity throughout Russia, regardless of membership in particular regional advocate's chamber and regardless of particular regional register where he is listed in. Advocates carry out their professional activity individually (advocate's cabinet) or as the member of advocate's juridical person (collegium of Advocates, advocate's bureau). Advocate can open own cabinet after at least 3 years legal practice in collegium or bureau. An advocate, who has opened own cabinet, can not be the member of any advocate's juridical person, and an advocate, who is the member of one advocate's juridical person, can not be the member of any other advocate's juridical person. Advocate is obliged to report to advocate's chamber any changes in his membership in a collegium or a bureau and, equally, opening and closing a cabinet.

An advocate can not be an individual entrepreneur, government official, municipal official, notary, judge, elected official. An advocate can not work under an employment (labour) contract, with the exception of scientific and teaching activities. An advocate may combine his status with the status of a patent attorney, a trustee in bankruptcy. An advocate may be a shareholder/owner of business juridical persons and a member of voluntary associations and political parties. Russian advocate may have a status of advocate (attorney, barrister, solicitor) in foreign jurisdiction, subject to above conditions.

Russian law provides for voluntary and involuntary suspension of advocate's status. Voluntary suspension for a term of 1 to 10 years occurs when an Advocate files relevant application to the advocate's chamber. Involuntary suspension is applicable in cases of serious illness, election to an elected position in federal, regional or local authorities, military conscription, declaration of absence made by the court decision. An Advocate can not carry out advocate's activity during suspension, otherwise he may be deprived of the right to be an Advocate. After the end of the suspension, advocate's status should be resumed without any additional conditions. Also Russian law provides for voluntary and involuntary termination of advocate's status. Voluntary termination of the status occurs when an Advocate files relevant application to the advocate's chamber. Involuntary termination of the status is applicable in cases of death, declaration of no having legal capacity or having limited legal capacity made by the court decision, conviction for intentional crime made by the court decision, violations of the federal law regulating advocate's activity or advocate's code of conduct found by advocate's chamber. The latter two cases incur lifetime prohibition on being an Advocate. In other cases, ex-Advocate can go back to being an Advocate on general grounds through a passing the qualification exam, on condition that the reasons for termination of advocate's status have ceased to exist.

Advocate's chambers are professional associations of Advocates, which are based on mandatory membership of Advocates. All regional advocate's chambers are mandatory members of Federal Chamber of Advocates of Russian Federation, which is professional association at the federal level.

In Russia, foreign Advocates can advise on the legislation of their countries; they should register in the special register maintained by the Ministry of Justice of the Russian Federation to obtain the right to carry out this activity. Foreign advocate can in addition become Russian advocate. There are two possible paths for that. The first possibility is to become Russian advocate on the same basis as Russian citizens (i.e. through higher legal education in one of Russian universities, two years of experience in legal work in Russia after graduation or a training program in Russian law firm after graduation, successful passing the qualification exam). Since Russia's WTO Accession the second possibility is available: foreign advocate can just pass special qualification exam to become Russian advocate.



In Bangladesh, after passing the Higher Secondary School Certificate, one can apply for admission for studying law in Universities. There are several public and private universities which provide Bachelor of Laws and Master of Laws degree in Bangladesh. Generally, the LL.B. course is equivalent to a four-year bachelor's degree. Graduate lawyers have to seat for and pass the Bar Council Exam to become Advocates.

By passing the Bangladesh Bar Council Exam, Advocates are eligible to practice in the Supreme Court of Bangladesh and other courts. A license is obtained after successful completion of two year's practice in the lower courts by applicant, which is reviewed by a body of the relevant provincial Bar Council. Most applications after successful completion of the requirement, are accepted.


In India, the law relating to the Advocates is the Advocates Act, 1961 introduced and thought up by Ashoke Kumar Sen, the then law minister of India, which is a law passed by the Parliament and is administered and enforced by the Bar Council of India. Under the Act, the Bar Council of India is the supreme regulatory body to regulate the legal profession in India and also to ensure the compliance of the laws and maintenance of professional standards by the legal profession in the country.

Each State has a Bar Council of its own whose function is to enroll the Advocates willing to practice predominantly within the territorial confines of that State and to perform the functions of the Bar Council of India within the territory assigned to them. Therefore, each law degree holder must be enrolled with a (single) State Bar Council to practice in India. However, enrollment with any State Bar Council does not restrict the Advocate from appearing before any court in India, even though it is beyond the territorial jurisdiction of the State Bar Council which he is enrolled in.

The advantage of having the State Bar Councils is that the workload of the Bar Council of India can be divided into these various State Bar Councils and also that matters can be dealt with locally and in an expedited manner. However, for all practical and legal purposes, the Bar Council of India retains with it, the final power to take decisions in any and all matters related to the legal profession on the whole or with respect to any Advocate individually, as so provided under the Advocates Act, 1961.

The process of being entitled to practice in India is twofold. First, the applicant must be a holder of a law degree from a recognised institution in India (or from one of the four recognised Universities in the United Kingdom) and second, must pass the enrollment qualifications of the Bar Council of the state where he/she seeks to be enrolled. For this purpose, the Bar Council of India has an internal Committee whose function is to supervise and examine the various institutions conferring law degrees and to grant recognition to these institutions once they meet the required standards. In this manner, the Bar Council of India also ensures the standard of education required for practicing in India is met with. As regards the qualification for enrollment with the State Bar Council, while the actual formalities may vary from one State to another, yet predominately they ensure that the application has not been a bankrupt /criminal and is generally fit to practice before courts of India.

Enrollment with a Bar Council also means that the law degree holder is recognised as an Advocate and is required to maintain a standard of conduct and professional demeanor at all times, both on and off the profession. The Bar Council of India also prescribes "Rules of Conduct" to be observed by the Advocates in the courts, while interacting with clients and even otherwise.

All Advocates in India are at the same level and are recognised as such. Any distinction, if any, is made only on the basis of seniority, which implies the length of practice at the Bar. As a recognition of law practice and specialisation in an area of law, there is a concept of conferral of Senior Advocate status. An Advocate may be recognised by the Judges of the High Court (in case of an Advocate practicing before that High Court) or by the Supreme Court (in case of the Advocate practicing before the Supreme Court). While the conferral of Senior Advocate status not only implies distinction and fame of the Advocate, it also requires the Senior Advocate to follow higher standards of conduct and some distinct rules. Also, a Senior Advocate is not allowed to interact directly with the clients. He can only take briefs from other Advocates and argue on the basis of the details given by them. From the year 2010 onward a mandatory rule is made for lawyers passing out from the year 2009–10 to sit for an evaluation test named AIBE (All India Bar Exam) for one to qualify as an advocate and practice in the courts. However, to practice law before the Supreme Court of India, Advocates must first appear for and qualify in the Supreme Court Advocate on Record Examination conducted by the Supreme Court.

Further, under the Constitutional structure, there is a provision for the elevation of Advocates as judges of High Courts and Supreme Court. The only requirement is the Advocate must have ten years standing before the High Court(/s) or before the Supreme Court to be eligible for such. (Article 217 and 124 of the Constitution of India for High Courts and Supreme Court respectively)


There are four levels of Advocates exist in Pakistan, 1.Advocate 2.Advocate High Court 3.Advocate Supreme Court 4.Senior Advocate Supreme Court:

The first level is that of an Advocate, who is eligible to practice in the district courts or lower courts in their respective province. An Advocate is considered an officer of the court. To become an Advocate, one can qualify by completing a five-year law degree (LL.B (Hons)), or by obtaining a foreign LL.B degree of a shorter duration, recognized by the relevant authorities. Additionally, they must complete six months of pupillage under a senior Advocate in their chambers. Afterward, they are required to pass a GAT test recognized by the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan (HEC) and the Pakistan Bar Council, achieving a minimum passing score of 50%. Subsequently, they must successfully clear the Bar admission test and undergo an examination conducted by the Bar Council of their respective province to determine their suitability for becoming an Advocate and confirm that they have no criminal convictions. Upon passing a multiple-choice question examination and an interview conducted by members of the provincial Bar Council, the Bar Council will issue them a license to practice before the Subordinate Courts up to the High Court.

After completing two years of practice as an Advocate, with a minimum of ten successfully litigated cases, the Advocate will be required to submit a list of these cases for examination by a committee appointed by the High Court. The committee, chaired by a High Court Judge, will review the cases and, if satisfied, grant their approval for the Advocate's elevation to practice as an Advocate of the High Court. Upon approval, the committee will send the recommendation directly to the Bar Council, and the Advocate will be issued a license to practice as an Advocate of the High Court.As an Advocate of the High Court, they will have the right to practice in any court throughout the country, except for the Supreme Court of Pakistan.

Advocate Supreme Court is the third level. After successful completion of ten years of practice in the High Courts by the applicant, the panel of members of Pakistan Bar Council and one judge of the Supreme Court of Pakistan, review the application. (Before 1985 the requirement was successful completion of five years practice in the High Courts of Pakistan.) Over fifty per cent of applications are accepted, after successful completion of the requirement. An unsuccessful application in one year does not bar the candidate from re-applying in the next judicial year.

The highest level is the Senior Advocate Supreme Court. It is Pakistan's title equivalent to Queen's Counsel in the United Kingdom. After at least fifteen years of practice, by invitation or by an application to a panel of Supreme Court Judges headed by the Chief Justice of Pakistan, one can become Senior Advocate of Supreme Court of Pakistan. Very few applications are accepted and even fewer invitations are made. Attorneys General are usually invited by the Supreme Court on the appointment, to the office. So are some notable High Court judges who upon retirement choose to practice before the Supreme Court, where they are still eligible to do so.

Sri Lanka

In Sri Lanka (formally Ceylon) till 1973 Advocate was a practitioner in a court of law who is legally qualified to prosecute and defend actions in such court on the retainer of clients. Advocates had to pass the HSC exam and enter the Ceylon Law College and follow the Advocates course and sit for the relevant exams. Thereafter, they would have to practice under a senior advocate before being called to the bar for admission as an Advocate of the Supreme Court of Ceylon. Members of the English, Scottish and Irish Bars are permitted to be admitted to a Barrister without examination on payment of a fee. Ceylonese Advocates with three years standing were allowed to be called to the English Bar without examination on completing three terms. The Justice Law No. 44 of 1973 of the National State Assembly created a single group of practitioners known as Attorneys-at-law. The current equivalent to an advocate is a counsel who is a trial lawyer distinguished from an instructing attorney.


South Africa

In South Africa, there are two main branches of legal practitioner: attorneys, who do legal work of all kinds, and Advocates, who are specialist litigators; see Attorneys in South Africa. In general, Advocates (also called 'counsel') are 'briefed' by attorneys when a specialist skill in court-based litigation, or in research into the law is required; Referral Advocates have no direct contact with clients and are said to be in a 'referral' profession. However, Advocates who have a Trust Account and hold a valid Fidelity Fund Certificate are authorized to take briefs directly from the public and attorneys respectively.

The key formal distinction, however, is the different rights with regard to the courts in which they may appear. Advocates have the right to appear in any court, while attorneys have the right to appear only in the lower courts. (And, under certain conditions, can acquire the right of appearance in the superior courts, by applying to the registrar of the provincial division of the relevant High Court.) A further distinction is that while attorneys practice in partnership, Advocates are individual practitioners and never form partnerships; practice in "Chambers" and / or "Groups" is standard.

The requirements to enter private practice as Advocates (Junior Counsel) are to hold the LL.B. degree, and to become a member of a Bar Association by undergoing a period of training (pupilage) for one year with a practicing Advocate, and to sit an admission examination. See Legal education in South Africa.

On the recommendation of the Bar Councils, an advocate "of proven experience and skill" with at least ten years experience, may be appointed by the President of South Africa as a Senior Counsel (SC; also referred to as a "silk"). Junior advocates are commonly rewarded with a traditional gift of a red brief bag by a Senior Counsel as recognition for excellence.

State Advocates act as a public prosecutor in High Court matters, typically in cases requiring preparation and research. They are appointed by the National Prosecuting Authority and are attached to the Office of the National Director of Public Prosecutions.



In Brazil, the bar examination occurs nationally in March, August, and December. These examinations are unified and organized by the Order of Attorneys of Brazil. After 5 years in law school, Brazilian law students are required to take the bar exam, which consists of 2 phases: the multiple choice test and written test, without any further requirements.

The Constitution of Brazil applies restrictions on professional practice of law in the fulfillment of the requirements, which may include in addition to graduation, formal submission of the applicant in the proficiency tests. The Order exam is tied to Law No. 8609 of 4/7/1994:

"Article 8: For registration as an attorney is needed: IV - "To pass the Examination of the Order;"

Within its powers expressly granted by the Constitution, the ordinary legislative demands that whoever wishes to pursue the legal profession possess the degree of Bachelor of Law and approval of Examination of Order, whose preparation and implementation is done by their own class. The Constitution itself provides for the restriction, and the Statute of Law requires the examination.

The bar exam in Brazil approves very few students and is considered a hard one. For instance, in February 2014, the Bar association made a release stating that only 19.64% of students had been approved in the last exam and were able to register as a lawyer.

It appears to me that if one wants to make progress in mathematics, one should study the masters and not the pupils. - Niels Henrik Abel.

Nothing is better than reading and gaining more and more knowledge - Stephen William Hawking.


#2044 2024-01-30 00:03:03

Jai Ganesh
Registered: 2005-06-28
Posts: 46,201

Re: Miscellany

2046) Hypertension


High blood pressure, also known as hypertension, is usually defined as having a sustained blood pressure of 140/90mmHg or above.

The line between normal and raised blood pressure is not fixed and depends on your individual circumstances. However, most doctors agree that the ideal blood pressure for a physically healthy person is around 120/80mmHg.

A normal blood pressure reading is classed as less than 130/80mmHg.


High blood pressure is a common condition that affects the body's arteries. It's also called hypertension. If you have high blood pressure, the force of the blood pushing against the artery walls is consistently too high. The heart has to work harder to pump blood.

Blood pressure is measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg). In general, hypertension is a blood pressure reading of 130/80 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) or higher.

(The American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association divide blood pressure into four general categories. Ideal blood pressure is categorized as normal.)

