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#526 2019-11-06 00:09:03

ganesh
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Registered: 2005-06-28
Posts: 29,068

Re: Miscellany

426) Rhinoceros

Rhinoceros, (family Rhinocerotidae), plural rhinoceroses, rhinoceros, or rhinoceri, any of five or six species of giant horn-bearing herbivores that include some of the largest living land mammals. Only African and Asian elephants are taller at the shoulder than the two largest rhinoceros species—the white, or square-lipped (Ceratotherium simum, which some divide into two species [northern white rhinoceros, C. cottoni, and southern white rhinoceros, C. simum]), rhinoceros and the Indian, or greater one-horned (Rhinoceros unicornis), rhinoceros. The white and the black (Diceros bicornis) rhinoceros live in Africa, while the Indian, the Javan (R. sondaicus), and the Sumatran (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis) rhinoceros live in Asia. The precarious state of the surviving species (all but one are endangered) is in direct contrast to the early history of this group as one of the most successful lineages of hoofed mammals. Today the total population of all the rhinoceros species combined is probably less than 30,000. Rhinoceroses today are restricted to eastern and southern Africa and to subtropical and tropical Asia.

Rhinoceroses are characterized by the possession of one or two horns on the upper surface of the snout; these horns are not true horns but are composed of keratin, a fibrous protein found in hair. Modern rhinoceroses are large animals, ranging from 2.5 metres (8 feet) long and 1.5 metres (5 feet) high at the shoulder in the Sumatran rhinoceros to about 4 metres (13 feet) long and nearly 2 metres (7 feet) high in the white rhinoceros. Adults of larger species weigh 3–5 tons. Rhinoceroses are noted for their thick skin, which forms platelike folds, especially at the shoulders and thighs. All rhinos are gray or brown in colour, including the white rhinoceros, which tends to be paler than the others. Aside from the Sumatran rhinoceros, they are nearly or completely hairless, except for the tail tip and ear fringes, but some fossil species were covered with dense fur. The feet of the modern species have three short toes, tipped with broad, blunt nails.

Most rhinoceroses are solitary. Individuals usually avoid each other, but the white rhinoceros lives in groups of up to 10 animals. In solitary species the home territory is crisscrossed with well-worn trails and often marked at the borders with urine and piles of dung.

Rhinoceroses have poor eyesight but acute senses of hearing and smell. Most prefer to avoid humans, but males, and females with calves, may charge with little provocation. The black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) is normally ill-tempered and unpredictable and may charge any unfamiliar sound or smell. Despite their bulk, rhinoceroses are remarkably agile; the black rhinoceros can attain a speed of about 45 km (30 miles) per hour, even in thick brush, and can turn around rapidly after missing a charge. Like elephants, rhinoceroses communicate using infrasonic frequencies that are below the threshold of human hearing. The use of infrasonic frequencies is likely an adaptation for rhinoceroses to keep in touch with each other where they inhabit dense vegetation and probably for females to advertise to males when females are receptive to breeding.

Rhinoceroses are by far the largest of the perissodactyls, an order of hoofed mammals that also includes the horses and zebras. One of the features of very large body size in mammals is a low reproductive rate. In rhinoceroses, females do not conceive until about six years of age; gestation is long (16 months in most species), and they give birth to only one calf at a time. The period of birth between calves can range from 2 to 4.5 years. Thus, the loss of a number of breeding-age females to poachers can greatly slow the recovery of rhinoceros populations. However, an Indian rhinoceros female will conceive again quickly if she loses her calf. In this species tigers kill about 10–20 percent of calves. Tigers rarely kill calves older than 1 year, so those Indian rhinoceroses that survive past that point are invulnerable to nonhuman predators.

The three Asian species fight with their razor-sharp lower outer incisor teeth, not with their horns. In Indian rhinoceroses such teeth, or tusks, can reach 13 cm (5 inches) in length among dominant males and inflict lethal wounds on other males competing for access to breeding females. The African species, in contrast, lack these long tusk-like incisors and instead fight with their horns.

