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#1 2024-03-28 00:22:37

Jai Ganesh
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Registered: 2005-06-28
Posts: 46,122

Server

Server

Gist

A server is a computer or system that provides resources, data, services, or programs to other computers, known as clients, over a network.

Summary

A server is a hardware device or software that processes requests sent over a network and replies to them. A client is the device that submits a request and waits for a response from the server. The computer system that accepts requests for online files and transmits those files to the client is referred to as a “server” in the context of the Internet.

What is a Server?

A Server is a program or a device that provides functionality for called clients which are other programs or devices. This architecture is called the client-server model.

A single overall computation is distributed across multiple processes or devices. Servers can provide various functionalities called services. These services include sharing data or resources among multiple clients or performing computations for a client. Multiple clients can be served by a single server, and a single client can use multiple servers.

Uses of Servers

A client process may run on the same device. It can also connect over a network to a server to run on a different device. Examples of servers may include database servers, mail servers, print servers, file servers, web servers, application servers, and game servers. Most frequently client-server systems are implemented by the request-response communication., i.e., a client sends a request to the server. In this model, the server performs some action and sends a response back to the client, typically with a result or acknowledgement.

Designating a computer as server-class hardware means that it is specialized for running servers on it. This implies that it is more powerful and reliable than standard personal computers. However large computing clusters may comprise many relatively simple, replaceable server components.

Details

A server is a software or hardware device that accepts and responds to requests made over a network. The device that makes the request, and receives a response from the server, is called a client. On the Internet, the term "server" commonly refers to the computer system that receives requests for a web files and sends those files to the client.

What are they used for?

Servers manage network resources. For example, a user may set up a server to control access to a network, send/receive e-mail, manage print jobs, or host a website. They are also proficient at performing intense calculations. Some servers are committed to a specific task or one website, often called dedicated servers. However, many servers today are shared servers that take on the responsibility of e-mail, DNS (domain name system), FTP, and multiple websites in the case of a web server.

Why are servers always on?

Because they are commonly used to deliver services that are constantly required, most servers are never turned off. Consequently, when servers fail, they can cause the network users and company many problems. To alleviate these issues, servers are commonly set up to be fault tolerant.

Examples of servers

The following list contains links to various server types.

* Application server
* Blade server
* Cloud server
* Database server
* Dedicated server
* Domain name service
* File server
* Mail server
* Print server
* Proxy server
* Standalone server
* Web server

How do other computers connect to a server?

With a local network, the server connects to a router or switch that all other computers on the network use. Once connected to the network, other computers can access that server and its features. For example, with a web server, a user could connect to the server to view a website, search, and communicate with other users on the network.

An Internet server works the same way as a local network server, but on a much larger scale. The server is assigned an IP address by InterNIC, or by web host.

Usually, users connect to a server using its domain name, which is registered with a domain name registrar. When users connect to the domain name (such as "computerhope.com"), the name is automatically translated to the server's IP address by a DNS resolver.

The domain name makes it easier for users to connect to the server, because the name is easier to remember than an IP address. Also, domain names enable the server operator to change the IP address of the server without disrupting the way that users access the server. The domain name can always remain the same, even if the IP address changes.

Where are servers stored?

In a business or corporate environment, a server and other network equipment are often stored in a closet or glass house. These areas help isolate sensitive computers and equipment from people who should not access them.

Servers that are remote or not hosted on-site are located in a data center. With these types of servers, the hardware is managed by another company and configured remotely by you or your company.

What is a Linux server?

A Linux server is a computer running a version of Linux that's connected to a network or the Internet. For example, many of the web servers that host web pages on the Internet are Linux servers.

Can my computer be a server?

Yes. Any computer, even a home desktop or laptop computer, can act as a server with the right software. For example, you could install an FTP server program on your computer to share files between other users on your network.

Although it is possible to have your home computer act as a server, keep the following ideas in mind.