* Normal blood pressure. Blood pressure is 120/80 mm Hg or lower.
* Elevated blood pressure. The top number ranges from 120 to 129 mm Hg and the bottom number is below, not above, 80 mm Hg.
* Stage 1 hypertension. The top number ranges from 130 to 139 mm Hg or the bottom number is between 80 and 89 mm Hg.
* Stage 2 hypertension. The top number is 140 mm Hg or higher or the bottom number is 90 mm Hg or higher.
Blood pressure higher than 180/120 mm Hg is considered a hypertensive emergency or crisis. Seek emergency medical help for anyone with these blood pressure numbers.

Untreated, high blood pressure increases the risk of heart attack, stroke and other serious health problems. It's important to have your blood pressure checked at least every two years starting at age 18. Some people need more-frequent checks.

Healthy lifestyle habits —such as not smoking, exercising and eating well — can help prevent and treat high blood pressure. Some people need medicine to treat high blood pressure.



The effect of blood pressure on a vessel wall. Blood pressure is measured when the heart contracts, and when it relaxes.
In the U.S., a high blood pressure diagnosis means your top number is at least 130 and/or your bottom number is at least 80.

What is high blood pressure?

High blood pressure is when the force of blood pushing against your artery walls is consistently too high. This damages your arteries over time and can lead to serious complications like heart attack and stroke. “Hypertension” is another word for this common condition.

Healthcare providers call high blood pressure a “silent killer” because you usually don’t have any symptoms. So, you may not be aware that anything is wrong, but the damage is still occurring within your body.

Blood pressure (BP) is the measurement of the pressure or force of blood pushing against blood vessel walls. Your BP reading has two numbers:

* The top number is the systolic blood pressure, which measures the pressure on your artery walls when your heart beats or contracts.
* The bottom number is the diastolic blood pressure. This measures the pressure on your artery walls between beats when your heart is relaxing.

Healthcare providers measure blood pressure in millimeters of mercury (mmHg).

How do I know if I have high blood pressure?

Getting your blood pressure checked is the only way to know if it’s too high. You can do this by seeing a healthcare provider for a yearly checkup, even if you feel healthy. You won’t feel sick if you have high blood pressure. So, these checkups are crucial and can be life-saving. If your BP is above the normal range, your provider will recommend lifestyle changes and/or medications to lower your numbers.

What is considered high blood pressure?

Definitions of high blood pressure vary slightly depending on where you live. In the U.S., healthcare providers define high blood pressure (hypertension) as:

* A top number (systolic blood pressure) of at least 130 mmHg, and/or
* A bottom number (diastolic blood pressure) of at least 80 mmHg.

In Europe, healthcare providers define hypertension as:

* A top number of at least 140 mmHg, and/or
* A bottom number of at least 90 mmHg.

How common is high blood pressure?

High blood pressure is very common. It affects 47% of adults in the U.S. This equals about 116 million people. Of those, 37 million have a blood pressure of at least 140/90 mmHg.

High blood pressure caused or contributed to over 670,000 deaths in the U.S. in 2020.

The World Health Organization estimates that globally, over 1.2 billion people ages 30 to 79 have hypertension. About 2 in 3 of those individuals live in low- or middle-income countries.

Symptoms and Causes:

What are the signs and symptoms of high blood pressure?

Usually, high blood pressure causes no signs or symptoms. That’s why healthcare providers call it a “silent killer.” You could have high blood pressure for years and not know it. In fact, the World Health Organization estimates that 46% of adults with hypertension don’t know they have it.

When your blood pressure is 180/120 mmHg or higher, you may experience symptoms like headaches, heart palpitations or nosebleeds. Blood pressure this high is a hypertensive crisis that requires immediate medical care.

What are the types of high blood pressure?

Your provider will diagnose you with one of two types of high blood pressure:

* Primary hypertension. Causes of this more common type of high blood pressure (about 90% of all adult cases in the U.S.) include aging and lifestyle factors like not getting enough exercise.
* Secondary hypertension. Causes of this type of high blood pressure include different medical conditions or a medication you’re taking.

Primary and secondary high blood pressure (hypertension) can co-exist. For example, a new secondary cause can make blood pressure that’s already high get even higher.

You might also hear about high blood pressure that comes or goes in certain situations. These hypertension types are:

* White coat hypertension: Your BP is normal at home but elevated in a healthcare setting.
* Masked hypertension: Your BP is normal in a healthcare setting but elevated at home.
* Sustained hypertension: Your BP is elevated in healthcare settings and at home.
* Nocturnal hypertension: Your BP goes up when you sleep.

What causes hypertension?

Primary hypertension doesn’t have a single, clear cause. Usually, many factors come together to cause it. Common causes include:

* Unhealthy eating patterns (including a diet high in sodium).
* Lack of physical activity.
* High consumption of beverages containing alcohol.

Secondary hypertension has at least one distinct cause that healthcare providers can identify. Common causes of secondary hypertension include:

* Certain medications, including immunosuppressants, NSAIDs and oral contraceptives (the pill).
* Kidney disease.
* Obstructive sleep apnea.
* Primary aldosteronism (Conn’s syndrome).
* Recreational drug use.
* Renal vascular diseases, which are conditions that affect blood flow in your kidneys’ arteries and veins. Renal artery stenosis is a common example.
* Tobacco use (including smoking, vaping and using smokeless tobacco).

Is high blood pressure genetic?

Researchers believe genes play a role in high blood pressure. If one or more of your close biological family members have high blood pressure, you have an increased risk of developing it, too.

What are the risk factors for high blood pressure?

Risk factors that make you more likely to have high blood pressure include:

* Having biological family members with high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease or diabetes.
* Being over age 55.
* Having certain medical conditions, including chronic kidney disease, metabolic syndrome, obstructive sleep apnea or thyroid disease.
* Having overweight or obesity.
* Not getting enough exercise.
* Eating foods high in sodium.
* Smoking or using tobacco products.
* Drinking too much.

What are the complications of this condition?

Untreated hypertension may lead to serious health problems including:

* Coronary artery disease (CAD).
* Stroke.
* Heart attack.
* Peripheral artery disease.
* Kidney disease and kidney failure.
* Complications during pregnancy.
* Eye damage.
* Vascular dementia.

Diagnosis and Tests:

How is high blood pressure diagnosed?

Healthcare providers diagnose high blood pressure by measuring it with an arm cuff. Providers usually measure your blood pressure at annual checkups and other appointments.

If you have high blood pressure readings at two or more appointments, your provider may tell you that you have high blood pressure. They’ll talk to you about your medical history and lifestyle to identify possible causes.

Blood pressure categories

In 2017, the American College of Cardiology and American Heart Association issued new blood pressure guidelines. Healthcare providers in the U.S. use these when diagnosing and treating high blood pressure. The guidelines divide blood pressure readings into four categories, listed in the chart below. You have high blood pressure if you fall into the stage 1 hypertension or stage 2 hypertension categories.

Additional Information

Hypertension, also known as high blood pressure, is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated. High blood pressure usually does not cause symptoms. It is, however, a major risk factor for stroke, coronary artery disease, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, peripheral arterial disease, vision loss, chronic kidney disease, and dementia. Hypertension is a major cause of premature death worldwide.

High blood pressure is classified as primary (essential) hypertension or secondary hypertension. About 90–95% of cases are primary, defined as high blood pressure due to nonspecific lifestyle and genetic factors. Lifestyle factors that increase the risk include excess salt in the diet, excess body weight, smoking, physical inactivity and alcohol use. The remaining 5–10% of cases are categorized as secondary high blood pressure, defined as high blood pressure due to a clearly identifiable cause, such as chronic kidney disease, narrowing of the kidney arteries, an endocrine disorder, or the use of birth control pills.

Blood pressure is classified by two measurements, the systolic (high reading) and diastolic (lower reading) pressures. For most adults, normal blood pressure at rest is within the range of 100–130 millimeters mercury (mmHg) systolic and 60–80 mmHg diastolic. For most adults, high blood pressure is present if the resting blood pressure is persistently at or above 130/80 or 140/90 mmHg. Different numbers apply to children. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring over a 24-hour period appears more accurate than office-based blood pressure measurement. Hypertension is around twice as common in diabetics.

Lifestyle changes and medications can lower blood pressure and decrease the risk of health complications. Lifestyle changes include weight loss, physical exercise, decreased salt intake, reducing alcohol intake, and a healthy diet. If lifestyle changes are not sufficient, then blood pressure medications are used. Up to three medications taken concurrently can control blood pressure in 90% of people. The treatment of moderately high arterial blood pressure (defined as >160/100 mmHg) with medications is associated with an improved life expectancy. The effect of treatment of blood pressure between 130/80 mmHg and 160/100 mmHg is less clear, with some reviews finding benefit and others finding unclear benefit. High blood pressure affects between 16 and 37% of the population globally. In 2010 hypertension was believed to have been a factor in 17.8% of all deaths (9.4 million globally).


It appears to me that if one wants to make progress in mathematics, one should study the masters and not the pupils. - Niels Henrik Abel.

Nothing is better than reading and gaining more and more knowledge - Stephen William Hawking.


#2045 2024-01-31 00:07:14

Jai Ganesh
Registered: 2005-06-28
Posts: 46,201

Re: Miscellany

2047) Metabolism


Metabolism (pronounced: meh-TAB-uh-liz-um) is the chemical reactions in the body's cells that change food into energy. Our bodies need this energy to do everything from moving to thinking to growing. Specific proteins in the body control the chemical reactions of metabolism.


Metabolism is the sum of the chemical reactions that take place within each cell of a living organism and that provide energy for vital processes and for synthesizing new organic material.

Living organisms are unique in that they can extract energy from their environments and use it to carry out activities such as movement, growth and development, and reproduction. But how do living organisms—or, their cells—extract energy from their environments, and how do cells use this energy to synthesize and assemble the components from which the cells are made?

The answers to these questions lie in the enzyme-mediated chemical reactions that take place in living matter (metabolism). Hundreds of coordinated, multistep reactions, fueled by energy obtained from nutrients and/or solar energy, ultimately convert readily available materials into the molecules required for growth and maintenance.


Metabolism refers to all the chemical processes going on continuously inside your body that allow life and normal functioning (maintaining normal functioning in the body is called homeostasis). These processes include those that break down nutrients from our food, and those that build and repair our body.

Building and repairing the body requires energy that ultimately comes from your food.

The amount of energy, measured in kilojoules (kJ), that your body burns at any given time is affected by your metabolism.

Achieving or maintaining a healthy weight is a balancing act. If we regularly eat and drink more kilojoules than we need for our metabolism, we store it mostly as fat.

Most of the energy we use each day is used to keep all the systems in our body functioning properly. This is out of our control. However, we can make metabolism work for us when we exercise. When you are active, the body burns more energy (kilojoules).

Two processes of metabolism

Our metabolism is complex – put simply it has 2 parts, which are carefully regulated by the body to make sure they remain in balance. They are:

Catabolism – the breakdown of food components (such as carbohydrates, proteins and dietary fats) into their simpler forms, which can then be used to provide energy and the basic building blocks needed for growth and repair.
Anabolism – the part of metabolism in which our body is built or repaired. Anabolism requires energy that ultimately comes from our food. When we eat more than we need for daily anabolism, the excess nutrients are typically stored in our body as fat.

Metabolic rate

Your body’s metabolic rate (or total energy expenditure) can be divided into 3 components, which are:

Basal metabolic rate (BMR) – even at rest, the body needs energy (kilojoules) to keep all its systems functioning correctly (such as breathing, keeping the heart beating to circulate blood, growing and repairing cells and adjusting hormone levels). The body’s BMR accounts for the largest amount of energy expended daily (50 to 80% of your daily energy use).
Thermic effect of food (also known as thermogenesis) – your body uses energy to digest the foods and drinks you consume and also absorbs, transports and stores their nutrients. Thermogenesis accounts for about 5 to 10% of your energy use.
Energy used during physical activity – this is the energy used by physical movement and it varies the most depending on how much energy you use each day. Physical activity includes planned exercise (like going for a run or playing sport) but also includes all incidental activity (such as hanging out the washing, playing with the dog or even fidgeting!).
Based on a moderately active person (30 to 45 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity per day), this component contributes 20% of our daily energy use.

Basal metabolic rate (BMR)

The BMR refers to the amount of energy your body needs to maintain homeostasis.

Your BMR is largely determined by your total lean mass, especially muscle mass, because lean mass requires a lot of energy to maintain. Anything that reduces lean mass will reduce your BMR.

As your BMR accounts for so much of your total energy consumption, it is important to preserve or even increase your lean muscle mass through exercise when trying to lose weight.

This means combining exercise (particularly weight-bearing and resistance exercises to boost muscle mass) with changes towards healthier eating patterns, rather than dietary changes alone as eating too few kilojoules encourages the body to slow the metabolism to conserve energy.

Maintaining lean muscle mass also helps reduce the chance of injury when training, and exercise increases your daily energy expenditure.

An average man has a BMR of around 7,100 kJ per day, while an average woman has a BMR of around 5,900 kJ per day. Energy expenditure is continuous, but the rate varies throughout the day. The rate of energy expenditure is usually lowest in the early morning.

Factors that affect our BMR

Your BMR is influenced by multiple factors working in combination, including:

Body size – larger adult bodies have more metabolising tissue and a larger BMR.
Amount of lean muscle tissue – muscle burns kilojoules rapidly.
Amount of body fat – fat cells are ‘sluggish’ and burn far fewer kilojoules than most other tissues and organs of the body.
Crash dieting, starving or fasting – eating too few kilojoules encourages the body to slow the metabolism to conserve energy. BMR can drop by up to 15% and if lean muscle tissue is also lost, this further reduces BMR.
Age – metabolism slows with age due to loss of muscle tissue, but also due to hormonal and neurological changes.
Growth – infants and children have higher energy demands per unit of body weight due to the energy demands of growth and the extra energy needed to maintain their body temperature.
Gender – generally, men have faster metabolisms because they tend to be larger.
Genetic predisposition – your metabolic rate may be partly decided by your genes.
Hormonal and nervous controls – BMR is controlled by the nervous and hormonal systems. Hormonal imbalances can influence how quickly or slowly the body burns kilojoules.
Environmental temperature – if temperature is very low or very high, the body has to work harder to maintain its normal body temperature, which increases the BMR.
Infection or illness – BMR increases because the body has to work harder to build new tissues and to create an immune response.
Amount of physical activity – hard-working muscles need plenty of energy to burn. Regular exercise increases muscle mass and teaches the body to burn kilojoules at a faster rate, even when at rest.
Drugs – like caffeine or nicotine, can increase the BMR.
Dietary deficiencies – for example, a diet low in iodine reduces thyroid function and slows the metabolism.