The rhinoceros’s horn is also the cause of its demise. Powdered rhinoceros horn has been a highly sought commodity in traditional Chinese medicine—not as an aphrodisiac, as is often widely reported, but as an antifever agent. Substitute agents have been found, particularly pig bone and water buffalo horn, but rhinoceros horn commands tens of thousands of dollars per kilogram in Asian markets. Today poaching remains a serious problem throughout the range of all species of rhinoceros.

The term rhinoceros is sometimes also applied to other, extinct members of the family Rhinocerotidae, a diverse group that includes several dozen fossil genera, among them the woolly rhinoceros (Coelodonta antiquitatis). Early rhinoceroses resembled small horses and lacked horns. (Horns are a relatively recent development in the lineage.) The largest land mammal ever to have lived was not an elephant but Indricotherium, a perissodactyl that was 6 metres (20 feet) long and could browse treetops like a giraffe.

kaziranga-rhino-tour.jpg


It is no good to try to stop knowledge from going forward. Ignorance is never better than knowledge - Enrico Fermi. 

Nothing is better than reading and gaining more and more knowledge - Stephen William Hawking.

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#527 2019-11-06 14:29:53

Monox D. I-Fly
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From: Indonesia
Registered: 2015-12-02
Posts: 1,865

Re: Miscellany

ganesh wrote:

The black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) is normally ill-tempered and unpredictable and may charge any unfamiliar sound or smell. Despite their bulk, rhinoceroses are remarkably agile; the black rhinoceros can attain a speed of about 45 km (30 miles) per hour, even in thick brush, and can turn around rapidly after missing a charge.

When I was a kid, I was told that a rhinoceros can't turn while charging. It was a lie?


Actually I never watch Star Wars and not interested in it anyway, but I choose a Yoda card as my avatar in honor of our great friend bobbym who has passed away. May his adventurous soul rest in peace at heaven.

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#528 2019-11-07 00:30:28

ganesh
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Registered: 2005-06-28
Posts: 29,068

Re: Miscellany

Unable to tell.


It is no good to try to stop knowledge from going forward. Ignorance is never better than knowledge - Enrico Fermi. 

Nothing is better than reading and gaining more and more knowledge - Stephen William Hawking.

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#529 2019-11-08 00:07:28

ganesh
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Registered: 2005-06-28
Posts: 29,068

Re: Miscellany

427) Koala

Koala, (Phascolarctos cinereus), also called koala bear, tree-dwelling marsupial of coastal eastern Australia classified in the family Phascolarctidae (suborder Vombatiformes).

The koala is about 60 to 85 cm (24 to 33 inches) long and weighs up to 14 kg (31 pounds) in the southern part of its range (Victoria) but only about half that in subtropical Queensland to the north. Virtually tailless, the body is stout and gray, with a pale yellow or cream-coloured chest and mottling on the rump. The broad face has a wide, rounded, leathery nose, small yellow eyes, and big fluffy ears. The feet are strong and clawed; the two inner digits of the front feet and the innermost digit of the hind feet are opposable for grasping. Owing to the animal’s superficial resemblance to a small bear, the koala is sometimes called, albeit erroneously, the koala bear.

The koala feeds very selectively on the leaves of certain eucalyptus trees. Generally solitary, individuals move within a home range of more than a dozen trees, one of which is favoured over the others. If koalas become too numerous in a restricted area, they defoliate preferred food trees and, unable to subsist on even closely related species, decline rapidly. To aid in digesting as much as 1.3 kg (3 pounds) of leaves daily, the koala has an intestinal pouch (cecum) about 2 metres (7 feet) long, where symbiotic bacteria degrade the tannins and other toxic and complex substances abundant in eucalyptus. This diet is relatively poor in nutrients and provides the koala little spare energy, so the animal spends long hours simply sitting or sleeping in tree forks, exposed to the elements but insulated by thick fur. Although placid most of the time, koalas produce loud, hollow grunts.

