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#1001 2021-11-09 00:05:14

ganesh
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Re: crème de la crème

965) David S. McKay

David S. McKay, in full David Stewart McKay, (born September 25, 1936, Titusville, Pennsylvania, U.S.—died February 20, 2013, Houston, Texas), American astrobiologist and geologist best known for claiming to have found evidence of microscopic life on a Martian meteorite.

McKay was raised in Tulsa, Oklahoma, the son of an accountant for an oil company. He received a bachelor’s degree (1958) in geology from Rice University in Houston and proceeded to earn a master’s degree in geochemistry from the University of California, Berkeley, in 1960. He then worked as a field geophysicist for the Exxon Corporation before returning to Rice University to complete his doctorate (1964) in geology. He remained in Houston and in 1965 began working at NASA’s Manned Spacecraft Center, later renamed Johnson Space Center, where he instructed Apollo astronauts in geology and analyzed soil samples that they had retrieved from the Moon. McKay worked on a variety of projects, including the development of a method for extracting oxygen and water from lunar materials that would enable people to live on the Moon. At the time of his death in 2013, he was serving as chief scientist for astrobiology.

McKay is best known for his work on ALH 84001, a meteorite originally discovered in Antarctica in 1984. The meteorite, believed to be about 4.5 billion years old and weighing 1.9 kg (4.2 lb), had initially been classified as a diogenite, a common type of rock. It was not until 1994 that it was determined to be of Martian origin. One of only 12 such known meteorites, the specimen quickly attracted special interest. A NASA research team was assembled with McKay as its leader. The study, which took more than two years, revealed several peculiarities. First was the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). While these organic compounds are commonplace, found throughout the solar system, the PAHs in the meteorite were unusual in appearance, resembling the type that result from the decay of organic matter. The presence of the molecules within the rock and their absence on its surface ruled out Earth contamination. The team also discovered carbonate globules, which are closely associated with bacteria found on Earth. Moreover, iron sulfides and magnetite were present. These compounds, which are so small that one billion of them can fit on the head of a pin, do not usually coexist. Certain bacteria, however, synthesize them simultaneously.

In August 1996 McKay announced that the meteorite had yielded evidence indicating that primitive life may have existed on Mars. The news came only weeks after the 20th anniversary of the first Viking landing on Mars, which had concluded that the planet was sterile. While the publication of these findings in the journal Science generated a flurry of debate, McKay stressed that the findings were not definitive proof and that further research was planned. His subsequent work uncovered similarities between compounds known to be of biological origin (and found in Earth rocks dating from the Cambrian Period and the Proterozoic Eon) and those found in Martian meteorites.

McKay was also involved in the study of nanobacteria, thought by some to constitute a new life-form. However, they were found to be too small to be considered living things. He later claimed that nanobacteria, which are encased in shells made up of calcium compounds, accounted for the increased incidence of kidney stones in astronauts because nanobacteria could more quickly replicate at zero gravity. A 2007 study led by McKay confirmed previous reports that nanobacteria were capable of self-replication.

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It is no good to try to stop knowledge from going forward. Ignorance is never better than knowledge - Enrico Fermi. 

Nothing is better than reading and gaining more and more knowledge - Stephen William Hawking.

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#1002 2021-11-10 00:17:25

ganesh
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Re: crème de la crème

966) Max Delbrück

Max Ludwig Henning Delbrück (September 4, 1906 – March 9, 1981) was a German-American biophysicist and Nobel laureate.

Delbrück was one of the most influential people in the movement of physical scientists into biology during the 20th century.

Delbrück's big idea was to explore genetics by means of the bacteriophage viruses which infect bacteria. This was important in the early development of molecular biology.

Biography

Delbrück was born in Berlin, German Empire. Trained as a physicist, he got his Ph.D. in 1930. he traveled through England, Denmark, and Switzerland. He met Wolfgang Pauli and Niels Bohr, who got him interested in biology.

In 1937, he moved to the United States to pursue his interests in biology, taking up research in the Biology Division at Caltech on genetics of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. While at Caltech Delbrück became acquainted with bacteria and their viruses (bacteriophage or 'phage').

Delbrück remained in the US during World War II, teaching physics at Vanderbilt University in Nashville while pursuing his genetic research. In 1942, he and Salvador Luria of Indiana University demonstrated that bacterial resistance to virus infection is caused by random mutation and not adaptive change. This research, known as the Luria-Delbrück experiment, was also significant for its use of mathematics to make quantitative predictions for the results to be expected from alternative models. For that work, they were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1969, sharing it with Alfred Hershey.

During the 1940s Delbrück developed a course in bacteriophage genetics at the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory to encourage interest in the field. In 1947, Delbrück returned to Caltech as a professor of biology where he remained until 1977.

Max Delbrück, (born Sept. 4, 1906, Berlin, Ger.—died March 9, 1981, Pasadena, Calif., U.S.), German-born U.S. biologist, a pioneer in the study of molecular genetics. With Alfred Day Hershey and Salvador Luria, he was awarded the 1969 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for work on bacteriophages—viruses that infect bacteria.