Thermic effect of food

Your BMR rises after you eat because you use energy to eat, digest and metabolise the food you have just eaten. The rise occurs soon after you start eating, and peaks 2 to 3 hours later.

This rise in the BMR can range between 2% and 30%, depending on the size of the meal and the types of foods eaten.

Different foods raise BMR by differing amounts. For example:

Fats raise the BMR 0 to 5%.
Carbohydrates raise the BMR 5 to 10%.
Proteins raise the BMR 20 to 30%.
Hot spicy foods (for example, foods containing chilli, horseradish and mustard) can have a significant thermic effect.

Energy used during physical activity

During strenuous or vigorous physical activity, our muscles may burn through as much as 3,000 kJ per hour. The energy expenditure of the muscles makes up only 20% or so of total energy expenditure at rest, but during strenuous exercise, it may increase 50-fold or more.

Energy used during exercise is the only form of energy expenditure that we have any control over.

However, estimating the energy spent during exercise is difficult, as the true value for each person will vary based on factors such as their weight, age, health and the intensity with which each activity is performed.

Australia has physical activity guidelines that recommend the amount and intensity of activity by age and life stage. It’s important for our overall health that we limit our time being sedentary (sitting or lounging around) and make sure we get at least 30 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity every day.

As a rough guide:

Moderate exercise means you can talk while you’re exercising, but you can’t sing.
Vigorous exercise means you can’t talk and exercise at the same time.
Metabolism and age-related weight gain
Muscle tissue has a large appetite for kilojoules. The more muscle mass you have, the more kilojoules you will burn.

People tend to put on fat as they age, partly because the body slowly loses muscle. It is not clear whether muscle loss is a result of the ageing process or because many people are less active as they age. However, it probably has more to do with becoming less active. Research has shown that strength and resistance training can reduce or prevent this muscle loss.

If you are over 40 years of age, have a pre-existing medical condition or have not exercised in some time, see your doctor before starting a new fitness program.

Hormonal disorders of metabolism

Hormones help regulate our metabolism. Some of the more common hormonal disorders affect the thyroid. This gland secretes hormones to regulate many metabolic processes, including energy expenditure (the rate at which kilojoules are burned).

Thyroid disorders include:

Hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid) – the metabolism slows because the thyroid gland does not release enough hormones. A common cause is the autoimmune condition Hashimoto’s disease. Some of the symptoms of hypothyroidism include unusual weight gain, lethargy, depression and constipation.
Hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) – the gland releases larger quantities of hormones than necessary and speeds the metabolism. The most common cause of this condition is Graves’ disease. Some of the symptoms of hyperthyroidism include increased appetite, weight loss, nervousness and diarrhoea.

Genetic disorders of metabolism

Our genes are the blueprints for the proteins in our body, and our proteins are responsible for the digestion and metabolism of our food.

Sometimes, a faulty gene means we produce a protein that is ineffective in dealing with our food, resulting in a metabolic disorder. In most cases, genetic metabolic disorders can be managed under medical supervision, with close attention to diet.

The symptoms of genetic metabolic disorders can be very similar to those of other disorders and diseases, making it difficult to pinpoint the exact cause. See your doctor if you suspect you have a metabolic disorder.

Some genetic disorders of metabolism include:

Fructose intolerance – the inability to break down fructose, which is a type of sugar found in fruit, fruit juices, sugar (for example, cane sugar), honey and certain vegetables.
Galactosaemia – the inability to convert the carbohydrate galactose into glucose. Galactose is not found by itself in nature. It is produced when lactose is broken down by the digestive system into glucose and galactose. Sources of lactose include milk and milk products, such as yoghurt and cheese.
Phenylketonuria (PKU) – the inability to convert the amino acid phenylalanine into tyrosine. High levels of phenylalanine in the blood can cause brain damage. High-protein foods and those containing the artificial sweetener aspartame must be avoided.

Additional Information

Metabolism is the set of life-sustaining chemical reactions in organisms. The three main functions of metabolism are: the conversion of the energy in food to energy available to run cellular processes; the conversion of food to building blocks of proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and some carbohydrates; and the elimination of metabolic wastes. These enzyme-catalyzed reactions allow organisms to grow and reproduce, maintain their structures, and respond to their environments. The word metabolism can also refer to the sum of all chemical reactions that occur in living organisms, including digestion and the transportation of substances into and between different cells, in which case the above described set of reactions within the cells is called intermediary (or intermediate) metabolism.

Metabolic reactions may be categorized as catabolic – the breaking down of compounds (for example, of glucose to pyruvate by cellular respiration); or anabolic – the building up (synthesis) of compounds (such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids). Usually, catabolism releases energy, and anabolism consumes energy.

The chemical reactions of metabolism are organized into metabolic pathways, in which one chemical is transformed through a series of steps into another chemical, each step being facilitated by a specific enzyme. Enzymes are crucial to metabolism because they allow organisms to drive desirable reactions that require energy and will not occur by themselves, by coupling them to spontaneous reactions that release energy. Enzymes act as catalysts – they allow a reaction to proceed more rapidly – and they also allow the regulation of the rate of a metabolic reaction, for example in response to changes in the cell's environment or to signals from other cells.

The metabolic system of a particular organism determines which substances it will find nutritious and which poisonous. For example, some prokaryotes use hydrogen sulfide as a nutrient, yet this gas is poisonous to animals. The basal metabolic rate of an organism is the measure of the amount of energy consumed by all of these chemical reactions.

A striking feature of metabolism is the similarity of the basic metabolic pathways among vastly different species. For example, the set of carboxylic acids that are best known as the intermediates in the citric acid cycle are present in all known organisms, being found in species as diverse as the unicellular bacterium Escherichia coli and huge multicellular organisms like elephants. These similarities in metabolic pathways are likely due to their early appearance in evolutionary history, and their retention is likely due to their efficacy. In various diseases, such as type II diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and cancer, normal metabolism is disrupted. The metabolism of cancer cells is also different from the metabolism of normal cells, and these differences can be used to find targets for therapeutic intervention in cancer.


It appears to me that if one wants to make progress in mathematics, one should study the masters and not the pupils. - Niels Henrik Abel.

Nothing is better than reading and gaining more and more knowledge - Stephen William Hawking.


#2046 2024-02-01 00:07:36

Jai Ganesh
Registered: 2005-06-28
Posts: 46,201

Re: Miscellany

2048) Hospital Management


Health care managers are in charge of keeping health care facilities such as hospitals, medical centers, and doctor's offices functioning and serving the community. They make sure the facility provides the best possible care and operates smoothly. Careers in health care management have high earning potential.


Health administration, healthcare administration, healthcare management or hospital management is the field relating to leadership, management, and administration of public health systems, health care systems, hospitals, and hospital networks in all the primary, secondary, and tertiary sectors.


Health systems management or health care systems management describes the leadership and general management of hospitals, hospital networks, and/or health care systems. In international use, the term refers to management at all levels. In the United States, management of a single institution (e.g. a hospital) is also referred to as "medical and health services management", "healthcare management", or "health administration".

Health systems management ensures that specific outcomes are attained that departments within a health facility are running smoothly that the right people are in the right jobs, that people know what is expected of them, that resources are used efficiently and that all departments are working towards a common goal for mutual development and growth.

Hospital administrators

Hospital administrators are individuals or groups of people who act as the central point of control within hospitals. These individuals may be previous or current clinicians, or individuals with other healthcare backgrounds. There are two types of administrators, generalists and specialists. Generalists are individuals who are responsible for managing or helping to manage an entire facility. Specialists are individuals who are responsible for the efficient and effective operations of a specific department such as policy analysis, finance, accounting, budgeting, human resources, or marketing.

It was reported in September 2014, that the United States spends roughly $218 billion per year on hospital's administration costs, which is equivalent to 1.43 percent of the total U.S. economy. Hospital administration has grown as a percent of the U.S. economy from .9 percent in 2000 to 1.43 percent in 2012, according to Health Affairs. In 11 countries, hospitals allocate approximately 12 percent of their budget toward administrative costs. In the United States, hospitals spend 25 percent on administrative costs.


NCHL competencies that require to engage with credibility, creativity, and motivation in complex and dynamic health care environments.

* Accountability
* Achievement orientation
* Change leadership
* Collaboration
* Communication skills
* Financial Skills
* Impact and influence
* Innovative thinking
* Organizational awareness
* Professionalism
* Self-confidence
* Strategic orientation
* Talent development
* Team leadership


The healthcare industry depends on the efforts of many different healthcare professionals. Of course, you have your doctors, nurses, and other healthcare workers, but that is not all. Hospitals, nursing homes, and other healthcare institutions also need people for administrative jobs.

A healthcare institution’s job is to ensure its patients receive the best care possible in every aspect. For that, they need administrative professionals who are ready to take on the challenge of managing hospitals and other healthcare facilities.

The healthcare industry’s CAGR for 2023-2027 is forecasted to be about 10.95%, while its projected market volume is $92.01 billion by 2027. With this growth rate, we can easily assume that the demand for hospital management professionals is soon to grow even more.

If you are considering becoming a hospital and healthcare management professional, now is a perfect time!

Let us take you through the details of hospital management, a career, its scope and various other aspects.

What is Hospital Management?

Hospital Management is a field comprising different healthcare professions at different levels, all working together to ensure the smooth running of healthcare facilities. Hospital management professionals are tasked with running the administrative operations of nursing homes, clinics, and hospitals. Their job includes staff management, administrative planning, accounting, public relations, etc. All with the goal of making sure that the patients receive the best care possible.

Hospital Management Career Scope

Hospital management is a vast field with lots of opportunities for everyone. People from medical and non-medical backgrounds can easily build a career in this field. With Bachelor’s, Master’s, or certification in hospital management, you can easily navigate lucrative career opportunities here.

Let’s take a look at some of the best career options professionals with a hospital management degree can pursue.

1. Healthcare Manager
A Healthcare Manager’s primary job role in a medical facility is supervising different medical services of the institution. Other spheres of their responsibilities may include coordinating different departments, ensuring smooth communication between healthcare professionals, and arranging schedules and budgets. Strategic planning, personnel training, and budgeting are a few of the most significant aspects of their jobs.

2. Clinical Manager
Clinics are outpatient facilities that extend work opportunities to individuals with a hospital management degree. The job of a Clinical Manager is to make sure that the clinic’s daily operations run efficiently. With excellent communication and organisational skills, a Clinical Manager helps officials hire new staff, communicate with professionals, and ensure patient care. A Clinical Manager can also become a Clinical Director with enough knowledge and experience under their belt.

3. Healthcare Human Resources Professional
Human Resources (HR) is a vital part of any industry. HR professionals are tasked with recruitment, employee relations, training, administration, and various other tasks essential to any organisation. In the healthcare field, they need acute knowledge of HR practices and the healthcare system.

4. Nursing Supervisor
Nursing supervisors are tasked with the job of overseeing and managing all the nursing staff at any healthcare facility. That includes handling all of their schedules, assigning patients, and ensuring that the nursing staff comply with the nursing standards while working.

5. Health Information Manager
Information management is a crucial part of the healthcare field. With an abundance of data simultaneously being handled simultaneously, it is their job to ensure all the information is accurate, secure, and documented properly. Maintaining the integrity and security of data while also implementing guidelines and systems to improve the record-keeping process of the organisation is the main job of a health information manager.

Career opportunities in the healthcare domain are expanding massively, and with proper training and experience, you can be a part of this noble field!

Hospital Management Salary

Since the field of hospital operations management is so vast and nuanced, it is hard to pinpoint a salary in this field. Depending on your job role and experience, your annual salary in this field will vary. The more experience you gain in this field, the more your salary will increase.

How to Become a Hospital Operations Management Professional

The educational requirements, skills, and experience are all deciding factors when you want to get a job in hospital operations management. There are options for Bachelor’s and Master’s degrees, MBAs, and PG Diplomas that can help you become a trained healthcare professional. Some higher-ranking jobs also require the candidates to have a PhD in hospital administration to qualify for the position.

Here’s how you can navigate your path:

* Bachelor in Hospital Administration degree: A minimum of 50% marks in 10+2 from any state-recognised board is necessary for you to qualify for a BHA degree. Depending on the institution, you must also clear a CET test and personal interview to enrol in a college. The duration of this course is 3 years.
* Master of Hospital Administration Degree: A BHA degree with a minimum of 55% aggregate marks from a recognised university or a Bachelor’s degree in a Medical or science-related field with 55% marks is necessary to take admission in an MHA course. Depending on the university, you might also need to clear the CAT or TISS exams to take admission. The duration of this course is 2 years.
* MBA in Healthcare Management or Hospital Management: Along with a 50% mark in your Bachelor’s degree, you must also pass a CAT, XAT, or MAT exam to qualify for this course. The duration of an MBA course is 2 years.
* Post Graduate Diploma course in Health Management: A bachelor’s degree from any medical-related field is necessary for you to be admitted to a PG Diploma course in Health Management. These are usually professional courses that last for a year, so you will need some previous work experience in a field to qualify.
* PhD in Hospital Administration: A minimum of 55% marks in your MHA degree and five years of hands-on work experience are necessary for anyone to qualify for this degree. To be eligible, you must also pass the NET exams and personal interview rounds.

Hospital Management Skills

Relevant education is not the only thing you need to work in the hospital management field. The professionals working here need to have some key skills to survive in the field, as it requires them to be in contact with numerous people and handle difficult situations.

Here are some of the key skills you will need as a hospital and healthcare management professional:

* Teamwork
* Negotiation
* Communication
* Decision making
* Relationship building
* Analytical and logical skills
* Leadership
* Interpersonal skills
* Time management
* Research
* Problem-solving

It is a combination of education, soft skills, and experience that can ensure you a prospering career in hospital management.

Additional Information:

What Is Hospital Management?

Knowing about what is hospital management is essential is because these professionals oversee the running of health care facilities. They work alongside doctors, nurses and other health care professionals to ensure that various departments in an institution like hospitals, nursing homes and clinics work together. Hospital management professionals help run the daily operations of health care facilities and improve the quality of care for patients. They work on strategic plans to achieve these goals.