The koala is the only member of the family Phascolarctidae. Unlike those of other arboreal marsupials, its pouch opens rearward. Births are single, occurring after a gestation of 34 to 36 days. The youngster (called a joey) first puts its head out of the pouch at about five months of age. For up to six weeks, it is weaned on a soupy predigested eucalyptus called pap that is lapped directly from the mother’s math. Pap is thought to be derived from the cecum. After weaning, the joey emerges completely from the pouch and clings to the mother’s back until it is nearly a year old. A koala can live to about 15 years of age in the wild, somewhat longer in captivity.

Formerly killed in huge numbers for their fur, especially during the 1920s and ’30s, koalas dwindled in number from several million to a few hundred thousand. In the southern part of their range, they became practically extinct except for a single population in Gippsland, Victoria. Some were translocated onto small offshore islands, especially Phillip Island, where they did so well that these koalas were used to restock much of the original range in Victoria and southern New South Wales. Though once again widespread, koala populations are now scattered and separated by urban areas and farmland, which makes them locally vulnerable to extinction. Another problem is the infection of many populations with Chlamydia, which makes the females infertile.

Despite the koala’s having been considered a species of least concern since 1996 by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), the Australian government added the koala to the country’s threatened species list in 2012.

baby-koala.jpg


It is no good to try to stop knowledge from going forward. Ignorance is never better than knowledge - Enrico Fermi. 

Nothing is better than reading and gaining more and more knowledge - Stephen William Hawking.

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#530 2019-11-10 00:12:54

ganesh
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Registered: 2005-06-28
Posts: 29,068

Re: Miscellany

428) Ant

Ant, (family Formicidae), any of approximately 10,000 species of insects (order Hymenoptera) that are social in habit and live together in organized colonies. Ants occur worldwide but are especially common in hot climates. They range in size from about 2 to 25 mm (about 0.08 to 1 inch). Their colour is usually yellow, brown, red, or black. A few genera (e.g., Pheidole of North America) have a metallic lustre.

Typically, an ant has a large head and a slender, oval abdomen joined to the thorax, or midsection, by a small waist. In all ants there are either one or two finlike extensions running across the thin waist region. The antennae are always elbowed. There are two sets of jaws: the outer pair is used for carrying objects such as food and for digging, and the inner pair is used for chewing. Some species have a powerful sting at the tip of the abdomen.

There are generally three castes, or classes, within a colony: queens, males, and workers. Some species live in the nests of other species as parasites. In these species the parasite larvae are given food and nourishment by the host workers. Wheeleriella santschii is a parasite in the nests of Monomorium salomonis, the most common ant of northern Africa.

Most ants live in nests, which may be located in the ground or under a rock or built above ground and made of twigs, sand, or gravel. Carpenter ants (Camponotus) are large black ants common in North America that live in old logs and timbers. Some species live in trees or in the hollow stems of weeds. Tailor, or weaver, ants, found in the tropics of Africa (e.g., Tetramorium), make nests of leaves and similar materials held together with silk secreted by the larvae. Dolichoderus, a genus of ants that are found worldwide, glues together bits of animal feces for its nest. The widely distributed pharaoh ant (Monomarium pharaonis), a small yellowish insect, builds its nest either in houses, when found in cool climates, or outdoors, when it occurs in warm climates.

Army ants, of the subfamily Dorylinae, are nomadic and notorious for the destruction of plant and animal life in their path. The army ants of tropical America (Eciton), for example, travel in columns, eating insects and other invertebrates along the way. Periodically, the colony rests for several days while the queen lays her eggs. As the colony travels, the growing larvae are carried along by the workers. Habits of the African driver ant (Dorylus) are similar.

The red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta), introduced into Alabama from South America, had spread throughout the southern United States by the mid-1970s. It inflicts a painful sting and is considered a pest because of the large soil mounds associated with its nests. In some areas the red imported fire ant has been displaced by the invasive tawny crazy ant (also called hairy crazy ant, Nylanderia fulva), a species known in South America that was first detected in the United States (in Texas) in 2002. The hairy crazy ant is extremely difficult to control and is considered to be a major pest and threat to native species and ecosystems.