Delbrück received a Ph.D. in physics (1930) from the University of Göttingen. His interest in bacteriophages was aroused while he was a research assistant at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Chemistry in Berlin (1932–37). A refugee from Nazi Germany, Delbrück went to the United States in 1937, serving as a faculty member of the California Institute of Technology (1937–39; 1947–81) and of Vanderbilt University (1940–47). He became a U.S. citizen in 1945.

In 1939 Delbrück discovered a one-step process for growing bacteriophages that, after a one-hour latent period, would multiply to produce several hundred thousands of progeny. Delbrück soon began to collaborate with Luria, and in 1943 they announced their discovery that a bacterium that has been infected by a bacteriophage can undergo spontaneous mutations so that it becomes immune to the phage. In 1946 Delbrück and Hershey independently discovered that the genetic material of different kinds of viruses can combine to create new types of viruses. This process was previously believed to be limited to higher, sexually reproducing forms of life.

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It is no good to try to stop knowledge from going forward. Ignorance is never better than knowledge - Enrico Fermi. 

Nothing is better than reading and gaining more and more knowledge - Stephen William Hawking.

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#1003 2021-11-12 00:09:55

ganesh
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Re: crème de la crème

967) Alfred Hershey

Alfred Day Hershey (December 4, 1908 – May 22, 1997) was an American Nobel Prize–winning bacteriologist and geneticist.

He was born in Owosso, Michigan and received his B.S. in chemistry at Michigan State University in 1930 and his Ph.D. in bacteriology in 1934, taking a position shortly thereafter at the Department of Bacteriology at Washington University in St. Louis.

He began performing experiments with bacteriophages with Italian-American Salvador Luria, German Max Delbrück, and observed that when two different strains of bacteriophage have infected the same bacteria, the two viruses may exchange genetic information.

He moved with his research partner Martha Chase to Laurel Hollow, New York, in 1950 to join the Carnegie Institution of Washington's Department of Genetics, where he and Martha Chase performed the famous Hershey–Chase experiment in 1952. This experiment provided additional evidence that DNA, not protein, was the genetic material of life. Notable post-doctoral fellows in Hershey's lab include Anna Marie Skalka.

He became director of the Carnegie Institution (which later became Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory) in 1962 and was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1969, shared with Salvador Luria and Max Delbrück for their discovery on the replication of viruses and their genetic structure.

In 1981, Hershey became a founding member of the World Cultural Council.

Hershey had one child, Peter Manning Hershey (1956-1999) with his wife Harriet (often called Jill) (1918-2000). The family was active in the social network of Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory and regularly enjoyed the beach in season. Hershey was a Christian.

After Hershey died, another phage worker, Frank Stahl, wrote: "The Phage Church, as we were sometimes called, was led by the Trinity of Delbrück, Luria, and Hershey. Delbrück's status as founder and his ex cathedra manner made him the pope, of course, and Luria was the hard-working, socially sensitive priest-confessor. And Al (Hershey) was the saint."

Alfred Day Hershey was born on December 4th, 1908, in Owosso, Michigan. He studied at the Michigan State College, where he obtained B.S. in 1930, and Ph.D. in 1934. In 1967 he got an honorary D.Sc. at the University of Chicago.

From 1934 till 1950 he was engaged in teaching and research, at the Department of Bacteriology, Washington University School of Medicine. In 1950 he became a Staff Member, at the Department of Genetics, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Cold Spring Harbor, New York; in 1962 he was appointed Director of the Genetics Research Unit of the same institution.

Alfred Hershey married Harriet Davidson in 1945, they have one son, Peter.

Alfred Hershey is a Member of the American Society for Microbiology, the National Academy of Sciences, and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Hershey is Recipient of the Kimber Genetics Award of the National Academy of Sciences, 1965. Michigan State University honored him with an M.D.h.c. in 1970.

Alfred D. Hershey died on May 22, 1997.

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It is no good to try to stop knowledge from going forward. Ignorance is never better than knowledge - Enrico Fermi. 

Nothing is better than reading and gaining more and more knowledge - Stephen William Hawking.

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#1004 2021-11-14 00:06:59

ganesh
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Re: crème de la crème

968) Salvador Luria

Salvador Luria, in full Salvador Edward Luria, (born Aug. 13, 1912, Turin, Italy—died Feb. 6, 1991, Lexington, Mass., U.S.), Italian-born American biologist who (with Max Delbrück and Alfred Day Hershey) won the Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine in 1969 for research on bacteriophages, viruses that infect bacteria.

Luria graduated from the University of Turin in 1935 and became a radiology specialist. He fled Italy for France in 1938 and went to the United States in 1940 after learning the techniques of phage research at the Pasteur Institute in Paris. Soon after his arrival, he met Delbrück, through whom he became involved with the American Phage Group, an informal scientific organization devoted to solving the problems of viral self-replication. Working with a member of the group in 1942, Luria obtained one of the electron micrographs of phage particles, which confirmed earlier descriptions of them as consisting of a round head and a thin tail.