Job Roles Available In Hospital Management

You can find hospital management jobs at various levels of seniority. For example, you can manage the pharmacy as a pharmaceutical manager or oversee the entire operations of a large hospital as a health care administrator. Here are a few jobs that a qualified health care management professional can apply to:

1. Hospital Administrator

Primary duties: A hospital administrator, also called a hospital manager, manages all the departments of a smaller health care facility or heads a specific department within a larger hospital. In this role, they manage staff hires, oversee training programs and conduct periodic employee evaluations. Hospital administrators also ensure that the facility they oversee adheres to the latest medical laws and guidelines.

2. Hospital Financial Manager

Primary duties: This is a senior-level post only available to people with considerable experience in health care management. Hospital financial managers oversee contracts with medical equipment manufacturers and pharmaceutical companies that supply medicines. They are in charge of the hospital's finances. Financial managers who supervise hospitals understand medical equipment and supplies and corporate financial management.

3. Medical Director

Primary duties: These doctors oversee patient care and clinical practices at an establishment. Using administrative and clinical skills, the medical director guides staff on best clinical practices to provide quality care, risk management and other safety initiatives. Most medical director positions require that candidates have a Doctor of Medicine (MD) degree and a few years of experience as a clinical practitioner.

4. Medical College Dean

Primary duties: Deans at medical colleges report to upper management. Working in medical colleges, they are responsible for administrative leadership. Common duties include overseeing curriculum development, handling hiring and human resource functions, taking responsibility for finance and budget-related decisions, starting projects for facility improvement and improving operations at an institutional level. This high-profile role requires an advanced degree.

5. Clinical Manager

Primary duties: Working at outpatient facilities like clinics, a clinic manager oversees its daily operations. They help hire staff, coordinate patient care plans and liaise with the clinic's staff. Clinical managers need excellent organisational, administrative and communication skills.

6. Health Information Manager

Primary duties: Information governance is a health information manager's responsibility. This involves taking care of health care data, such as patient records, to maintain its privacy, security and integrity. On a typical day, a health information manager implements systems and guidelines for accurate documentation of medical reports, works with doctors to improve the record-keeping process and collaborates with coding teams to check that programs used for documentation function well.

7. Medical Coding Specialist

Primary duties: Hospitals, clinics and other health care facilities employ medical coders to code health information details for billing. Different from computer programming, medical coding involves logging details like diagnoses, procedures, conditions and prescribed treatments. Health care managers with greater attention to detail are in a better position to take on this role.

8. Research Manager

Primary duties: When a research facility runs clinical trials to evaluate new medicines, treatment methods and equipment, it needs a research manager to oversee the trial. Research managers lead teams of research associates, check if the trial complies with government regulations and verify whether each research project achieves its desired outcome.

9. Public Health Program Manager

Primary duties: Government bodies conducting research programs on public health appoint managers to make sure they achieve the project's goal. These program managers take charge of budgeting and performance evaluations of health care professionals working on the project. They also develop project-specific work guidelines and policies for everyone involved.

10. Health Care HR Manager

Primary duties: HR professionals in health care are familiar with both the health care industry and HR practices. They take care of hiring employees, training them and evaluating their performance. People in this role are strong multitaskers and have great communication and organisational skills.

11. Hospital CEO

Primary duties: A CEO is responsible for the smooth operation of a health care facility. They are accountable for everything that goes on in the facility. People applying for this role need considerable experience in hospital administration and an expert understanding of the inner workings of various departments. Everyone in a hospital management position reports to the CEO.

Typical Duties And Responsibilities In Hospital Management

There are many roles within hospital management, each with a unique set of responsibilities. Some tasks are common to all these job titles, including:

* Working with multiple departments and acting as intermediaries between doctors, governing boards, department heads and other health care staff
* Helping various departments work together to achieve the goals of the health care facility
* Overseeing hiring, training and policies that ensure the quality of patient care
* Getting involved in budgeting and setting costs for health care services
* Conducting employee evaluations
* Setting up policies and guidelines for medical treatment procedures
* Handling public relations, staff meetings, fundraisers and conventions

Steps To Begin A Career In Hospital Management

Hospitals and other health care organisations expect candidates to be qualified, as this role is crucial. Here are the steps you can take to qualify for a role in hospital management:

1. Complete your high school education
An undergraduate degree is a minimum requirement to work in hospital management. Completing Class XII is a prerequisite. Choose biology as one of your subjects and pass with a minimum of 50% to qualify for a Bachelor of Hospital Administration (BHA).

2. Earn an undergraduate degree
The degree most people choose for a hospital management career is a BHA or a bachelor's degree in health care management. You can also pursue a medicine-related B.Sc degree such as anatomy or physiology, or a non-medical BSc majoring in subjects like zoology, microbiology or biochemistry. Some choose to pursue a Bachelor of Business Administration (BBA) specialising in health care management or administration.

Although it is not always necessary, you can also apply for hospital management jobs by pursuing a medical degree like Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) or Bachelor of Dental Surgery (BDS). A few hospitals require an MBBS if you apply to positions such as hospital CEO.

3. Earn a postgraduate degree
Once you have earned an undergraduate degree, you can pursue a degree like:

* MBA in hospital management
* MBA in hospital administration
* Master of Hospital Administration
* M.Sc in hospital administration

These degrees require a graduate degree in either medical or non-medical fields. Some major institutions insist that applicants to their MHA program have a medical degree, such as MBBS. Besides these programs, you can complete the one-year course in hospital administration by the Indian Society of Health Administrators (ISHA).

4. Earn a doctorate degree (Optional)
Some candidates earn a doctorate degree after their post-graduate courses. This can give you an added advantage when applying for a competitive post. Choices include Doctor of Medicine (MD) or an M.Phil in hospital management.

Where Can You Find Health Care Jobs?

Hospital management has applications in everything from large multispecialty hospitals to small outpatient clinics. The following list describes the various institutions where you can find work in a hospital management position:

* Hospitals: Superspeciality, multispeciality and general hospitals need qualified hospital management professionals. The number of positions available at such an institution depends on its size, nature and workforce.
* Health clinics and private practice: Smaller outpatient clinics and doctors' private care facilities also need hospital management staff. The number of positions available per facility is lesser here.
* Pharmaceutical companies: Pharmaceutical manufacturing companies hire hospital management experts. Positions like pharmacy manager are available at hospitals.
* Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs): NGOs with a focus on health care hire hospital management professionals in positions like project head and research team manager.


It appears to me that if one wants to make progress in mathematics, one should study the masters and not the pupils. - Niels Henrik Abel.

Nothing is better than reading and gaining more and more knowledge - Stephen William Hawking.


#2047 2024-02-02 00:11:49

Jai Ganesh
Registered: 2005-06-28
Posts: 46,201

Re: Miscellany

2049) Medical Representative


They hold a strong key link between them. In simple words, the meaning of Medical representative is a person appointed by a medical company who further develop a network with healthcare professionals in order to promote new products, deals with sales, offer advice, and inform the usage of products.


Pharmaceutical marketing is a branch of marketing science and practice focused on the communication, differential positioning and commercialization of pharmaceutical products, like specialist drugs, biotech drugs and over-the-counter drugs. By extension, this definition is sometimes also used for marketing practices applied to nutraceuticals and medical devices.

Whilst rule of law regulating pharmaceutical industry marketing activities is widely variable across the world, pharmaceutical marketing is usually strongly regulated by international and national agencies, like the Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency. Local regulations from government or local pharmaceutical industry associations like Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America or European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations (EFPIA) can further limit or specify allowed commercial practices.

To health care providers

Marketing to health-care providers takes three main forms: activity by pharmaceutical sales representatives, provision of drug samples, and sponsoring continuing medical education (CME). The use of gifts, including pens and coffee mugs embossed with pharmaceutical product names, has been prohibited by PHRMA ethics guidelines since 2008. Of the 237,000 medical sites representing 680,000 physicians surveyed in SK&A's 2010 Physician Access survey, half said they prefer or require an appointment to see a rep (up from 38.5% preferring or requiring an appointment in 2008), while 23% won't see reps at all, according to the survey data. Practices owned by hospitals or health systems are tougher to get into than private practices, since appointments have to go through headquarters, the survey found. 13.3% of offices with just one or two doctors won't see representatives, compared with a no-see rate of 42% at offices with 10 or more doctors. The most accessible physicians for promotional purposes are allergists/immunologists – only 4.2% won't see reps at all – followed by orthopedic specialists (5.1%) and diabetes specialists (7.6%). Diagnostic radiologists are the most rigid about allowing details – 92.1% won't see reps – followed by pathologists and neuroradiologists, at 92.1% and 91.8%, respectively.

E-detailing is widely used to reach "no see physicians"; approximately 23% of primary care physicians and 28% of specialists prefer computer-based e-detailing, according to survey findings reported in the 25 April 2011 edition of American Medical News (AMNews), published by the American Medical Association (AMA).

PhRMA Code

The Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA) released updates to its voluntary Code on Interactions with Healthcare Professionals on 10 July 2008. The new guidelines took effect in January 2009.

In addition to prohibiting small gifts and reminder items such as pens, notepads, staplers, clipboards, paperweights, pill boxes, etc., the revised Code:

* Prohibits company sales representatives providing restaurant meals to healthcare professionals, but allows them to provide occasional modest meals in healthcare professionals' offices in conjunction with informational presentations"
Includes new provisions requiring companies to ensure their representatives are sufficiently trained about applicable laws, regulations, and industry codes of practice and ethics.
* Provides that each company will state its intentions to abide by the Code and that company CEOs and compliance officers will certify each year that they have processes in place to comply.
* Includes more detailed standards regarding the independence of continuing medical education.
* Provides additional guidance and restrictions for speaking and consulting arrangements with healthcare professionals.

Free samples

Free samples have been shown to affect physician prescribing behavior. Physicians with access to free samples are more likely to prescribe brand name medication over equivalent generic medications. Other studies found that free samples decreased the likelihood that physicians would follow the standard of care practices.

Receiving pharmaceutical samples does not reduce prescription costs. Even after receiving samples, sample recipients remain disproportionately burdened by prescription costs.

It is argued that a benefit to free samples is the "try it before you buy it" approach. Free samples give immediate access to the medication and the patient can begin treatment right away. It also saves time from going to a pharmacy to get it filled before treatment begins. Since not all medications work for everyone, and many do not work the same way for each person, free samples allow patients to find which dose and brand of medication works best before having to spend money on a filled prescription at a pharmacy.

Continuing medical education

Hours spent by physicians in industry-supported continuing medical education (CME) is greater than that from either medical schools or professional societies.

Pharmaceutical representatives

Currently, there are approximately 81,000 pharmaceutical sales representatives in the United States pursuing some 830,000 pharmaceutical prescribers. A pharmaceutical representative will often try to see a given physician every few weeks. Representatives often have a call list of about 200–300 physicians with 120–180 targets that should be visited in 1–2 or 3 week cycle.

Because of the large size of the pharmaceutical sales force, the organization, management, and measurement of effectiveness of the sales force are significant business challenges. Management tasks are usually broken down into the areas of physician targeting, sales force size and structure, sales force optimization, call planning, and sales forces effectiveness. A few pharmaceutical companies have realized that training sales representatives on high science alone is not enough, especially when most products are similar in quality. Thus, training sales representatives on relationship selling techniques in addition to medical science and product knowledge, can make a difference in sales force effectiveness. Specialist physicians are relying more and more on specialty sales reps for product information, because they are more knowledgeable than primary care reps.

The United States has 81,000 pharmaceutical representatives or 1 for every 7.9 physicians. The number and persistence of pharmaceutical representatives has placed a burden on the time of physicians. "As the number of reps went up, the amount of time an average rep spent with doctors went down—so far down, that tactical scaling has spawned a strategic crisis. Physicians no longer spend much time with sales reps, nor do they see this as a serious problem."

Marketers must decide on the appropriate size of a sales force needed to sell a particular portfolio of drugs to the target market. Factors influencing this decision are the optimal reach (how many physicians to see) and frequency (how often to see them) for each individual physician, how many patients with that disease state, how many sales representatives to devote to office and group practice and how many to devote to hospital accounts if needed. To aid this decision, customers are broken down into different classes according to their prescription behavior, patient population, their business potential, and event their personality traits.

Marketers attempt to identify the set of physicians most likely to prescribe a given drug. Historically, this was done by drug reps 'on the ground' using zip code sales and engaging in recon to figure out who the high prescribers were in a particular sales territory. However, in the mid-1990s the industry, through third-party prescribing data (e.g., Quintiles/IMS) switched to "script-tracking"  technologies, measuring the number of total prescriptions (TRx) and new prescriptions (NRx) per week that each physician writes. This information is collected by commercial vendors. The physicians are then "deciled" into ten groups based on their writing patterns. Higher deciles are more aggressively targeted. Some pharmaceutical companies use additional information such as:

* Profitability of a prescription (script)
* Accessibility of the physician
* Tendency of the physician to use the pharmaceutical company's drugs
* Effect of managed care formularies on the ability of the physician to prescribe a drug
* The adoption sequence of the physician (that is, how readily the physician adopts new drugs in place of older treatments)
* The tendency of the physician to use a wide palette of drugs
* Influence that physicians have on their colleagues.

Physicians are perhaps the most important component in sales. They write the prescriptions that determine which drugs will be used by people. Influencing the physician is the key to pharmaceutical sales. Historically, by a large pharmaceutical sales force. A medium-sized pharmaceutical company might have a sales force of 1000 representatives. The largest companies have tens of thousands of representatives around the world. Sales representatives called upon physicians regularly, providing clinical information, approved journal articles, and free drug samples. This is still the approach today; however, economic pressures on the industry are causing pharmaceutical companies to rethink the traditional sales process to physicians. The industry has seen a large scale adoption of Pharma CRM systems that works on laptops and more recently tablets. The new age pharmaceutical representative is armed with key data at his fingertips and tools to maximize the time spent with physicians.


If you are looking for a rewarding career in the healthcare setting, you can consider becoming a medical representative. These professionals use healthcare knowledge and sales skills to promote and sell pharmaceutical supplies to different medical facilities. While you will not work with patients directly, you will build networks with doctors and educate them on the latest medical supplies available. In this article, we will discuss what is a medical representative, understand their role, salary and skills required and explore the step required to become a medical representative.

What is a medical representative?

Medical representatives or medical sales representatives promote and sell medical products, including equipment, prescription medicines and drugs manufactured by their company to different healthcare facilities. They ensure that a medical facility has the proper medical supplies to operate and serve its patients. Also, these professionals implement different strategies to create awareness about the products they are selling.

What is the role of a medical representative?

