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#1 2023-04-28 15:51:29

Jai Ganesh
Registered: 2005-06-28
Posts: 42,213

Pan Am

Pan Am


Pan American World Airways, originally founded as Pan American Airways and commonly known as Pan Am, was an American airline that was the principal and largest international air carrier and unofficial overseas flag carrier of the United States for much of the 20th century. It was the first airline to fly worldwide and pioneered numerous innovations of the modern airline industry such as jumbo jets, and computerized reservation systems. Until its dissolution in 1991, Pan Am "epitomized the luxury and glamour of intercontinental travel", and it remains a cultural icon of the 20th century, identified by its blue globe logo ("The Blue Meatball"), the use of the word "Clipper" in its aircraft names and call signs, and the white uniform caps of its pilots.

Founded in 1927 by two former U.S. Army Air Corps majors, Pan Am began as a scheduled airmail and passenger service flying between Key West, Florida, and Havana, Cuba. In the 1930s, under the leadership of American entrepreneur Juan Trippe, the airline purchased a fleet of flying boats and focused its route network on Central and South America, gradually adding transatlantic and transpacific destinations. By the mid-20th century, Pan Am enjoyed a near monopoly on international routes. It led the aircraft industry into the Jet Age by acquiring new jetliners such as the Boeing 707 and Boeing 747. Pan Am's modern fleet allowed it to fly larger numbers of passengers, at a longer range, and with fewer stops than rivals. Its primary hub and flagship terminal was the Worldport at John F. Kennedy International Airport in New York City.

During its peak between the late 1950s and early 1970s, Pan Am was world-renowned for its advanced fleet, highly trained staff, and amenities. In 1970, it flew 11 million passengers to 86 countries, with destinations in every continent save Antarctica. In an era dominated by flag carriers that were wholly or majority-owned by governments, it became the unofficial national carrier of the United States. Pan Am was a founding member of the International Air Transport Association (IATA), the global airline industry association.

Beginning in the mid-1970s, Pan Am began facing a series of challenges both internal and external, along with rising competition from the deregulation of the airline industry in 1978. After several attempts at financial restructuring and rebranding throughout the 1980s, Pan Am gradually sold off its assets before declaring bankruptcy in 1991. By the time it ceased operations, the airline's trademark was the second most recognized worldwide, and its loss was felt among travelers and many Americans as signifying the end of the golden age of air travel. Its brand, iconography, and contributions to the industry remain well known in the 21st century. The airline's name and imagery were purchased in 1998 by railroad holding company Guilford Transportation Industries, which changed its name to Pan Am Systems and adopted Pan Am's logo.


Pan American World Airways, Inc., also called (1927–50) Pan American Airways, byname Pan Am, was a former American airline that was founded in 1927 and, up until the final two decades of the 20th century, had service to cities in many countries in North and South America, the Caribbean Islands, Europe, Asia, Africa, and the Middle East. From 1984 it was governed by the holding company Pan Am Corporation. From 1986, in financial distress, its routes and services came to be drastically reduced. The company ceased operations on Dec. 4, 1991.

The company was incorporated in 1927 by a former World War I naval aviator, Juan Terry Trippe, who secured a contract to fly mail between Key West, Fla., U.S., and Havana, Cuba. The airline’s first passenger service—between these cities—began the next year. (One of the employee pilots and a surveyor of new routes was Charles A. Lindbergh.) By the end of 1929 Pan American had a 12,000-mile (19,000-kilometre) route linking the United States, Cuba, Haiti, the Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, Mexico, British Honduras (Belize), Panama, and Colombia. Pan American inaugurated the first transpacific flights (from San Francisco to Manila) in 1936, with the famous China Clipper; the first transatlantic flights (from New York City to Lisbon) in 1939, with the Yankee Clipper, and the first round-the-world flights (from New York to New York eastbound) in 1947. In the immediate post-World War II era, Pan American was perhaps the leading international air carrier. In the mid-1950s it acquired the Boeing Company’s very first jetliner, a B-707, thus leading the way in jet travel.

In the 1960s and ’70s the company suffered financial reverses but sought regrowth by the purchase, in 1980, of National Airlines, thereby securing an extensive network of routes along the eastern U.S. seaboard and points west. National had been formed in 1929, when founder George Theodore Baker (1900–63) began the National Airlines Air Taxi System in Chicago. He moved the company to Florida in 1934, reincorporated it as National Airlines, Inc., in 1937, and made it a major airline in 1944 with the award of the lucrative tourist route between New York and Florida.

Pan American’s system also included Pan Am Express, Inc., with connecting flights in Canada, the United States, and Europe, and the once lucrative Pan Am Shuttle, Inc., with service between Boston, New York City, and Washington, D.C.

The National Airlines purchase in 1980 notwithstanding, Pan American continued in financial distress. In 1986 it had to sell its fast-growing and lucrative Asian and South Pacific routes to United Airlines. In November 1991, still in trouble, it completed the sale of its transatlantic, continental European, Middle Eastern, and Asian routes to Delta Air Lines. The attempts at survival failed. In bankruptcy from January 1991, Pan American went out of business in December 1991.

Additional Information

Pan American World Airways, or Pan Am, was once the largest airline of the USA. The crash of Pan Am Flight 103 and several other factors led to the airline to stop flying in 1991.


Pan Am was founded in 1926. Its first flights were from Key West, Florida to Havana, Cuba. During the 1920s and 1930s, Pan Am bought several smaller airlines in Central America and South America. These were bought to help Pan Am expand its flights throughout The Americas. Pan Am became the first airline to circumnavigate the world in 1942. By the 1950s, Pan Am had several larger airplanes like the Boeing 377, Douglas DC-6 and the Lockheed Constellation. It went to cities all across the world. In 1959, Pan Am bought its first jet - the Boeing 707. In 1970, Pan Am introduced its first widebody jet - the Boeing 747.

In 1980, Pan Am was combined with National Airlines. This was because Pan Am wanted to fly domestic flights and the government didn't allow it. When Pan Am bought National, it could finally fly domestically. In the 1980s, Pan Am started having many financial problems, having paid too much to buy National Airlines. Pan Am also spent too much money on the new Boeing 747s. The Gulf War of 1990 also caused many problems with Pan Am's transatlantic flights. Pan Am declared bankruptcy in January 1991. Delta Air Lines bought small parts of Pan Am and tried to help it. However, on December 4, 1991 Pan Am stopped flying due to the big financial problems. United Airlines got many of Pan Am's old flights. American Airlines got Pan Am's Miami hub. Pan Am was resurrected twice in 1996 and 1998.


It appears to me that if one wants to make progress in mathematics, one should study the masters and not the pupils. - Niels Henrik Abel.

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