In 1943 Luria and Delbrück published a paper showing that, contrary to the current view, viruses undergo permanent changes in their hereditary material. That same year he and Delbrück devised the fluctuation test, which provided experimental evidence that phage-resistant bacteria were the result of spontaneous mutations rather than a direct response to changes in the environment. In 1945 Hershey and Luria demonstrated the existence not only of such bacterial mutants but also of spontaneous phage mutants.

Luria became Sedgwick professor of biology at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1964. In 1974 he became director of the Center for Cancer Research at MIT. He was an author of a college textbook, General Virology (1953), and a popular text for the general reader, Life: The Unfinished Experiment (1973).

Salvador Edward Luria was born on August 13th, 1912, in Torino, Italy. He has been a naturalized citizen of the U.S.A. since January 1947.

In 1929 he started his studies in Medicine at the University of Torino, where he obtained his M. D. summa cum laude in 1935. From 1938 to 1940 he was Research Fellow at the Institute of Radium in Paris; 1940-1942, Research Assistant in Surgical Bacteriology at Columbia University; from 1943 to 1950 he was Instructor, Assistant Professor, and Associate Professor of Bacteriology at Indiana University; in 1950 he was appointed Professor of Microbiology at the University of Illinois; from 1959-1964 he has been Professor of Microbiology at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; in 1964 he became Sedgwick Professor of Biology at the M. I. T. and in 1965, non-resident Fellow at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies. In 1970 Luria was appointed Institute Professor at the Department of Biology of the M.I.T.

Professor Luria was honoured with the following awards: 1935, Lepetit Prize; 1965, Lenghi Prize, Accademia dei Lincei; 1969, Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize, Columbia University.

He was Guggenheim Fellow, 1942-1943 at Vanderbilt and Princeton; during the year 1963-1964 he worked again in Paris, this time at the Institut Pasteur. He is, or has been, Editor or Member of the Editorial Board of the following journals: Journal of Bacteriology, Virology, Experimental Cell Research, Journal of Molecular Biology, Photochemistry and Photobiology, American Naturalist, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Annual Review of Genetics.

Professor Luria is a Member of the National Academy of Sciences, American Academy of Arts and Sciences, American Philosophical Society, American Academy of Microbiology, American Society for Microbiology (President, 1967-1968), American Society of Biological Chemists, Society for General Microbiology, Genetics Society, American Naturalists, Society for the Study of Development and Growth, A.A.A.S., Sigma Xi, A.A.U.P.

Salvador Edward Luria was, in 1945, married to Zella Hurwitz, they have one son, Daniel, who is studying economics. His wife, Zella Hurwitz Luria, Ph. D., is a Professor of Psychology at Tufts University.

Salvador E. Luria died on February 6, 1991.

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It is no good to try to stop knowledge from going forward. Ignorance is never better than knowledge - Enrico Fermi. 

Nothing is better than reading and gaining more and more knowledge - Stephen William Hawking.

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#1005 2021-11-16 00:11:40

ganesh
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Re: crème de la crème

969) Hannes Alfvén

Hannes Alfvén, in full Hannes Olof Gösta Alfvén, (born May 30, 1908, Norrköping, Sweden—died April 2, 1995, Djursholm), astrophysicist and winner, with Louis Néel of France, of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1970 for his essential contributions in founding plasma physics—the study of plasmas (ionized gases).

Alfvén was educated at Uppsala University and in 1940 joined the staff of the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm. During the late 1930s and early ’40s he made remarkable contributions to space physics, including the theorem of frozen-in flux, according to which under certain conditions a plasma is bound to the magnetic lines of flux that pass through it. Alfvén later used the concept to explain the origin of cosmic rays.

In 1939 Alfvén published his theory of magnetic storms and auroral displays in the atmosphere, which immensely influenced the modern theory of the magnetosphere (the region of Earth’s magnetic field). He discovered a widely used mathematical approximation by which the complex spiral motion of a charged particle in a magnetic field can be easily calculated. Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), the study of plasmas in magnetic fields, was largely pioneered by Alfvén, and his work has been acknowledged as fundamental to attempts to control nuclear fusion.

After numerous disagreements with the Swedish government, Alfvén obtained a position (1967) with the University of California, San Diego. Later he divided his teaching time between the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm and the University of California.

Alfvén devised “plasma cosmology,” a concept that challenged the big-bang model of the origin of the universe. The theory posited that the universe had no beginning (and has no foreseeable end) and that plasma—with its electric and magnetic forces—has done more to organize matter in the universe into star systems and other large observed structures than has the force of gravity. Much of Alfvén’s early research was included in his Cosmical Electrodynamics (1950). He also wrote On the Origin of the Solar System (1954), Worlds-Antiworlds (1966), and Cosmic Plasma (1981).

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It is no good to try to stop knowledge from going forward. Ignorance is never better than knowledge - Enrico Fermi. 

Nothing is better than reading and gaining more and more knowledge - Stephen William Hawking.