The primary roles and responsibilities of a medical representative are:

* Informing and presenting a new medical product to doctors and other healthcare professionals
* Maintaining appointment and meetings with medical professionals
* Using product knowledge and information to influence healthcare professionals to prescribe their medication or use their equipment
* Learning and understanding the needs of doctors and physicians
* Staying updated with the latest innovation in the medical sector
* Negotiating sales contract and deeds
* Maintaining client relationship and ensuring client satisfaction with their medical products.
* Performing research on competitors to analyse the success and value of the product they are selling
* Creating pitches that make their medical product valuable to patients
* Meeting with medical scientists to gain knowledge about specialised products
* Following up with doctors to understand their feedback regarding your medical products

Is medical representative a good career?

A medical representative can be a good career because of the following reasons:

* Opportunity for career growth: with experience and the right skill set, a medical representative can make an advancement in their career in no time. You can transition from a field trainer to a sales manager within a few years. Also, the job role provides a lot of growth opportunities.
* Offers flexibility: setting their working hours and creating their schedule is one of the primary benefits of this job role.
* Higher earning potential: most companies offer high bonuses to medical representatives who excel at their work and surpass their targets.
* Provides job satisfaction: the drugs, medicine or medical equipment you sell will eventually save patients' lives. As the products you sell directly affect the well-being of the patients, it results in job satisfaction.
* Builds strong relationships: medical representatives build a strong professional network with doctors and other medical professionals in their sales area.
* Continually learn new things: as the medical sector is prone to rapid changes, these professionals continually learn about new products and explore new ways to apply the existing products.

Skills of a medical representative

Here are some essential skills every medical representative should have:

Communications skills

A medical representative communicates, educates and explains the benefits of a new medical supply to healthcare professionals. This requires excellent communication skills to explain your products' potential benefits and superiority over your competitors. Also, clear communication skills help them to promote and sell new products.

Organisational skills

A typical workday for such professionals consists of meetings, deadlines and reschedules. So, employers prefer candidates who can efficiently organise themselves and respond to the changing work environment. An organised sales representative will always plan their day to utilise their time efficiently.

Active listening skills

When promoting your medical supplies, a representative should first listen to doctors and physicians' problems while treating patients. That is why employers prefer candidates with excellent active listening skills. Also, these representatives ask targeted questions to understand the doctor's issue in-depth and offer customised solutions.


Most representatives are responsible for their sales area and client base. This means that you should have the ability to hold yourself accountable for boosting sales, building relationships and managing workload. So, employers prefer candidates who are self-motivated and do everything possible to achieve success in the workplace.

Technical skills

These professionals should have an excellent technical grasp of the medical equipment or medicine they recommend to doctors. In addition, knowing the effects of the drug, the potential side effects, drug interaction and any other precaution related to the use of the drug is essential. Often, doctors may ask you questions related to a particular medical supply and as a representative, you should answer such queries.

Negotiation and persuasion

As medical sales representatives meet with different healthcare professionals, they have to negotiate terms and price on sales agreement and draw up contracts. This requires excellent negotiation skills. Also, the ability to influence the decision of doctors and physicians in your favour is another skill that employers prefer.


As physicians and doctors are professional with hectic schedules, they may cancel your appointment last minute. So, being patient with medical professionals who are challenging to connect with is a desirable skill. Also, it requires a great deal of flexibility from your end. When a doctor has a time slot free in their busy schedule, try to be flexible and meet them at that time slot.

How to become a medical representative

If you wish to pursue a career as a medical representative, follow these steps:

1. Earn a degree
Most medical representatives have a bachelor's degree in biology, pharmacy, nursing, life sciences and other related fields. Even candidates with a Biomedical Engineering degree and Master of Business Administration (MBA) in healthcare can enter this field. A master's degree in business or life sciences can further your knowledge and make you a desirable candidate for such job roles. The bachelor's degree you complete can influence and determine your specialisation area.

2. Choose a specialisation
The next step is exploring your professional and personal interests and deciding on your specialisation. You can choose from various specialisations, including medical equipment, medical device, biotechnology or pharmaceutical. Always choose a field in which you are passionate, as it can help you advance your career faster.

3. Enrol in a certification
Based on your specialisation and to increase your employment prospect, consider enrolling in medical sales representative certification. Many government and non-government institutions offer certification course that can help you improve your knowledge. Though certifications are not mandatory, they can help you advance in your career.

4. Develop your skills
As a medical representative, you need to focus on developing your skills to excel at your workplace. Communication, time-management, flexibility, persuasion, organisation are a few soft skills that can make you the best-fit candidate. So, try to develop new skills and improve your existing ones to get a job of your choice.

5. Get field experience
You can get some field experience through paid or unpaid internships. For example, you will complete a mandatory internship if you have an engineering or MBA degree. So, use the opportunity to get some field experience. You can even focus on shadowing a medical representative in your specialisation to gain some relevant field experience. Also, you can gain experience by doing marketing for a medical facility or customer service for a hospital.

6. Complete training
Often, pharmaceutical companies and medical institutes offer vocational training programs to equip medical representatives with knowledge about this profession. However, regardless of the training program you choose, know the latest trends and technology in the medical sector. It can help you select the right training course.

7. Grow your network
During your graduation or post-graduation, you can attend medical conferences and networking events to connect with professionals from this field. Having industry contacts can help you get a job and keep you updated with the latest trends and technologies. You can even use your social media profiles to build a strong network with people from the medical industry.

Additional Information

Medical representatives are the mediators who work both for pharmaceutical or medical companies and healthcare professionals. They hold a strong key link between them. In simple words, the meaning of Medical representative is a person appointed by a medical company who further develop a network with healthcare professionals in order to promote new products, deals with sales, offer advice, and inform the usage of products. Here are the role and responsibilities of Medical representatives in the PCD Pharma Franchise company.

What is Medical Representative and its Role and Responsibilities

A medical representative holds vast marketing knowledge with good communication skills, convincing power, and advanced marketing strategies. He is appointed for the sake of pharma companies so as their products can easily reach the industry specialists and can further be used by common people.

Who is or What is Medical Representative?

There is a list of questions lined up to understand a person known as a medical representative, and you already got the answer above in the first paragraph. He represents the medical products of the company in which he’s working in front of doctors, medical practitioners, hospitals and chemists to prescribe them to patients. They share their whole knowledge regarding the product; benefits, functions, importance and difference.

Role & Responsibilities of Medical Representative

The job role of a medical representative is really very hard and challenging. The importance of a brand is truly dependent on the shoulders of a medical representative. Each representative has given his own territory to manage the work and would be easy for them to build stronger bonds. Their job profile involves establishing and maintaining contact with the customers and meeting the targets at the end of the month.

Being the building blocks of a company, they lay a foundation that leads to the company’s growth.

Their role is crucial and put a great impact. Some of the responsibilities cover:

* Identifying and meeting new customers like doctors, pharmacists
* Achieving sales targets and maintaining records
* Customer service and support
* Developing regular interactions
* Promoting new products and their offerings
* Providing market feedback to the company


It appears to me that if one wants to make progress in mathematics, one should study the masters and not the pupils. - Niels Henrik Abel.

Nothing is better than reading and gaining more and more knowledge - Stephen William Hawking.


#2048 2024-02-03 00:40:26

Jai Ganesh
Registered: 2005-06-28
Posts: 46,201

Re: Miscellany

2050) Asian Games


The 2026 Asian Summer Games will be held in Aichi-Nagoya, Japan from 19 September to 4 October 2026. The golf competitions will be held at the Aichi Country Club Higashiyama Course.

The Asian Games is a continental multi-sport event, held every four years amongst athletes from the 45 member nations of Asia. The Games are organised by the Olympic Council Of Asia (OCA).

Golf was played at the Asian Games for the first time in 1982 in New Delhi, India.

Doha, Qatar will host the 2030 Asian Summer Games , with the golf competitions to be played at the Qatar Foundation Golf Course. Riyadh, Saudi Arabia will host the 2034 Asian Summer Games , with the Nofa Golf Resort hosting the golf events.


Asian Games is regional games sponsored by the Olympic Council of Asia for men and women athletes from Asian countries affiliated with the International Olympic Committee.

The first games were held in 1951 at New Delhi; from 1954 they were held every four years. Athletes from 11 nations participated in the inaugural games, which featured six sports (association football, athletics, basketball, cycling, swimming, and weight lifting). Forty-one nations were represented in the 2002 Asian Games in Pusan, South Korea, where events in 38 sports were contested.

The Asian Games, like most international sports festivals, were subject to many boycotts and exclusions based on political differences. In 1963 the Asian communist countries formed GANEFO (Games for the New Emerging Forces), which held games without approval from the International Association of Athletics Federations in 1966. In general, GANEFO performances were better than those of the Asian Games, but only two festivals were held. In the 1970s the communist countries rejoined the Asian Games.


The Asian Games, also known as Asiad, is a continental multi-sport event held every fourth year among athletes from all over Asia. The Games were regulated by the Asian Games Federation (AGF) from the first Games in New Delhi, India in 1951, until the 1978 Games. Since the 1982 Games, they have been organized by the Olympic Council of Asia (OCA), after the breakup of the Asian Games Federation. The Games are recognized by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) and are described as the second largest multi-sport event after the Olympic Games.

Nine nations have hosted the Asian Games. Forty-six nations have participated in the Games, including Israel, which was excluded from the Games after its last participation in 1974. The last edition of the games was held in Hangzhou, China from 23 September to 8 October 2023.

Since 2010, it has been common for the host of the Asian Games to host the Asian Para Games held shortly after the end of the Games. This event is exclusive for athletes with disabilities as with the continental version of the Paralympic Games. But unlike what happens in the Paralympic Games where the host city's contract mentions the holding of both events, the case of Asia does not mention the mandatory holding of both. Instead, the exclusion of the Asian Para Games from the Asian Games host city's contract means that both events run independently from one other, and may lead to occasions in the future that the two events be held in different cities and countries.



The Far Eastern Championship Games existed previous to the Asian Games, the former mooted in 1912 for a location set between Japan, the Philippines, and China. The inaugural Far Eastern Games were held in Manila in 1913 with 6 participating nations. There were ten Far Eastern Games held by 1934. The second Sino-Japanese War in 1934, and Japan's insistence on including the Manchu Empire as a competitor nation in the Games, brought China to announce its withdrawal from participation. The Far Eastern Games scheduled for 1938 were cancelled. The organization was discontinued.


After World War II, several areas in Asia became sovereign states. Many of these countries sought to exhibit Asian prowess without violence. At the London 1948 Summer Olympics, a conversation started amongst China and the Philippines to restore the idea of the Far Eastern Games. Guru Dutt Sondhi, the Indian International Olympic Committee representative, believed that the restoration of the Far Eastern Games would sufficiently display the spirit of unity and level of achievement taking place in Asian sports. He proposed the idea of a new competition – which came to be the Asian Games. The Asian Athletic Federation would eventually be formed. A preparatory committee was set up to draft the charter for this new body. On 13 February 1949, the Asian Athletic Federation was formally inaugurated in and New Delhi, announced as the inaugural host city to be held in 1950.

Tumultuous years of crises

In 1962, the Games were hit by several crises. The host country Indonesia, refused to permit the participation of Israel and Taiwan due to political recognition issues. The IOC terminated its sponsorship of the Games and terminated Indonesia's membership in the IOC. The Asian Football Confederation (AFC), International Amateur Athletics Federation (IAAF) and International Weightlifting Federation (IWF), also removed their recognition of the Games.

South Korea renounced its plan to host the 1970 Asian Games on the grounds of a national security crisis; the main reason was due to a financial crisis. The previous host, Thailand, would host the Games in Bangkok using funds transferred from South Korea. Japan was asked to host but declined the opportunity as they were already committed to Expo '70 in Osaka. This edition marked the Games' inaugural television broadcasting, world-wide. In Tehran, in 1974, the Games formally recognized the participation of China, North Korea, and Mongolia. Israel was allowed to participate despite the opposition from the Arab world, while Taiwan was permitted to continue taking part (as "Chinese Taipei") although its status was abolished in general meeting on 16 November 1973 by Games Federation.

Prior to the 1978 Games, Pakistan retracted its plan to host the 1975 Games due to a financial crisis and political issues. Thailand offer to host and the Games were held in Bangkok. As in 1962, Taiwan and Israel were refused the participation by Games Federation, amid political issues and security fears. Several governing bodies protested the ban. The International Olympic Committee threatened to bar the participating athletes from the 1980 Summer Olympics. Several nations withdraw prior to the Games opening.

Reorganization and expansion

These events led the National Olympic Committees in Asia to revise the constitution of the Asian Games Federation. The Olympic Council of Asia was created in November 1981, excluding Israel and Taiwan. India was scheduled to host in 1982 and the OCA decided to maintain the old AGF timetable. The OCA formally started to supervise the Games starting with the 1986 Asian Games scheduled for Seoul, South Korea. In the 1990 Asian Games, held in Beijing, Taiwan (Republic of China) was re-admitted, under pressure by the People's Republic of China to compete as Chinese Taipei.

The 1994 Games held in Hiroshima included the inaugural participation of the former 5 republics of the Soviet Union who were part of Central Asia: Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. It was also the first edition of the Games held in a host country outside its capital city. However, Iraq was suspended from the Games due to the 1990 Persian Gulf War. North Korea boycotted the Games due to political issues with the host country. The Games were hampered during the opening ceremony due to a heart attack that killed Nareshkumar Adhikari, the chief of the Nepalese delegation.

The 1998 Games marked the fourth time the Games were held in Bangkok, Thailand. This time the city participated in a bidding process. The opening ceremony was on 6 December; the previous three were on 9 December. King Bhumibol Adulyadej opened the Games; the closing ceremony was on 20 December (the same date as all the previous games hosted by Thailand).


The Asian Games Movement uses symbols to represent the ideals embodied in the Asian Games charter. The Asian Games motto is "Ever Onward" which was designed and proposed by Guru Dutt Sondhi upon the creation of the Asian Games Federation in 1949. The Asian Games symbol is a bright sun in red with 16 rays and a white circle in the middle of its disc which represents the ever glimmering and warm spirit of the Asian people.


Since the 1982 Asian Games in New Delhi, India, the Asian Games have had a mascot, usually an animal native to the area or occasionally human figures representing the cultural heritage.


All 45 members affiliated to the Olympic Council of Asia (OCA) are eligible to participate in the Games.