The life cycle of the ant has four stages, including egg, larva, pupa, and adult, and spans a period of 8 to 10 weeks. The queen spends her life laying eggs. The workers are females and do the work of the colony, with larger individuals functioning as soldiers who defend the colony. At certain times of the year, many species produce winged males and queens that fly into the air, where they mate. The male dies soon afterward, and the fertilized queen establishes a new nest.

The food of ants consists of both plant and animal substances. Certain species, including those of the genus Formica, often eat the eggs and larvae of other ants or those of their own species. Some species eat the liquid secretions of plants. The honey ants (Camponotinae, Dolichoderinae) eat honeydew, a by-product of digestion secreted by certain aphids. The ant usually obtains the liquid by gently stroking the aphid’s abdomen with its antennae. Some genera (Leptothorax) eat the honeydew that has fallen onto the surface of a leaf. The so-called Argentine ant (Iridomyrmex humilis) and the fire ant also eat honeydew. Harvester ants (Messor, Pogonomyrmex) store grass, seeds, or berries in the nest, whereas ants of the genus Trachymyrmex of South America eat only fungi, which they cultivate in their nests. The Texas leafcutter ant (Atta texana) is a pest that often strips the leaves from plants to provide nourishment for its fungus gardens.

The social behaviour of the ants, along with that of the honeybees, is the most complex in the insect world. Slave-making ants, of which there are many species, have a variety of methods for “enslaving” the ants of other species. The queen of Bothriomyrmex decapitans of Africa, for example, allows herself to be dragged by Tapinoma ants into their nest. She then bites off the head of the Tapinoma queen and begins laying her own eggs, which are cared for by the “enslaved” Tapinoma workers. Workers of the slave-making ant Protomognathus americanus raid nests of Temnothorax ants, stealing the latter’s pupae. The pupae are raised by P. americanus to serve as slaves, and, because the Temnothorax pupae become imprinted on the chemical odour of the slave-making ants, the captive ants forage and routinely return to the slave-making ant nest.

ant-pest-control-300x285.jpg


It is no good to try to stop knowledge from going forward. Ignorance is never better than knowledge - Enrico Fermi. 

Nothing is better than reading and gaining more and more knowledge - Stephen William Hawking.

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#531 2019-11-10 15:42:03

Monox D. I-Fly
Member
From: Indonesia
Registered: 2015-12-02
Posts: 1,865

Re: Miscellany

ganesh wrote:

The red imported fire ant (Solenopsis invicta), introduced into Alabama from South America, had spread throughout the southern United States by the mid-1970s. It inflicts a painful sting and is considered a pest because of the large soil mounds associated with its nests. In some areas the red imported fire ant has been displaced by the invasive tawny crazy ant (also called hairy crazy ant, Nylanderia fulva), a species known in South America that was first detected in the United States (in Texas) in 2002. The hairy crazy ant is extremely difficult to control and is considered to be a major pest and threat to native species and ecosystems.

Wow. Is the bite of a crazy ant very painful to the point that fire ants are nothing compared to them?


Actually I never watch Star Wars and not interested in it anyway, but I choose a Yoda card as my avatar in honor of our great friend bobbym who has passed away. May his adventurous soul rest in peace at heaven.

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#532 2019-11-12 00:18:11

ganesh
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Registered: 2005-06-28
Posts: 29,068

Re: Miscellany

429) Pancreas

Pancreas, compound gland that discharges digestive enzymes into the gut and secretes the hormones insulin and glucagon, vital in carbohydrate (sugar) metabolism, into the bloodstream.