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#1006 2021-11-18 00:12:52

ganesh
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Re: crème de la crème

970) Louis Néel

Louis-Eugène-Félix Néel, (born November 22, 1904, Lyon, France—died November 17, 2000, Brive-Corrèze), French physicist who was corecipient, with the Swedish astrophysicist Hannes Alfvén, of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1970 for his pioneering studies of the magnetic properties of solids. His contributions to solid-state physics have found numerous useful applications, particularly in the development of improved computer memory units.

Néel attended the École Normale Supérieure in Paris and the University of Strasbourg (Ph.D., 1932), where he studied under Pierre-Ernest Weiss and first began researching magnetism. He was a professor at the universities of Strasbourg (1937–45) and Grenoble (1945–76), and in 1956 he founded the Center for Nuclear Studies in Grenoble, serving as its director until 1971. Néel also was director (1971–76) of the Polytechnic Institute in Grenoble.

During the early 1930s Néel studied, on the molecular level, forms of magnetism that differ from ferromagnetism. In ferromagnetism, the most common variety of magnetism, the electrons line up (or spin) in the same direction at low temperatures. He discovered that, in some substances, alternating groups of atoms align their electrons in opposite directions (much as when two identical magnets are placed together with opposite poles aligned), thus neutralizing the net magnetic effect. This magnetic property is called antiferromagnetism. Néel’s studies of fine-grain ferromagnetics provided an explanation for the unusual magnetic memory of certain mineral deposits that has provided information on changes in the direction and strength of the Earth’s magnetic field.

Néel wrote more than 200 works on various aspects of magnetism. Mainly because of his contributions, ferromagnetic materials can be manufactured to almost any specifications for technical applications, and a flood of new synthetic ferrite materials has revolutionized microwave electronics.

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It is no good to try to stop knowledge from going forward. Ignorance is never better than knowledge - Enrico Fermi. 

Nothing is better than reading and gaining more and more knowledge - Stephen William Hawking.

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#1007 2021-11-20 00:29:40

ganesh
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Re: crème de la crème

971) Luis Federico Leloir

Luis Federico Leloir, (born Sept. 6, 1906, Paris, France—died Dec. 2, 1987, Buenos Aires, Arg.), Argentine biochemist who won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1970 for his investigations of the processes by which carbohydrates are converted into energy in the body.

After serving as an assistant at the Institute of Physiology, University of Buenos Aires, from 1934 to 1935, Leloir worked a year at the biochemical laboratory at the University of Cambridge and in 1937 returned to the Institute of Physiology, where he undertook investigations of the oxidation of fatty acids. In 1947 he obtained financial support to set up the Institute for Biochemical Research, Buenos Aires, where he began research on the formation and breakdown of lactose, or milk sugar, in the body. That work ultimately led to his discovery of sugar nucleotides, which are key elements in the processes by which sugars stored in the body are converted into energy. He also investigated the formation and utilization of glycogen and discovered certain liver enzymes that are involved in its synthesis from glucose.

Luis F. Leloir was born in Paris of Argentine parents on September 6, 1906 and has lived in Buenos Aires since he was two years old. He graduated as a Medical Doctor in the University of Buenos Aires in 1932 and started his scientific career at the Institute of Physiology working with Professor Bernardo A. Houssay on the role of the adrenalin carbohydrate metabolism. In 1936 he worked at the Biochemical Laboratory of Cambridge, England, which was directed by Sir Frederick Gowland Hopkins. There he collaborated with Malcom Dixon, N.L. Edson and D.E. Green. On returning to Buenos Aires he worked with J.M. Muñoz on the oxidation of fatty acids in liver, and also together with E. Braun Menéndez, J.C. Fasciolo and A.C. Taquini on the formation of angiotensin. In 1944 he was Research Assistant in Dr. Carl F. Cori’s laboratory in St. Louis, United States and thereafter worked with D.E. Green in the College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York. Since then he has been Director of the Instituto de Investigaciones Bioquímicas, Fundación Campomar. With his early collaborators, Ranwel Caputto, Carlos E. Cardini, Raúl Trucco and Alejandro C. Paladini work was started on the metabolism of galactose which led to the isolation of glucose 1,6-diphosphate and uridine diphosphate glucose. The latter substance was then found to act as glucose donor in the synthesis of trehalose (with Enrico Cabib, 1953 ) and sucrose (with Carlos E. Cardini and J.Chiriboga, 1955). Other sugar nucleotides such as uridine diphosphate acetylglucosamine and guanosine diphosphate mannose were also isolated. Further work showed that uridine diphosphate glucose is involved in glycogen synthesis and adenosine diphosphate glucose in that of starch.

More recent investigations (with Nicolás Behrens) have dealt with the role of a polyprenol, dolichol, in glucose transfer in animal tissues.