According to membership in the OCA, transcontinental Kazakhstan is an Asian country and could participate at Asian Games but this right could not applicate for Egypt as the country had 6% of the territory on Sinai, participating in the African Games instead. Various countries participating in the European Games rather than the Asian Games whose major geographical parts located in Asian continent: Turkey and Russia/Soviet Union; almost completely in Asia: Azerbaijan and Georgia; wholly in Asia: Cyprus and Armenia.

In history, 46 National Olympic Committees (NOCs) have sent competitors to the Games. Israel has been excluded from the Games since 1976, the reason cited as being due to security reasons. Israel requested to participate in the 1982 Games, but the request was rejected by the organizers due to the Munich massacre. Israel is now a member of the European Olympic Committees (EOC) and competes at the European Games.

Taiwan, Palestine, Hong Kong, and Macau participate in the Asian Games according to membership in OCA. Due to its continuing ambiguous political status, Taiwan participates in the Games under the flag of Chinese Taipei since 1990. Macau since 1990 Games is allowed to compete as one of the NOCs in Asian Games, despite not being recognized by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) for participation in the Olympic Games.

In 2007, the President of OCA, Sheikh Ahmed Al-Fahad Al-Ahmed Al-Sabah, rejected the proposal to allow Australia to participate in the Games. He stated that while Australia would add good value to the Asian Games, it would be unfair to the Oceania National Olympic Committees (ONOC). Being members of ONOC, Australia and New Zealand participate in Pacific Games since 2015. This motion was mooted again in 2017 after Australia's participation in the 2017 Asian Winter Games as they are in discussions to become a full Asian Games member in a near future. However, the Australian Olympic Committee announced that Australia would be allowed a small contingent of athletes for the 2022 Games, as long as the qualification for Summer Olympics events such as basketball and volleyball are through Asia-Pacific region.

There are only seven countries, namely India, Indonesia, Japan, the Philippines, Sri Lanka, Singapore and Thailand that have competed in all editions of the games.


It appears to me that if one wants to make progress in mathematics, one should study the masters and not the pupils. - Niels Henrik Abel.

Nothing is better than reading and gaining more and more knowledge - Stephen William Hawking.


#2049 2024-02-04 00:03:05

Jai Ganesh
Registered: 2005-06-28
Posts: 46,201

Re: Miscellany

2051) Olympic Games


The Olympic Games (often referred to simply as The Olympics) are the worlds premier multi-sport international athletic competition held every four years in various locations. Separate summer and winter games are now held two years apart from each other. Until 1992, they were held in the same year.

The original Olympic Games began in c. 776 B.C.E. in Olympia, Greece, and were hosted for nearly a thousand years, until 393 C.E.. The Greek games were one of the splendors of the ancient world, so much so that warring factions took breaks so their athletes could compete.


The modern Olympic Games or Olympics (known in French as "Jeux olympiques") are the leading international sporting events featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a variety of competitions. The Olympic Games are considered the world's foremost sports competition with more than 200 teams, representing sovereign states and territories participating; by default the Games generally substitute for any World Championships the year in which they take place (however, each class usually maintains their own records). The Olympic Games are normally held every four years, and since 1994, have alternated between the Summer and Winter Olympics every two years during the four-year period.

Their creation was inspired by the ancient Olympic Games, held in Olympia, Greece from the 8th century BC to the 4th century AD. Baron Pierre de Coubertin founded the International Olympic Committee (IOC) in 1894, leading to the first modern Games in Athens in 1896. The IOC is the governing body of the Olympic Movement (which encompasses all entities and individuals involved in the Olympic Games) with the Olympic Charter defining its structure and authority.

The evolution of the Olympic Movement during the 20th and 21st centuries has resulted in several changes to the Olympic Games. Some of these adjustments include the creation of the Winter Olympic Games for snow and ice sports, the Paralympic Games for athletes with disabilities, the Youth Olympic Games for athletes aged 14 to 18, the five Continental games (Pan American, African, Asian, European, and Pacific), and the World Games for sports that are not contested in the Olympic Games. The IOC also endorses the Deaflympics and the Special Olympics. The IOC has needed to adapt to a variety of economic, political, and technological advancements. The abuse of amateur rules by the Eastern Bloc nations prompted the IOC to shift away from pure amateurism, as envisioned by Coubertin, to the acceptance of professional athletes participating at the Games. The growing importance of mass media has created the issue of corporate sponsorship and general commercialisation of the Games. World wars led to the cancellation of the 1916, 1940, and 1944 Olympics; large-scale boycotts during the Cold War limited participation in the 1980 and 1984 Olympics; and the 2020 Olympics were postponed until 2021 as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic.

The Olympic Movement consists of international sports federations (IFs), National Olympic Committees (NOCs), and organising committees for each specific Olympic Games. As the decision-making body, the IOC is responsible for choosing the host city for each Games, and organises and funds the Games according to the Olympic Charter. The IOC also determines the Olympic programme, consisting of the sports to be contested at the Games. There are several Olympic rituals and symbols, such as the Olympic flag and torch, as well as the opening and closing ceremonies. Over 14,000 athletes competed at the 2020 Summer Olympics and 2022 Winter Olympics combined, in 40 different sports and 448 events. The first-, second-, and third-place finishers in each event receive Olympic medals: gold, silver, and bronze, respectively.

The Games have grown to the point that nearly every nation is now represented; colonies and overseas territories are often allowed to field their own teams. This growth has created numerous challenges and controversies, including boycotts, doping, bribery, and terrorism. Every two years, the Olympics and its media exposure provide athletes with the chance to attain national and international fame. The Games also provide an opportunity for the host city and country to showcase themselves to the world.


Olympic Games are athletic festival that originated in ancient Greece and was revived in the late 19th century. Before the 1970s the Games were officially limited to competitors with amateur status, but in the 1980s many events were opened to professional athletes. Currently, the Games are open to all, even the top professional athletes in basketball and football (soccer). The ancient Olympic Games included several of the sports that are now part of the Summer Games program, which at times has included events in as many as 32 different sports. In 1924 the Winter Games were sanctioned for winter sports. The Olympic Games have come to be regarded as the world’s foremost sports competition.

The ancient Olympic Games:


Just how far back in history organized athletic contests were held remains a matter of debate, but it is reasonably certain that they occurred in Greece almost 3,000 years ago. However ancient in origin, by the end of the 6th century BCE at least four Greek sporting festivals, sometimes called “classical games,” had achieved major importance: the Olympic Games, held at Olympia; the Pythian Games at Delphi; the Nemean Games at Nemea; and the Isthmian Games, held near Corinth. Later, similar festivals were held in nearly 150 cities as far afield as Rome, Naples, Odessus, Antioch, and Alexandria.

Of all the games held throughout Greece, the Olympic Games were the most famous. Held every four years between August 6 and September 19, they occupied such an important place in Greek history that in late antiquity historians measured time by the interval between them—an Olympiad. The Olympic Games, like almost all Greek games, were an intrinsic part of a religious festival. They were held in honour of Zeus at Olympia by the city-state of Elis in the northwestern Peloponnese. The first Olympic champion listed in the records was Coroebus of Elis, a cook, who won the sprint race in 776 BCE. Notions that the Olympics began much earlier than 776 BCE are founded on myth, not historical evidence. According to one legend, for example, the Games were founded by Heracles, son of Zeus and Alcmene.

Competition and status

At the meeting in 776 BCE there was apparently only one event, a footrace that covered one length of the track at Olympia, but other events were added over the ensuing decades. The race, known as the stade, was about 192 metres (210 yards) long. The word stade also came to refer to the track on which the race was held and is the origin of the modern English word stadium. In 724 BCE a two-length race, the diaulos, roughly similar to the 400-metre race, was included, and four years later the dolichos, a long-distance race possibly comparable to the modern 1,500- or 5,000-metre events, was added. Wrestling and the pentathlon were introduced in 708 BCE. The latter was an all-around competition consisting of five events—the long jump, the javelin throw, the discus throw, a footrace, and wrestling.

Boxing was introduced in 688 BCE and chariot racing eight years later. In 648 BCE the pancratium (from Greek pankration), a kind of no-holds-barred combat, was included. This brutal contest combined wrestling, boxing, and street fighting. Kicking and hitting a downed opponent were allowed; only biting and gouging (thrusting a finger or thumb into an opponent’s eye) were forbidden. Between 632 and 616 BCE events for boys were introduced. And from time to time further events were added, including a footrace in which athletes ran in partial armour and contests for heralds and for trumpeters. The program, however, was not nearly so varied as that of the modern Olympics. There were neither team games nor ball games, and the athletics (track and field) events were limited to the four running events and the pentathlon mentioned above. Chariot races and horse racing, which became part of the ancient Games, were held in the hippodrome south of the stadium.

In the early centuries of Olympic competition, all the contests took place on one day; later the Games were spread over four days, with a fifth devoted to the closing-ceremony presentation of prizes and a banquet for the champions. In most events the athletes participated in the nude. Through the centuries scholars have sought to explain this practice.

The Olympic Games were technically restricted to freeborn Greeks. Many Greek competitors came from the Greek colonies on the Italian peninsula and in Asia Minor and Africa. Most of the participants were professionals who trained full-time for the events. These athletes earned substantial prizes for winning at many other preliminary festivals, and, although the only prize at Olympia was a wreath or garland, an Olympic champion also received widespread adulation and often lavish benefits from his home city.

Women and the Olympic Games

Although there were no women’s events in the ancient Olympics, several women appear in the official lists of Olympic victors as the owners of the stables of some victorious chariot entries. In Sparta, girls and young women did practice and compete locally. But, apart from Sparta, contests for young Greek women were very rare and probably limited to an annual local footrace. At Olympia, however, the Herean festival, held every four years in honour of the goddess Hera, included a race for young women, who were divided into three age groups. Yet the Herean race was not part of the Olympics (they took place at another time of the year) and probably was not instituted before the advent of the Roman Empire. Then for a brief period girls competed at a few other important athletic venues.

The 2nd-century-CE traveler Pausanias wrote that women were banned from Olympia during the actual Games under penalty of death. Yet he also remarked that the law and penalty had never been invoked. His account later incongruously stated that unmarried women were allowed as Olympic spectators. Many historians believe that a later scribe simply made an error copying this passage of Pausanias’s text here. Nonetheless, the notion that all or only married women were banned from the Games endured in popular writing on the topic, though the evidence regarding women as spectators remains unclear.

Demise of the Olympics

Greece lost its independence to Rome in the middle of the 2nd century BCE, and support for the competitions at Olympia and elsewhere fell off considerably during the next century. The Romans looked on athletics with contempt—to strip naked and compete in public was degrading in their eyes. The Romans realized the political value of the Greek festivals, however, and Emperor Augustus staged games for Greek athletes in a temporary wooden stadium erected near the Circus Maximus in Rome and instituted major new athletic festivals in Italy and in Greece. Emperor Nero was also a keen patron of the festivals in Greece, but he disgraced himself and the Olympic Games when he entered a chariot race, fell off his vehicle, and then declared himself the winner anyway.

Romans neither trained for nor participated in Greek athletics. Roman gladiator shows and team chariot racing were not related to the Olympic Games or to Greek athletics. The main difference between the Greek and Roman attitudes is reflected in the words each culture used to describe its festivals: for the Greeks they were contests (agōnes), while for the Romans they were games (ludi). The Greeks originally organized their festivals for the competitors, the Romans for the public. One was primarily competition, the other entertainment. The Olympic Games were finally abolished about 400 CE by the Roman emperor Theodosius I or his son because of the festival’s pagan associations.

The modern Olympic movement:

Revival of the Olympics

The ideas and work of several people led to the creation of the modern Olympics. The best-known architect of the modern Games was Pierre, baron de Coubertin, born in Paris on New Year’s Day, 1863. Family tradition pointed to an army career or possibly politics, but at age 24 Coubertin decided that his future lay in education, especially physical education. In 1890 he traveled to England to meet Dr. William Penny Brookes, who had written some articles on education that attracted the Frenchman’s attention. Brookes also had tried for decades to revive the ancient Olympic Games, getting the idea from a series of modern Greek Olympiads held in Athens starting in 1859. The Greek Olympics were founded by Evangelis Zappas, who, in turn, got the idea from Panagiotis Soutsos, a Greek poet who was the first to call for a modern revival and began to promote the idea in 1833. Brookes’s first British Olympiad, held in London in 1866, was successful, with many spectators and good athletes in attendance. But his subsequent attempts met with less success and were beset by public apathy and opposition from rival sporting groups. Rather than give up, in the 1880s Brookes began to argue for the founding of international Olympics in Athens.

When Coubertin sought to confer with Brookes about physical education, Brookes talked more about Olympic revivals and showed him documents relating to both the Greek and the British Olympiads. He also showed Coubertin newspaper articles reporting his own proposal for international Olympic Games. On November 25, 1892, at a meeting of the Union des Sports Athlétiques in Paris, with no mention of Brookes or these previous modern Olympiads, Coubertin himself advocated the idea of reviving the Olympic Games, and he propounded his desire for a new era in international sport when he said:

Let us export our oarsmen, our runners, our fencers into other lands. That is the true Free Trade of the future; and the day it is introduced into Europe the cause of Peace will have received a new and strong ally.

He then asked his audience to help him in “the splendid and beneficent task of reviving the Olympic Games.” The speech did not produce any appreciable activity, but Coubertin reiterated his proposal for an Olympic revival in Paris in June 1894 at a conference on international sport attended by 79 delegates representing 49 organizations from 9 countries. Coubertin himself wrote that, except for his coworkers Dimítrios Vikélas of Greece, who was to be the first president of the International Olympic Committee, and Professor William M. Sloane of the United States, from the College of New Jersey (later Princeton University), no one had any real interest in the revival of the Games. Nevertheless, and to quote Coubertin again, “a unanimous vote in favour of revival was rendered at the end of the Congress chiefly to please me.”

It was at first agreed that the Games should be held in Paris in 1900. Six years seemed a long time to wait, however, and it was decided (how and by whom remains obscure) to change the venue to Athens and the date to April 1896. A great deal of indifference, if not opposition, had to be overcome, including a refusal by the Greek prime minister to stage the Games at all. But when a new prime minister took office, Coubertin and Vikélas were able to carry their point, and the Games were opened by the king of Greece in the first week of April 1896, on Greek Independence Day (which was on March 25 according to the Julian calendar then in use in Greece).