Anatomy And Exocrine And Endocrine Functions

In humans the pancreas weighs approximately 80 grams (about 3 ounces) and is shaped like a pear. It is located in the upper abdomen, with the head lying immediately adjacent to the duodenum (the upper portion of the small intestine) and the body and tail extending across the midline nearly to the spleen. In adults, most of the pancreatic tissue is devoted to exocrine function, in which digestive enzymes are secreted via the pancreatic ducts into the duodenum. The cells in the pancreas that produce digestive enzymes are called acinar cells (from Latin acinus, meaning “grape”), so named because the cells aggregate to form bundles that resemble a cluster of grapes. Located between the clusters of acinar cells are scattered patches of another type of secretory tissue, collectively known as the islets of Langerhans, named for the 19th-century German pathologist Paul Langerhans. The islets carry out the endocrine functions of the pancreas, though they account for only 1 to 2 percent of pancreatic tissue.

A large main duct, the duct of Wirsung, collects pancreatic juice and empties into the duodenum. In many individuals a smaller duct (the duct of Santorini) also empties into the duodenum. Enzymes active in the digestion of carbohydrates, fat, and protein continuously flow from the pancreas through these ducts. Their flow is controlled by the vagus nerve and by the hormones secretin and cholecystokinin, which are produced in the intestinal mucosa. When food enters the duodenum, secretin and cholecystokinin are released into the bloodstream by secretory cells of the duodenum. When these hormones reach the pancreas, the pancreatic cells are stimulated to produce and release large amounts of water, bicarbonate, and digestive enzymes, which then flow into the intestine.

The endocrine pancreas consists of the islets of Langerhans. There are approximately one million islets that weigh about 1 gram (about 0.04 ounce) in total and are scattered throughout the pancreas. The cells that make up the islets arise from both endodermal and neuroectodermal precursor cells. Approximately 75 percent of the cells in each islet are insulin-producing beta cells, which are clustered centrally in the islet. The remainder of each islet consists of alpha, delta, and F (or PP) cells, which secrete glucagon, somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide, respectively, and are located at the periphery of the islet. Each islet is supplied by one or two very small arteries (arterioles) that branch into numerous capillaries. These capillaries emerge and coalesce into small veins outside the islet. The islets also contain many nerve endings (predominantly involuntary, or autonomic, nerves that monitor and control internal organs). The principal function of the endocrine pancreas is the secretion of insulin and other polypeptide hormones necessary for the cellular storage or mobilization of glucose, amino acids, and triglycerides. Islet function may be regulated by signals initiated by autonomic nerves, circulating metabolites (e.g., glucose, amino acids, ketone bodies), circulating hormones, or local (paracrine) hormones.

The pancreas may be the site of acute and chronic infections, tumours, and cysts. Should it be surgically removed, life can be sustained by the administration of insulin and potent pancreatic extracts. Approximately 80 to 90 percent of the pancreas can be surgically removed without producing an insufficiency of either endocrine hormones (insulin and glucagon) or exocrine substances (water, bicarbonate, and enzymes).

Hormonal Control Of Energy Metabolism

The discovery of insulin in 1921 was one of the most important events in modern medicine. It saved the lives of countless patients affected by diabetes mellitus, a disorder of carbohydrate metabolism characterized by the inability of the body to produce or respond to insulin. The discovery of insulin also ushered in the present-day understanding of the function of the endocrine pancreas. The importance of the endocrine pancreas lies in the fact that insulin plays a central role in the regulation of energy metabolism. A relative or absolute deficiency of insulin leads to diabetes mellitus, which is a major cause of disease and death throughout the world.

The pancreatic hormone glucagon, in conjunction with insulin, also plays a key role in maintaining glucose homeostasis and in regulating nutrient storage. An adequate supply of glucose is required for optimal body growth and development and for the function of the central nervous system, for which glucose is the major source of energy. Therefore, elaborate mechanisms have evolved to ensure that blood glucose concentrations are maintained within narrow limits during both feast and famine. Excess nutrients that are consumed can be stored in the body and made available later—for example, when nutrients are in short supply, as during fasting, or when the body is using energy, as during physical activity. Adipose tissue is the principal site of nutrient storage, nearly all in the form of fat. A single gram of fat contains twice as many calories as a single gram of carbohydrate or protein. In addition, the content of water is very low (10 percent) in adipose tissue. Thus, a kilogram of adipose tissue has 10 times the caloric value as the same weight of muscle tissue.