Luis Leloir was married in 1943 to Amelia Zuberbuhler and has a daughter, Amelia. At present Leloir is Professor in the Faculty of Sciences, University of Buenos Aires. He is a member of the following academies; National Academy of Sciences, American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Academia Nacional de Medicina, American Philosophical Society, Pontificial Academy of Sciences, and Honorary Member of the Biochemical Society (England). He has received honorary degrees of the following universities: Granada (Spain), Paris (France), Tucuman (Argentina) and La Plata (Argentina). Prof. Leloir has received the following awards: Argentine Scientific Society, Helen Hay Whitney Foundation (United States), Severo Vaccaro Foundation (Argentina), Bunge and Born Foundation (Argentina), Gairdner Foundation (Canada), Louisa Gross Horowitz (United States), Benito Juarez (Mexico); and at present he is President of the Pan-American Association of Biochemical Societies.

Luis Leloir died on December 2, 1987.

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It is no good to try to stop knowledge from going forward. Ignorance is never better than knowledge - Enrico Fermi. 

Nothing is better than reading and gaining more and more knowledge - Stephen William Hawking.

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#1008 2021-11-22 00:07:36

ganesh
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Re: crème de la crème

972) Julius Axelrod

Julius Axelrod (May 30, 1912 – December 29, 2004) was an American biochemist. He won a share of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1970 along with Bernard Katz and Ulf von Euler. The Nobel Committee honored him for his work on the release and reuptake of catecholamine neurotransmitters, a class of chemicals in the brain that include epinephrine, norepinephrine, and, as was later discovered, dopamine. Axelrod also made major contributions to the understanding of the pineal gland and how it is regulated during the sleep-wake cycle.

Education and early life

Axelrod was born in New York City, the son of Jewish immigrants from Poland, Molly (née Leichtling) and Isadore Axelrod, a basket weaver. He received his bachelor's degree in biology from the College of the City of New York in 1933. Axelrod wanted to become a physician, but was rejected from every medical school to which he applied. He worked briefly as a laboratory technician at New York University, then in 1935 he got a job with the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene testing vitamin supplements added to food. While working at the Department of Health, he attended night school and received his master's in sciences degree from New York University in 1941.

Research

i) Analgesic research

In 1946, Axelrod took a position working under Bernard Brodie at Goldwater Memorial Hospital. The research experience and mentorship Axelrod received from Brodie would launch him on his research career. Brodie and Axelrod's research focused on how analgesics (pain-killers) work. During the 1940s, users of non-aspirin analgesics were developing a blood condition known as methemoglobinemia. Axelrod and Brodie discovered that acetanilide, the main ingredient of these pain-killers, was to blame. They found that one of the metabolites also was an analgesic. They recommended that this metabolite, acetaminophen (paracetamol, Tylenol), be used instead.

ii) Catecholamine research

In 1949, Axelrod began work at the National Heart Institute, forerunner of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), part of the National Catecholamine research Institutes of Health (NIH). He examined the mechanisms and effects of caffeine, which led him to an interest in the sympathetic nervous system and its main neurotransmitters, epinephrine and norepinephrine. During this time, Axelrod also conducted research on codeine, morphine, methamphetamine, and ephedrine and performed some of the first experiments on LSD. Realizing that he could not advance his career without a PhD, he took a leave of absence from the NIH in 1954 to attend George Washington University Medical School. Allowed to submit some of his previous research toward his degree, he graduated one year later, in 1955. Axelrod then returned to the NIH and began some of the key research of his career.

Axelrod received his Nobel Prize for his work on the release, reuptake, and storage of the neurotransmitters epinephrine and norepinephrine, also known as adrenaline and noradrenaline. Working on monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors in 1957, Axelrod showed that catecholamine neurotransmitters do not merely stop working after they are released into the synapse. Instead, neurotransmitters are recaptured ("reuptake") by the pre-synaptic nerve ending, and recycled for later transmissions. He theorized that epinephrine is held in tissues in an inactive form and is liberated by the nervous system when needed. This research laid the groundwork for later selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), such as Prozac, which block the reuptake of another neurotransmitter, serotonin.

In 1958, Axelrod also discovered and characterized the enzyme catechol-O-methyl transferase, which is involved in the breakdown of catecholamines.

iii) Pineal gland research

Some of Axelrod's later research focused on the pineal gland. He and his colleagues showed that the hormone melatonin is generated from tryptophan, as is the neurotransmitter serotonin. The rates of synthesis and release follows the body's circadian rhythm driven by the suprachiasmatic nucleus within the hypothalamus. Axelrod and colleagues went on to show that melatonin had wide-ranging effects throughout the central nervous system, allowing the pineal gland to function as a biological clock. He was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1971. He continued to work at the National Institute of Mental Health at the NIH until his death in 2004.

Many of his papers and awards are held at the National Library of Medicine.

Awards and honors

Axelrod was awarded the Gairdner Foundation International Award in 1967, the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1970. He was elected a Foreign Member of the Royal Society (ForMemRS) in 1979. In 1992, he was awarded the Ralph W. Gerard Prize in Neuroscience.

Research Trainees

Solomon Snyder, Irwin Kopin, Ronald W. Holz, Rudi Schmid, Bruce R Conklin, Ron M Burch, Marty Zatz, Michael Brownstein, Chris Felder, Robert Kanterman, Richard J Wurtman.