The International Olympic Committee

At the Congress of Paris in 1894, the control and development of the modern Olympic Games were entrusted to the International Olympic Committee (IOC; Comité International Olympique). During World War I Coubertin moved its headquarters to Lausanne, Switzerland, where they have remained. The IOC is responsible for maintaining the regular celebration of the Olympic Games, seeing that the Games are carried out in the spirit that inspired their revival, and promoting the development of sports throughout the world. The original committee in 1894 consisted of 14 members and Coubertin.

IOC members are regarded as ambassadors from the committee to their national sports organizations. They are in no sense delegates to the committee and may not accept, from the government of their country or from any organization or individual, any instructions that in any way affect their independence.

The IOC is a permanent organization that elects its own members. Reforms in 1999 set the maximum membership at 115, of whom 70 are individuals, 15 current Olympic athletes, 15 national Olympic committee presidents, and 15 international sports federation presidents. The members are elected to renewable eight-year terms, but they must retire at age 70. Term limits were also applied to future presidents.

The IOC elects its president for a period of eight years, at the end of which the president is eligible for reelection for further periods of four years each. The executive board of 15 members holds periodic meetings with the international federations and national Olympic committees. The IOC as a whole meets annually, and a meeting can be convened at any time that one-third of the members so request.

The awarding of the Olympic Games

The honour of holding the Olympic Games is entrusted to a city, not to a country. The choice of the city lies solely with the IOC. Application to hold the Games is made by the chief authority of the city, with the support of the national government.

Applications must state that no political meetings or demonstrations will be held in the stadium or other sports grounds or in the Olympic Village. Applicants also promise that every competitor shall be given free entry without any discrimination on grounds of religion, colour, or political affiliation. This involves the assurance that the national government will not refuse visas to any of the competitors. At the Montreal Olympics in 1976, however, the Canadian government refused visas to the representatives of Taiwan because they were unwilling to forgo the title of the Republic of China, under which their national Olympic committee had been admitted to the IOC. This Canadian decision, in the opinion of the IOC, did great damage to the Olympic Games, and it was later resolved that any country in which the Games are organized must undertake to strictly observe the rules. It was acknowledged that enforcement would be difficult, and even the use of severe penalties by the IOC might not guarantee elimination of infractions.

The motto

In the 19th century, sporting organizations regularly chose a distinctive motto. As the official motto of the Olympic Games, Coubertin adopted “Citius, altius, fortius,” Latin for “Faster, higher, stronger,” a phrase apparently coined by his friend Henri Didon, a friar, teacher, and athletics enthusiast. Some people are now wary of this motto, fearing that it may be misinterpreted as a validation of performance-enhancing drugs. Equally well known is the saying known as the “credo”: “The most important thing in the Olympic Games is not to win but to participate.” Coubertin made that statement on a day when the British and Americans were bitterly disputing who had won the 400-metre race at the 1908 London Games. Although Coubertin attributed the words to Ethelbert Talbot, an American bishop, recent research suggests that the words are Coubertin’s own, that he tactfully cited Talbot so as not to appear to admonish personally his English-speaking friends.

The flame and torch relay

Contrary to popular belief, the torch relay from the temple of Hera in Olympia to the host city has no predecessor or parallel in antiquity. No relay was needed to run the torch from Olympia to Olympia. A perpetual fire was indeed maintained in Hera’s temple, but it had no role in the ancient Games. The Olympic flame first appeared at the 1928 Olympics in Amsterdam. The torch relay was the idea of Carl Diem, organizer of the 1936 Berlin Games, where the relay made its debut. Subsequent editions have grown larger and larger, with more runners, more spectators, and greater distances. The 2004 relay reached all seven continents on its way from Olympia to Athens. The relay is now one of the most splendid and cherished of all Olympic rituals; it emphasizes not only the ancient source of the Olympics but also the internationalism of the modern Games. The flame is now recognized everywhere as an emotionally charged symbol of peace.


The organizers of the 1968 Winter Olympics in Grenoble, France, devised as an emblem of their Games a cartoonlike figure of a skiing man and called him Schuss. The 1972 Games in Munich, West Germany, adopted the idea and produced the first “official mascot,” a dachshund named Waldi who appeared on related publications and memorabilia. Since then each edition of the Olympic Games has had its own distinctive mascot, sometimes more than one. Typically the mascot is derived from characters or animals especially associated with the host country. Thus, Moscow chose a bear, Norway two figures from Norwegian mythology, and Sydney three animals native to Australia. The strangest mascot was Whatizit, or Izzy, of the 1996 Games in Atlanta, Georgia, a rather amorphous “abstract fantasy figure.” His name comes from people asking “What is it?” He gained more features as the months went by, but his uncertain character and origins contrast strongly with the Athena and Phoebus (Apollo) of the Athens Games of 2004, based on figurines of those gods that were more than 2,500 years old.


It appears to me that if one wants to make progress in mathematics, one should study the masters and not the pupils. - Niels Henrik Abel.

Nothing is better than reading and gaining more and more knowledge - Stephen William Hawking.


#2050 2024-02-05 00:05:32

Jai Ganesh
Registered: 2005-06-28
Posts: 46,201

Re: Miscellany

2052) Commonwealth Games


First held in 1930 in Hamilton, Canada, today the Commonwealth Games is the world’s second largest multi-sports event, and the fourth most watched global broadcast sports event. Featuring athletes from 71 nations and territories, the Commonwealth Games has provided some of the most memorable moments in world sport; from England’s Roger Bannister and Australia’s John Landy duelling it out over the ‘Miracle Mile’ at the 1954 Vancouver Games, to Northern Irish boxer Barry McGuigan winning the Gold at the 1978 Edmonton games – instantly becoming a figure of unity to a then divided nation.

The Commonwealth Games Federation (CGF) is an Associated Organisation of the Commonwealth.

The CGF is the organisation responsible for the direction and control of the Commonwealth Games. The Commonwealth Games is a unique, world class, multi-sports event which is held once every four years. It is often referred to as the ‘Friendly Games’.

As a means of improving society and the general well being of the people of the Commonwealth, the CGF also encourages and assists education via sport development and physical recreation.


Commonwealth Games is a quadrennial international multisport event contested by athletes from the Commonwealth of Nations. The Commonwealth Games are managed by the Commonwealth Games Federation, based in London, England.

Australian-born Astley Cooper first broached the idea of such games in 1891, calling for sports competitions to be held so as to demonstrate the unity of the British Empire. In 1911 a “Festival of the Empire” was organized, celebrating the coronation of King George V. Teams from the United Kingdom, Australasia (Australia and New Zealand), Canada, and South Africa participated in a series of events that included athletics, boxing, wrestling, and swimming. The inaugural British Empire Games were held at Hamilton, Canada, in 1930. Eleven countries sent 400 athletes for a program of athletics, lawn bowls, boxing, rowing, swimming, and wrestling, and the English team emerged with the largest share of medals. Women competed in only the swimming events. It was agreed that the Games would be held in varying Commonwealth cities at four-year intervals, preferably midway between the Olympic Games. The second British Empire Games, in 1934, were originally scheduled for Johannesburg, South Africa. However, due to concerns over South Africa’s apartheid policy and related concerns about prejudice against athletes of colour, the Games were moved to London. Sixteen countries participated, with women making their Games debut in athletics. Following the third Games, held in Sydney in 1938, there was a 12-year hiatus on account of World War II. The Games resumed in 1950 in Auckland, New Zealand.

The 1954 event, in Vancouver, marked the first time the Games were contested by countries that were no longer part of the British Empire. The new name “British Empire and Commonwealth Games” reflects this legacy. Twenty-four countries participated, with live telecasts for the first time in Games history. The one-mile-run event was called the “Miracle Mile,” as the gold medalist Roger Bannister of England and the silver medalist John Landy of Australia each ran a sub-four-minute mile, the first time two runners did so in the same race. The 1958 event in Cardiff, Wales, marked the debut of the Queen’s Baton Relay, wherein the Queen’s Baton is handed over in a relay starting from Buckingham Palace in London and ending at the Games venue. In 1966 the Games were held in Kingston, Jamaica, with badminton and shooting introduced as events for the first time.

Forty-two countries competed in the 1970 Games in Edinburgh, Scotland. The event name was changed to the “British Commonwealth Games,” and metric units were used instead of imperial units for events for the first time. This was also the first Games attended by Queen Elizabeth II in her capacity as head of the Commonwealth. The 1978 Games, the first to be called the “Commonwealth Games,” were held in Edmonton, Canada, and were boycotted by Nigeria to protest New Zealand’s sporting relations with apartheid-era South Africa. The Games continued to be beset by political boycotts. The 1986 Games, in Edinburgh, were boycotted by 32 African, Asian, and Caribbean countries in response to the U.K. government’s refusal to impose sanctions on apartheid South Africa, and consequently only 26 countries competed. The 1990 Auckland Games, however, saw a resurgence, with 55 countries participating. The 1994 Games in Victoria, Canada, saw South Africa return to the Commonwealth Games after the end of apartheid, and Hong Kong participated for the last time before its transfer of sovereignty from Britain to China in 1997.

The 1998 Games in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia—the first Games to be hosted in Asia—saw further milestones, with the introduction of team sports; 70 countries competed for a share of the medals. Even though cricket is strongly associated with the British Commonwealth, the sport was included in the Games for the first time only in 1998. (It was, however, not included in 2002 and subsequent Games, though the 2022 Games are set to feature women’s T20 cricket.) India—the biggest TV market for cricket—and Pakistan sent weakened squads to the 1998 Games in order to focus on the Sahara Cup, a bilateral series played between the two countries. South Africa, Australia, and New Zealand, all of whom sported strong teams, took home the cricket medals. The 2010 Games were held in Delhi, India, the first time the Games were held in a Commonwealth republic. The 2018 Games in Gold Coast, Australia, showed how far the event had come in terms of gender inclusivity, with an equal number of events (and medals) for men and women for the first time. Birmingham, England, was chosen as the site of the 2022 Games.

Akin to the Olympic Games, the Commonwealth Games also begin with an opening ceremony. It typically starts with hoisting the host country’s flag and a performance of its national anthem. After an artistic performance, athletes parade into the stadium, starting with those from the country that hosted the previous Games and then the other countries, grouped first by region and then in alphabetical order. The Queen’s Baton is brought into the stadium and handed over to the representative of the head of the Commonwealth. Likewise, the closing ceremony, as in the Olympics, has all athletes enter the stadium together irrespective of nationality. The Commonwealth Games flag is then handed over to the mayor of the next host city before the Games are declared closed.

The Commonwealth Paraplegic Games were a separate competition organized from 1962 to 1974, preceding the main Commonwealth Games. They were discontinued after 1974, but in 1994 they were included in the main Games as demonstration sports. Since 2002 the para events have been fully included in the main Commonwealth Games, allowing para athletes to participate as part of the main national teams. Australia leads the medals tally across all editions of the Games through 2018, with a total of 2,416 medals including 932 golds, followed by England, Canada, and India. Australia, Canada, England, New Zealand, Scotland, and Wales remain the only countries to have attended every edition of the Games.

The identity of the Games has evolved over time, from an event for colonies of the British Empire to a venue in which an increasing number of independent countries could compete and express their own identities outside of the empire. A review of the Games over time thus serves as a mirror to events in world history over the 20th century and beyond.


The Commonwealth Games is a quadrennial international multi-sport event among athletes from the Commonwealth of Nations, which mostly consists of territories of the former British Empire. The event was first held in 1930 and, with the exception of 1942 and 1946 (cancelled due to World War II), has successively run every four years since. The event was called the British Empire Games from 1930 to 1950, the British Empire and Commonwealth Games from 1954 to 1966, and British Commonwealth Games from 1970 to 1974. Athletes with a disability are included as full members of their national teams since 2002, making the Commonwealth Games the first fully inclusive international multi-sport event. In 2018, the Games became the first global multi-sport event to feature an equal number of men's and women's medal events, and four years later they became the first global multi-sport event to have more events for women than men.

Inspired by the Inter-Empire Championships, part of the 1911 Festival of Empire, Melville Marks Robinson founded the British Empire Games which was first held in Hamilton, Canada in 1930. As time progressed, the Games evolved, adding the Commonwealth Paraplegic Games for athletes with a disability (who were barred from competing from 1974 before being fully integrated by 1990) and the Commonwealth Youth Games for athletes aged 14 to 18.

The event is overseen by the Commonwealth Games Federation (CGF), which controls the sporting programme and selects host cities. The games movement consists of international sports federations (IFs), Commonwealth Games Associations (CGAs) and organising committees for each specific Commonwealth Games. Certain traditions, such as the hoisting of the Commonwealth Games flag and Queen's Baton Relay, as well as the opening and closing ceremonies, are unique to the Games. Over 4,500 athletes competed at the latest Commonwealth Games in 25 sports and over 250 medal events, including Olympic and Paralympic sports and those popular in Commonwealth countries: bowls and squash. Usually, the first, second and third-place finishers in each event are awarded gold, silver and bronze medals, respectively.

One of the differences from other multisport events is that fifteen CGAs participating in the Commonwealth Games do not send their delegations independently from the Olympic, Paralympic and other multisports competitions, as thirteen are linked to the British Olympic Association, one is part of the Australian Olympic Committee and another is part of the New Zealand Olympic Committee. They are the four Home Nations of the United Kingdom (England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland), the British Overseas Territories (Anguilla, Falkland Islands, Gibraltar, Montserrat, Saint Helena and Turks and Caicos Islands), the Crown Dependencies (Guernsey, Isle of Man, and Jersey), along with the Australian territory of Norfolk Island and the New Zealand associated state of Niue.

Twenty cities in nine countries (counting England, Scotland and Wales separately) have hosted the games. Australia has hosted the Commonwealth Games five times (1938, 1962, 1982, 2006 and 2018), more than any other nation. Two cities have hosted Commonwealth Games more than once: Auckland (1950, 1990) and Edinburgh (1970, 1986). The most recent Commonwealth Games, the 22nd, was held in Birmingham from 28 July to 8 August 2022. The withdrawal of numerous host cities for the 2026 Commonwealth Games has led to speculation that those of 2022 may have been the last.


A sporting competition bringing together the members of the British Empire was first proposed by John Astley Cooper in 1891, who wrote letters and articles for several periodicals suggesting a "Pan Brittanic, Pan Anglican Contest every four years as a means of increasing goodwill and understanding of the British Empire." John Astley Cooper Committees were formed in Australia, New Zealand and South Africa to promote the idea and inspired Pierre de Coubertin to start the international Olympic Games movement.