After food is ingested, molecules of carbohydrate are digested and absorbed as glucose. The resulting increase in blood glucose concentrations is followed by a 5- to 10-fold increase in serum insulin concentrations, which stimulates glucose uptake by liver, adipose, and muscle tissues and inhibits glucose release from liver tissue. Fatty acids and amino acids derived from the digestion of fat and protein are also taken up by and stored in the liver and peripheral tissues, especially adipose tissue. Insulin also inhibits lipolysis (the breakdown of fat), preventing the mobilization of fat. Thus, during the “fed,” or anabolic, state, ingested nutrients that are not immediately utilized are stored, a process largely dependent on the food-associated increase in insulin secretion.

A few hours after a meal, when intestinal absorption of nutrients is complete and blood glucose concentrations have decreased toward pre-meal values, insulin secretion decreases, and glucose production by the liver resumes in order to sustain the needs of the brain. Similarly, lipolysis increases, providing fatty acids that can be used as fuel by muscle tissue and glycerol that can be converted into glucose in the liver. As the period of fasting lengthens (e.g., 12 to 14 hours), blood glucose concentrations and insulin secretion continue to decrease, and glucagon secretion increases. The increase in glucagon secretion and concomitant decrease in insulin secretion stimulate the breakdown of glycogen to form glucose (glycogenolysis) and the production of glucose from amino acids and glycerol (gluconeogenesis) in the liver. After liver glycogen is depleted, blood glucose concentrations are maintained by gluconeogenesis. Thus, the fasting, or catabolic, state is characterized by decreased insulin secretion, increased glucagon secretion, and nutrient mobilization from stores in the liver, muscle, and adipose tissue.

With further fasting, the rate of lipolysis continues to increase for several days and then plateaus. A large proportion of the fatty acids released from adipose tissue is converted to keto acids (beta-hydroxybutyric acid and acetoacetic acid, also known as ketone bodies) in the liver, a process that is stimulated by glucagon. These keto acids are small molecules that contain two carbon atoms. The brain, which generally utilizes glucose for energy, begins to use keto acids in addition to glucose. Eventually, more than half of the brain’s daily metabolic energy needs are met by the keto acids, substantially diminishing the need for glucose production by the liver and the need for gluconeogenesis in general. This reduces the need for amino acids produced by muscle breakdown, thus sparing muscle tissue. Starvation is characterized by low serum insulin concentrations, high serum glucagon concentrations, and high serum free fatty acid and keto acid concentrations.

In summary, in the fed state, insulin stimulates the transport of glucose into tissues (to be consumed as fuel or stored as glycogen), the transport of amino acids into tissues (to build or replace protein), and the transport of fatty acids into tissues (to provide a depot of fat for future energy needs). In the fasting state, insulin secretion decreases and glucagon secretion increases. Liver glycogen stores, followed later by protein and fat stores, are mobilized to produce glucose. Ultimately, most nutrient needs are provided by fatty acids mobilized from fat stores.

en3352313.jpg


It is no good to try to stop knowledge from going forward. Ignorance is never better than knowledge - Enrico Fermi. 

Nothing is better than reading and gaining more and more knowledge - Stephen William Hawking.

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#533 Today 00:37:57

ganesh
Administrator
Registered: 2005-06-28
Posts: 29,068

Re: Miscellany

430) Tonsillitis

Overview

Inflamed tonsils

Tonsillitis is inflammation of the tonsils, two oval-shaped pads of tissue at the back of the throat — one tonsil on each side. Signs and symptoms of tonsillitis include swollen tonsils, sore throat, difficulty swallowing and tender lymph nodes on the sides of the neck.

Most cases of tonsillitis are caused by infection with a common virus, but bacterial infections also may cause tonsillitis.