Personal life

Axelrod injured his left eye when an ammonia bottle in the lab exploded; he would wear an eyepatch for the rest of his life. Although he became an atheist early in life and resented the strict upbringing of his parents’ religion, he identified with Jewish culture and joined several international fights against anti-Semitism. His wife of 53 years, Sally Taub Axelrod, died in 1992. At his death, he was survived by two sons, Paul and Alfred, and three grandchildren.

Political views

After receiving the Nobel Prize in 1970, Axelrod used his visibility to advocate several science policy issues. In 1973 U.S. President Richard Nixon created an agency with the specific goal of curing cancer. Axelrod, along with fellow Nobel-laureates Marshall W. Nirenberg and Christian Anfinsen, organized a petition by scientists opposed to the new agency, arguing that by focusing solely on cancer, public funding would not be available for research into other, more solvable, medical problems. Axelrod also lent his name to several protests against the imprisonment of scientists in the Soviet Union. Dr. Axelrod was a member of the Board of Sponsors of the Federation of American Scientists and the International Academy of Science, Munich.

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It is no good to try to stop knowledge from going forward. Ignorance is never better than knowledge - Enrico Fermi. 

Nothing is better than reading and gaining more and more knowledge - Stephen William Hawking.

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#1009 2021-11-24 00:05:13

ganesh
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Re: crème de la crème

973) Ulf von Euler

Ulf Svante von Euler (7 February 1905 – 9 March 1983) was a Swedish physiologist and pharmacologist. He shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1970 for his work on neurotransmitters.

Life

Ulf Svante von Euler-Chelpin was born in Stockholm, the son of two noted scientists, Hans von Euler-Chelpin, a professor of chemistry, and Astrid Cleve, a professor of botany and geology.  His father was German and the recipient of Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1929, and his maternal grandfather was Per Teodor Cleve, Professor of Chemistry at the Uppsala University, and the discoverer of the chemical elements thulium and holmium. Enjoying such a privileged family environment in science, education and research, it is not surprising that young Ulf would become a scientist, too, so he went to study medicine at the Karolinska Institute in 1922. At Karolinska, he worked under Robin Fåhraeus in blood sedimentation and rheology and did research work on the pathophysiology of vasoconstriction. He presented his doctoral thesis in 1930, and was appointed as Assistant Professor in Pharmacology in the same year, with the support of G. Liljestrand. From 1930 to 1931, von Ulf got a Rochester Fellowship to do his post-doctoral studies abroad. He studied in England with Sir Henry Dale in London and with I. de Burgh Daly in Birmingham, and then proceeded to the continent, studying with Corneille Heymans in Ghent, Belgium and with Gustav Embden in Frankfurt, Germany. Von Euler liked to travel, so he also worked and learned biophysics with Archibald Vivian Hill, again in London in 1934, and neuromuscular transmission with G. L. Brown in 1938. From 1946 to 1947, he worked with Eduardo Braun-Menéndez in the Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental in Buenos Aires, which was founded by Bernardo Houssay. His unerring instinct to work with important scientific leaders and fields was to be proved by the fact that Dale, Heymans, Hill and Houssay went to receive the Nobel prize in physiology or medicine.

In 1981, von Euler became a founding member of the World Cultural Council.

From 1930 to 1957, von Euler was married to Jane Anna Margarethe Sodenstierna (1905-2004).  They had four children: Hans Leo, scientist administrator at the National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, U.S.A.; Johan Christopher, anesthesiologist, Serafimer Hospital, Stockholm; Ursula Katarina, Ph.D., curator at The Royal Collections, The Royal Court, Stockholm, Sweden; and Marie Jane, Chemical Engineer, Melbourne, Australia. In 1958, von Euler married countess Dagmar Cronstedt, a radio broadcaster who had during the Second World War worked at Radio Königsberg, broadcasting German propaganda to neutral Sweden.

Research

His short stay as a postdoctoral student in Dale's laboratory was very fruitful: in 1931 he discovered with John H. Gaddum an important autopharmacological principle, substance P. After returning to Stockholm, von Euler pursued further this line of research, and successively discovered four other important endogenous active substances, prostaglandin, vesiglandin (1935), piperidine (1942) and noradrenaline (1946).

In 1939 von Euler was appointed Full Professor of Physiology at the Karolinska Institute, where he remained until 1971. His early collaboration with Liljestrand had led to an important discovery, which was named the Euler–Liljestrand mechanism (a physiological arterial shunt in response to the decrease in local oxygenation of the lungs).