In 1911, an Inter-Empire Championship was held alongside the Festival of Empire, at The Crystal Palace in London to celebrate the coronation of George V, and were championed by The Earl of Plymouth and Lord Desborough. Teams from Australasia (Australia and New Zealand), Canada, South Africa, and the United Kingdom competed in events for athletics, boxing, swimming and wrestling. Canada won the championships and was presented with a silver cup (gifted by Lord Lonsdale) which was 2 feet 6 inches (76 cm) high and weighed 340 ounces (9.6 kg). A correspondent of the Auckland Star criticised the Games, calling them a "grievous disappointment" that were "not worthy of the title of 'Empire Sports'".

While planning for the 1928 Summer Olympics in Amsterdam, Amateur Athletic Union of Canada executive J. Howard Crocker spoke with journalist Melville Marks Robinson of The Hamilton Spectator, about hosting an international sporting event in Canada. Robinson proposed and lobbied to host what became the British Empire Games in Hamilton, Ontario, in 1930. Robinson then served as the manager of the Canadian track and field team for the 1930 British Empire Games.

Although there are 56 members of the Commonwealth of Nations, there are 72 Commonwealth Games Associations. They are divided into six regions (Africa, Americas, Caribbean, Europe, Asia and Oceania) and each has a similar function to the National Olympic Committees in relation with their countries or territories. In some, like India and South Africa, the CGA functions are assumed by their NOCs.

Only six nations have participated in every Commonwealth Games: Australia, Canada, England, New Zealand, Scotland and Wales. Of these six, Australia, England, Canada and New Zealand have each won at least one gold medal in every Games. Australia has been the highest-achieving team for thirteen editions of the Games, England for seven and Canada for one. These three teams also top the all-time Commonwealth Games medal table in that order.


British Empire Games

The 1930 British Empire Games was the first of what later became known as the Commonwealth Games, and was held in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada from 16 to 23 August 1930 and opened by Lord Willingdon. Eleven countries: Australia, Bermuda, British Guyana, Canada, England, Northern Ireland, Newfoundland, New Zealand, Scotland, South Africa and Wales, sent a total of 400 athletes to compete in athletics, boxing, lawn bowls, rowing, swimming and diving and wrestling. The opening and closing ceremonies as well as athletics took place at Civic Stadium. The cost of the Games were $97,973. Women competed in only the aquatic events. Canadian triple jumper Gordon Smallacombe won the first ever gold medal in the history of the Games.

The 1934 British Empire Games was the second of what is now known as the Commonwealth Games, held in London, England. The host city was London, with the main venue at Wembley Park, although the track cycling events were in Manchester. The 1934 Games had originally been awarded to Johannesburg, but was given to London instead because of serious concerns about prejudice against Asian and black athletes in South Africa. The affiliation of Irish athletes at the 1934 Games representation remains unclear but there was no official Irish Free State team. Sixteen national teams took part, including new participants Hong Kong, India, Jamaica, Southern Rhodesia and Trinidad and Tobago.

The 1938 British Empire Games was the third British Empire Games, which was held in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. It was timed to coincide with Sydney's sesqui-centenary (150 years since the foundation of British settlement in Australia). Held in the Southern Hemisphere for the first time, the III Games opening ceremony took place at the famed Sydney Cricket Ground in front of 40,000 spectators. Fifteen nations participated down under at the Sydney Games involving a total of 464 athletes and 43 officials. Fiji and Ceylon made their debuts. Seven sports were featured in the Sydney Games – athletics, boxing, cycling, lawn bowls, rowing, swimming and diving and wrestling.

The 1950 British Empire Games was the fourth edition and was held in Auckland, New Zealand after a twelve-year gap from the third edition of the games. The fourth games was originally awarded to Montreal, Canada and was to be held in 1942, but was cancelled due to the Second World War. The opening ceremony at Eden Park was attended by 40,000 spectators, while nearly 250,000 people attended the Auckland Games. Twelve countries sent a total of 590 athletes to Auckland. Malaya and Nigeria made their first appearances.

British Empire and Commonwealth Games

The fifth edition of the Games, the 1954 British Empire and Commonwealth Games, was held in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. This was the first event since the name change from British Empire Games took effect in 1952, the same year of Queen Elizabeth II's reign. The fifth edition of the Games placed Vancouver on a world stage and featured memorable sporting moments as well as outstanding entertainment, technical innovation and cultural events. The 'Miracle Mile', as it became known, saw both the gold medallist, Roger Bannister of England and silver medallist John Landy of Australia, run sub-four-minute races in an event that was televised live across the world for the first time. Northern Rhodesia and Pakistan made their debuts and both performed well, winning eight and six medals respectively.

The 1958 British Empire and Commonwealth Games was held in Cardiff, Wales. The sixth edition of the games marked the largest sporting event ever held in Wales and it was the smallest country ever to host a British Empire and Commonwealth Games. Cardiff had to wait twelve years longer than originally scheduled to become host of the Games, as the 1946 event was cancelled because of the Second World War. The Cardiff Games introduced the Queen's Baton Relay, which has been conducted as a prelude to every British Empire and Commonwealth Games ever since. Thirty-five nations sent a total of 1,122 athletes and 228 officials to the Cardiff Games and 23 countries and dependencies won medals, including for the first time, Singapore, Ghana, Kenya and the Isle of Man. In the run up to the Cardiff games, many leading sports stars including Stanley Matthews, Jimmy Hill and Don Revie were signatories in a letter to The Times on 17 July 1958 deploring the presence of white-only South African sports, opposing 'the policy of apartheid' in international sport and defending 'the principle of racial equality which is embodied in the Declaration of the Olympic Games'.

The 1962 British Empire and Commonwealth Games was held in Perth, Western Australia. Thirty-five countries sent a total of 863 athletes and 178 officials to Perth. Jersey was among the medal winners for the first time, while British Honduras, Dominica, Papua and New Guinea and St Lucia all made their inaugural Games appearances. Aden also competed by special invitation. Sarawak, North Borneo and Malaya competed for the last time, before taking part in 1966 under the Malaysian flag. In addition, Rhodesia and Nyasaland competed in the Games as an entity for the first and only time.

The 1966 British Empire and Commonwealth Games was held in Kingston, Jamaica. This was the first time that the Games had been held outside the so-called White Dominions. Thirty-four nations (including South Arabia) competed in the Kingston Games, sending a total of 1,316 athletes and officials.

British Commonwealth Games

The 1970 British Commonwealth Games was held in Edinburgh, Scotland. This was the first time the name British Commonwealth Games was adopted, the first time metric units rather than imperial units were used in events, the first time the games were held in Scotland and also the first time that HM Queen Elizabeth II attended in her capacity as Head of the Commonwealth.

The 1974 British Commonwealth Games was held in Christchurch, New Zealand. The event was officially named The Friendly Games, and was also the first edition to feature a theme song. Following the massacre of Israeli athletes at the 1972 Munich Olympics, the tenth games at Christchurch were the first multi-sport event to place the safety of participants and spectators as its uppermost requirement. Security guards surrounded the athlete's village and there was an exceptionally high-profile police presence. Only 22 countries succeeded in winning medals from the total haul of 374 medals on offer, but first time winners included Western Samoa, Lesotho and Swaziland (since 2018 named Eswatini). The theme song for the 1974 British Commonwealth Games was called "Join Together".

Commonwealth Games

The 1978 Commonwealth Games was held in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. This event was the first to bear the current day name of the Commonwealth Games, and also marked a new high as almost 1,500 athletes from 46 countries took part. They were boycotted by Nigeria in protest against New Zealand's sporting contacts with apartheid-era South Africa, as well as by Uganda in protest at alleged Canadian hostilities toward the government of Idi Amin.

Opening ceremony of the 1982 Commonwealth Games at Brisbane, Australia

The 1982 Commonwealth Games was held in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. Forty-six nations participated in the Brisbane Games with a new record total of 1,583 athletes and 571 officials. As hosts, Australia headed the medal table leading the way ahead of England, Canada, Scotland and New Zealand respectively. Zimbabwe made its first appearance at the Games, having earlier competed as Southern Rhodesia and as part of Rhodesia and Nyasaland. The theme song for the 1982 Commonwealth Games was called "You're Here To Win".

The 1986 Commonwealth Games was held in Edinburgh, Scotland and were the second Games to be held in Edinburgh. Participation at the 1986 Games was affected by a boycott by 32 African, Asian and Caribbean nations in protest at British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher's refusal to condemn sporting contacts of apartheid era South Africa in 1985, but the Games rebounded and continued to grow thereafter. Twenty-six nations did attend the second Edinburgh Games, and sent a total of 1,662 athletes and 461 officials. The theme song for the 1986 Commonwealth Games was called "Spirit Of Youth".

The 1990 Commonwealth Games was held in Auckland, New Zealand. It was the fourteenth Commonwealth Games, the third to be hosted by New Zealand and Auckland's second. A new record of 55 nations participated in the second Auckland Games, sending 2,826 athletes and officials. Pakistan returned to the Commonwealth in 1989 after withdrawing in 1972, and competed in the 1990 Games after an absence of twenty years. The theme song for the 1990 Commonwealth Games was called "This Is The Moment".

The 1994 Commonwealth Games was held in Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. This event was the fourth to take place in Canada. The games marked another point of South Africa's return to the sporting atmosphere following the apartheid era, and over thirty years since the country last competed in the Games in 1958.A former south african territory Namibia made its Commonwealth Games debut. It was also Hong Kong's last appearance at the games before the transfer of sovereignty from Britain to China. Sixty-three nations sent 2,557 athletes and 914 officials. The theme song for the 1994 Commonwealth Games was called "Let Your Spirit Take Flight".

The 1998 Commonwealth Games was held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. For the first time in its 68-year history, the Commonwealth Games was held in Asia. The event was also the first Games to feature team sports (cricket,rugby 7's,netball and field hockey) along ten pin bowling and squash– an overwhelming success that added large numbers to both participant and TV audience numbers. A new record of 70 countries sent a total of 5,065 athletes and officials to the Kuala Lumpur Games. The top five countries in the medal standing were Australia, England, Canada, Malaysia (who made their best games' performance until that date) and South Africa. Nauru also achieved an impressive haul of three gold medals. Cameroon, Mozambique, Kiribati and Tuvalu debuted. The theme song for the 1998 Commonwealth Games was called "Forever As One".

During the 21st century

The 2002 Commonwealth Games was held in Manchester, England. The event was hosted in England for the first time since 1934 and hosted to coincide with the Golden Jubilee of Elizabeth II, head of the Commonwealth. In terms of sports and events, the 2002 event was until the 2010 edition the largest Commonwealth Games in history featuring 281 events across 17 sports. The final medal tally was led by Australia, followed by host England and Canada. The 2002 Commonwealth Games had set a new benchmark for hosting the Commonwealth Games and for cities wishing to bid for them with a heavy emphasis on legacy. The theme song for the 2002 Commonwealth Games was called "Where My Heart Will Take Me".

The 2006 Commonwealth Games was held in Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. The only difference between the 2006 games and the 2002 games was the absence of Zimbabwe, which withdrew from the Commonwealth of Nations. For the first time in the history of the Games the Queen's Baton visited every single Commonwealth nation and territory taking part in the Games, a journey of 180,000 kilometres (110,000 mi). Over 4000 athletes took part in the sporting competitions. Again the Top 3 on the medal table is Australia, followed by England and Canada. The theme song for the 2006 Commonwealth Games was called "Together We Are One".

The 2010 Commonwealth Games was held in Delhi, India. The Games cost $11 billion and is the most expensive Commonwealth Games ever. It was the first time that the Commonwealth Games was held in India, also the first time that a Commonwealth republic hosted the games and the second time it was held in Asia after Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in 1998. A total of 6,081 athletes from 71 Commonwealth nations and dependencies competed in 21 sports and 272 events. The final medal tally was led by Australia. The host nation India achieved its best performance ever in any sporting event, finishing second overall.[46] Rwanda made its Games debut. The theme song for the 2010 Commonwealth Games was called "Live, Rise, Ascend, Win".

The 2014 Commonwealth Games was held in Glasgow, Scotland. It was the largest multi-sport event ever held in Scotland with around 4,950 athletes from 71 different nations and territories competing in 18 different sports, outranking the 1970 and 1986 Commonwealth Games in Edinburgh, capital city of Scotland. Usain Bolt competed in the 4×100 metres relay of the 2014 Commonwealth Games and set a Commonwealth Games record with his teammates. The Games received acclaim for their organisation, attendance, and the public enthusiasm of the people of Scotland, with the CGF chief executive Mike Hooper hailing them as "the standout games in the history of the movement".

The 2018 Commonwealth Games was held in Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia, the fifth time Australia hosted the Games. There were an equal number of events for men and women, the first time in history that a major multi-sport event had equality in terms of events.

The 2022 Commonwealth Games was held in Birmingham, England. It was the third Commonwealth Games to be hosted in England, following London 1934 and Manchester 2002. The 2022 Commonwealth Games coincided with the Platinum Jubilee of Elizabeth II and the tenth anniversary of the 2012 Summer Olympics and the 2012 Summer Paralympics, both staged in London. The 2022 Commonwealth Games was the last edition to be held under Queen Elizabeth II, before her death on 8 September 2022.

On 16 February 2022, it was announced that the 2026 Commonwealth Games would be held for a record sixth time in Australia, but for the first time they would be decentralised, as the state of Victoria signed as host 'city'. The event were to have four regional clusters mainly focused in Bendigo region, and another three regional centres. The 2026 Commonwealth Games were to be the first games to be held under the reign of King Charles III. It was also confirmed that the Commonwealth Games, scheduled for 2030 were likely to be awarded to Hamilton, Canada. However, in July 2023, the Victorian Premier Daniel Andrews announced that Victoria would no longer host the 2026 Games, with Alberta, pulling out of their part in a joint Canadian bid for the 2030 edition of the Games shortly after.

Many commentators are now questioning the continuing viability of the Commonwealth Games. The three nations to have hosted the Commonwealth Games the most times are Australia (5), Canada (4) and New Zealand (3). With the 2022 games, England increased its number to three. Six Games have taken place in the countries within the United Kingdom (Scotland (3) and Wales (1)), two in Asia (Malaysia (1) and India (1)) and one in the Caribbean (Jamaica (1)).


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