Because appropriate treatment for tonsillitis depends on the cause, it's important to get a prompt and accurate diagnosis. Surgery to remove tonsils, once a common procedure to treat tonsillitis, is usually performed only when bacterial tonsillitis occurs frequently, doesn't respond to other treatments or causes serious complications.

Symptoms

Tonsillitis most commonly affects children between preschool ages and the mid-teenage years. Common signs and symptoms of tonsillitis include:

•    Red, swollen tonsils
•    White or yellow coating or patches on the tonsils
•    Sore throat
•    Difficult or painful swallowing
•    Fever
•    Enlarged, tender glands (lymph nodes) in the neck
•    A scratchy, muffled or throaty voice
•    Bad breath
•    Stomachache, particularly in younger children
•    Stiff neck
•    Headache

In young children who are unable to describe how they feel, signs of tonsillitis may include:

•    Drooling due to difficult or painful swallowing
•    Refusal to eat
•    Unusual fussiness

When to see a doctor

It's important to get an accurate diagnosis if your child has symptoms that may indicate tonsillitis.

Call your doctor if your child is experiencing:

•    A sore throat that doesn't go away within 24 to 48 hours
•    Painful or difficult swallowing
•    Extreme weakness, fatigue or fussiness

Get immediate care if your child has any of these symptoms:

•    Difficulty breathing
•    Extreme difficulty swallowing
•    Drooling

Causes

Tonsillitis is most often caused by common viruses, but bacterial infections can also be the cause.

The most common bacterium causing tonsillitis is Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus), the bacterium that causes strep throat. Other strains of strep and other bacteria also may cause tonsillitis.

Why do tonsils get infected?

The tonsils are the immune system's first line of defense against bacteria and viruses that enter your mouth. This function may make the tonsils particularly vulnerable to infection and inflammation. However, the tonsil's immune system function declines after puberty — a factor that may account for the rare cases of tonsillitis in adults.

Risk factors

Risk factors for tonsillitis include:

•    Young age. Tonsillitis most often occurs in children, but rarely in those younger than age 2. Tonsillitis caused by bacteria is most common in children ages 5 to 15, while viral tonsillitis is more common in younger children.
•    Frequent exposure to germs. School-age children are in close contact with their peers and frequently exposed to viruses or bacteria that can cause tonsillitis.

Complications

Inflammation or swelling of the tonsils from frequent or ongoing (chronic) tonsillitis can cause complications such as:

•    Difficulty breathing
•    Disrupted breathing during sleep (obstructive sleep apnea)
•    Infection that spreads deep into surrounding tissue (tonsillar cellulitis)
•    Infection that results in a collection of pus behind a tonsil (peritonsillar abscess)

Strep infection

If tonsillitis caused by group A streptococcus or another strain of streptococcal bacteria isn't treated, or if antibiotic treatment is incomplete, your child has an increased risk of rare disorders such as:

•    Rheumatic fever, an inflammatory disorder that affects the heart, joints and other tissues
•    Poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis, an inflammatory disorder of the kidneys that results in inadequate removal of waste and excess fluids from blood

Prevention

The germs that cause viral and bacterial tonsillitis are contagious. Therefore, the best prevention is to practice good hygiene. Teach your child to:

•    Wash his or her hands thoroughly and frequently, especially after using the toilet and before eating
•    Avoid sharing food, drinking glasses, water bottles or utensils
•    Replace his or her toothbrush after being diagnosed with tonsillitis

To help your child prevent the spread of a bacterial or viral infection to others:

•    Keep your child at home when he or she is ill
•    Ask your doctor when it's all right for your child to return to school
•    Teach your child to cough or sneeze into a tissue or, when necessary, into his or her elbow
•    Teach your child to wash his or her hands after sneezing or coughing

tonsillitis.jpg?width=387px&height=290px


It is no good to try to stop knowledge from going forward. Ignorance is never better than knowledge - Enrico Fermi. 

Nothing is better than reading and gaining more and more knowledge - Stephen William Hawking.

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