From 1946 on, however, when noradrenaline (abbreviated NA or NAd) was discovered, von Euler devoted most of his research work to this area. He and his group studied thoroughly its distribution and fate in biological tissues and in the nervous system in physiological and pathological conditions, and found that noradrenaline was produced and stored in nerve synaptic terminals in intracellular vesicles, a key discovery which changed dramatically the course of many researches in the field. In 1970 he was distinguished with the Nobel Prize for his work, jointly with Sir Bernard Katz and Julius Axelrod. Since 1953 he was very active in the Nobel Foundation, being a member of the Nobel Committee for Physiology or Medicine and Chairman of the Board since 1965. He also served as Vice-President of the International Union of Physiological Sciences from 1965 to 1971. Among the many honorary titles and prizes he received in addition to the Nobel, were the Gairdner Prize (1961), the Jahre Prize (1965), the Stouffer Prize (1967), the Carl Ludwig Medaille (1953), the Schmiedeberg Plaquette (1969), La Madonnina (1970), many honorary doctorates from universities around the world, and the membership to several erudite, medical and scientific societies. He was elected a Foreign Member of the Royal Society in 1973.

Summary

Ulf von Euler, in full Ulf Svante von Euler-Chelpin, (born Feb. 7, 1905, Stockholm, Sweden—died March 9, 1983, Stockholm), Swedish physiologist who, with British biophysicist Sir Bernard Katz and American biochemist Julius Axelrod, received the 1970 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. All three were honoured for their independent study of the mechanics of nerve impulses.

Euler was the son of 1929 Nobel laureate Hans von Euler-Chelpin. After his graduation from the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, Euler served on the faculty of the institute from 1930 to 1971. He joined the Nobel Committee for Physiology and Medicine in 1953 and was president of the Nobel Foundation for 10 years (1966–75).

Euler’s outstanding achievement was his identification of noradrenaline (norepinephrine), the key neurotransmitter (or impulse carrier) in the sympathetic nervous system. He also found that norepinephrine is stored within nerve fibres themselves. These discoveries laid the foundation for Axelrod’s determination of the role of the enzyme that inhibits its action, and the method of norepinephrine’s reabsorption by nerve tissues. Euler also discovered the hormones known as prostaglandins, which play active roles in stimulating human muscle contraction and in the regulation of the cardiovascular and nervous systems.

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It is no good to try to stop knowledge from going forward. Ignorance is never better than knowledge - Enrico Fermi. 

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#1010 2021-11-25 16:50:54

ganesh
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Re: crème de la crème

974) André Weil

André Weil, (born May 6, 1906, Paris, France—died August 6, 1998, Princeton, New Jersey, U.S.), French mathematician who was one of the most influential figures in mathematics during the 20th century, particularly in number theory and algebraic geometry.

André was the brother of the philosopher and mystic Simone Weil. He studied at the École Normale Supérieure (now part of the Universities of Paris) and at the Universities of Rome and Göttingen, receiving his doctorate from the University of Paris in 1928. His teaching career was even more international; he was professor of mathematics at the Aligarh Muslim University, India (1930–32), and thereafter taught at the University of Strasbourg, France (1933–40), the University of São Paulo, Brazil (1945–47), and the University of Chicago (1947–58). He joined the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, New Jersey, U.S., in 1958, becoming professor emeritus in 1976. He was also a gifted linguist who read Sanskrit and many other languages, and he was a sympathetic expert on Indian religious writings.

Beginning in the mid 1930s, as one of the founding members of a group of French mathematicians writing under the collective pseudonym Nicolas Bourbaki, Weil worked and inspired others in the effort to achieve David Hilbert’s program of unifying all of mathematics upon a rigorous axiomatic basis and directed to the solution of significant problems. Weil and Jean Dieudonné were chiefly responsible for Bourbaki’s interest in the history of mathematics, and Weil wrote on it extensively toward the end of his career.

Weil made fundamental contributions to algebraic geometry—at that time a subject mostly contributed to by members of the “Italian school” but being reformulated along algebraic lines by Bartel van der Waerden and Oscar Zariski—and algebraic topology. Weil believed that many fundamental theorems in number theory and algebra had analogous formulations in algebraic geometry and topology. Collectively known as the Weil conjectures, they became the basis for both these disciplines. In particular, Weil began the proof of a variant of the Riemann hypothesis for algebraic curves while interned in Rouen, France, in 1940 for his deliberate failure, as a pacifist, to report for duty in the French army. This internment followed his incarceration and later expulsion from Finland, where he was suspected of being a spy. In order to avoid a five-year sentence in a French jail, Weil volunteered to return to the army. In 1941, after reuniting with his wife, Eveline, Weil fled with her to the United States.

The Weil conjectures generated many new ideas in algebraic topology. Their importance can be gauged by the fact that the Belgian mathematician Pierre Deligne was awarded a Fields Medal in 1978 in part for having proved one of the conjectures. The Weil conjectures have recently had ramifications in cryptology, computer modeling, data transmission, and other fields.

Weil’s published works include Foundations of Algebraic Geometry (1946) and his autobiography, Souvenirs d’apprentissage (1992, The Apprenticeship of a Mathematician). The three volumes of his Oeuvres scientifiques (Collected Papers) were published in 1980.

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It is no good to try to stop knowledge from going forward. Ignorance is never better than knowledge - Enrico Fermi. 

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#1011 2021-11-26 22:24:23

ganesh
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Re: crème de la crème

975) Bernard Katz

Sir Bernard Katz, (26 March 1911 – 20 April 2003) was a German-born British physician and biophysicist, noted for his work on nerve physiology. He shared the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine in 1970 with Julius Axelrod and Ulf von Euler. He was made a Knight Bachelor in 1969.

Life and career

Katz was born in Leipzig, Germany, to a Jewish family originally from Russia, the son of Eugenie (Rabinowitz) and Max Katz, a fur merchant. He was educated at the Albert Gymnasium in that city from 1921 to 1929 and went on to study medicine at the University of Leipzig. He graduated in 1934 and fled to Britain in February 1935.

Katz went to work at University College London, initially under the tutelage of Archibald Vivian Hill. He finished his PhD in 1938 and won a Carnegie Fellowship to study with John Carew Eccles at the Kanematsu Institute of Sydney Medical School. During this time, both he and Eccles gave research lectures at the University of Sydney. He obtained British nationality in 1941 and joined the Royal Australian Air Force in 1942. He spent the war in the Pacific as a radar officer and in 1946 was invited back to UCL as an assistant director by Hill. For three years until 1949, the Katz family lived with Hill and his wife Margaret in the top flat of their house in Highgate.

Back in England he also worked with the 1963 Nobel prize winners Alan Hodgkin and Andrew Huxley. Katz was made a professor at UCL in 1952 and head of biophysics, he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS) in 1952. He stayed as head of biophysics until 1978 when he became emeritus professor.

Katz married Marguerite Penly in 1945. He died in London on 20 April 2003, at the age of 92. His son Jonathan is Public Orator of The University of Oxford.

Research

His research uncovered fundamental properties of synapses, the junctions across which nerve cells signal to each other and to other types of cells. By the 1950s, he was studying the biochemistry and action of acetylcholine, a signalling molecule found in synapses linking motor neurons to muscles, used to stimulate contraction. Katz won the Nobel for his discovery with Paul Fatt that neurotransmitter release at synapses is "quantal", meaning that at any particular synapse, the amount of neurotransmitter released is never less than a certain amount, and if more is always an integral number times this amount. Scientists now understand that this circumstance arises because, prior to their release into the synaptic gap, transmitter molecules reside in like-sized subcellular packages known as synaptic vesicles, released in a similar way to any other vesicle during exocytosis.

Katz's work had immediate influence on the study of organophosphates and organochlorines, the basis of new post-war study for nerve agents and pesticides, as he determined that the complex enzyme cycle was easily disrupted.

Summary

Sir Bernard Katz, (born March 26, 1911, Leipzig, Germany—died April 20, 2003, London, England), German-born British physiologist who investigated the functioning of nerves and muscles. His studies on the release of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine—which carries impulses from nerve fibre to muscle fibre or from one nerve ending to another—won him a share (with Julius Axelrod and Ulf von Euler) of the 1970 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine.

After receiving a medical degree from the University of Leipzig in 1934, Katz immigrated to England, where he pursued advanced studies at University College in London, taking a Ph.D. in 1938. Upon receiving a Carnegie fellowship, he studied in Australia (1939–42) and then served in the Royal Australian Air Force during World War II. He returned to University College in 1946 and from 1952 to 1978 was professor and head of the biophysics department. Katz was knighted in 1969.

Katz wrote Electric Excitation of Nerve (1939), Nerve, Muscle and Synapse (1966), and The Release of Neural Transmitter Substances (1969). He and his associates made numerous discoveries concerning the chemistry of nerve transmission, including the role of calcium ions in promoting the release of neurotransmitter substances and the fact that quanta of these substances are being released constantly at random intervals.

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It is no good to try to stop knowledge from going forward. Ignorance is never better than knowledge - Enrico Fermi. 

Nothing is better than reading and gaining more and more knowledge - Stephen William Hawking.

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#1012 Yesterday 00:59:17

ganesh
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Registered: 2005-06-28
Posts: 34,872

Re: crème de la crème

976) Dennis Gabor

Dennis Gabor, (born June 5, 1900, Budapest, Hung.—died Feb. 8, 1979, London, Eng.), Hungarian-born electrical engineer who won the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1971 for his invention of holography, a system of lensless, three-dimensional photography that has many applications.

A research engineer for the firm of Siemens and Halske in Berlin from 1927, Gabor fled Nazi Germany in 1933 and worked with the Thomson-Houston Company in England, later becoming a British subject. In 1947 he conceived the idea of holography and, by employing conventional filtered-light sources, developed the basic technique. Because conventional light sources generally provided either too little light or light that was too diffuse, holography did not become commercially feasible until the demonstration, in 1960, of the laser, which amplifies the intensity of light waves.

In 1949 Gabor joined the faculty of the Imperial College of Science and Technology, London, where in 1958 he became professor of applied electron physics. His other work included research on high-speed oscilloscopes, communication theory, physical optics, and television. Gabor was awarded more than 100 patents.

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It is no good to try to stop knowledge from going forward. Ignorance is never better than knowledge - Enrico Fermi. 

Nothing is better than reading and gaining more and more knowledge - Stephen William Hawking.

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