* Your computer and the related server software must always be running to be accessible.
* When your computer is used as a server, its resources (e.g., processing and bandwidth) is taken away from what you have available to do other things.
* Connecting a computer to a network and the Internet can open up your computer to new types of attacks.
* If the service you're providing becomes popular, a typical computer may not have the necessary resources to handle all of the requests.

Additional Information

In computing, a server is a piece of computer hardware or software (computer program) that provides functionality for other programs or devices, called "clients". This architecture is called the client–server model. Servers can provide various functionalities, often called "services", such as sharing data or resources among multiple clients or performing computations for a client. A single server can serve multiple clients, and a single client can use multiple servers. A client process may run on the same device or may connect over a network to a server on a different device. Typical servers are database servers, file servers, mail servers, print servers, web servers, game servers, and application servers.

Client–server systems are usually most frequently implemented by (and often identified with) the request–response model: a client sends a request to the server, which performs some action and sends a response back to the client, typically with a result or acknowledgment. Designating a computer as "server-class hardware" implies that it is specialized for running servers on it. This often implies that it is more powerful and reliable than standard personal computers, but alternatively, large computing clusters may be composed of many relatively simple, replaceable server components.

Operation

Strictly speaking, the term server refers to a computer program or process (running program). Through metonymy, it refers to a device used for (or a device dedicated to) running one or several server programs. On a network, such a device is called a host. In addition to server, the words serve and service (as verb and as noun respectively) are frequently used, though servicer and servant are not. The word service (noun) may refer to the abstract form of functionality, e.g. Web service. Alternatively, it may refer to a computer program that turns a computer into a server, e.g. Windows service. Originally used as "servers serve users" (and "users use servers"), in the sense of "obey", today one often says that "servers serve data", in the same sense as "give". For instance, web servers "serve [up] web pages to users" or "service their requests".

The server is part of the client–server model; in this model, a server serves data for clients. The nature of communication between a client and server is request and response. This is in contrast with peer-to-peer model in which the relationship is on-demand reciprocation. In principle, any computerized process that can be used or called by another process (particularly remotely, particularly to share a resource) is a server, and the calling process or processes is a client. Thus any general-purpose computer connected to a network can host servers. For example, if files on a device are shared by some process, that process is a file server. Similarly, web server software can run on any capable computer, and so a laptop or a personal computer can host a web server.

While request–response is the most common client-server design, there are others, such as the publish–subscribe pattern. In the publish-subscribe pattern, clients register with a pub-sub server, subscribing to specified types of messages; this initial registration may be done by request-response. Thereafter, the pub-sub server forwards matching messages to the clients without any further requests: the server pushes messages to the client, rather than the client pulling messages from the server as in request-response.

Hardware

Hardware requirement for servers vary widely, depending on the server's purpose and its software. Servers often are more powerful and expensive than the clients that connect to them.

The name server is used both for the hardware and software pieces. For the hardware servers, it is usually limited to mean the high-end machines although software servers can run on a variety of hardwares.

Since servers are usually accessed over a network, many run unattended without a computer monitor or input device, audio hardware and USB interfaces. Many servers do not have a graphical user interface (GUI). They are configured and managed remotely. Remote management can be conducted via various methods including Microsoft Management Console (MMC), PowerShell, SSH and browser-based out-of-band management systems such as Dell's iDRAC or HP's iLo.

Large servers

Large traditional single servers would need to be run for long periods without interruption. Availability would have to be very high, making hardware reliability and durability extremely important. Mission-critical enterprise servers would be very fault tolerant and use specialized hardware with low failure rates in order to maximize uptime. Uninterruptible power supplies might be incorporated to guard against power failure. Servers typically include hardware redundancy such as dual power supplies, RAID disk systems, and ECC memory, along with extensive pre-boot memory testing and verification. Critical components might be hot swappable, allowing technicians to replace them on the running server without shutting it down, and to guard against overheating, servers might have more powerful fans or use water cooling. They will often be able to be configured, powered up and down, or rebooted remotely, using out-of-band management, typically based on IPMI. Server casings are usually flat and wide, and designed to be rack-mounted, either on 19-inch racks or on Open Racks.

These types of servers are often housed in dedicated data centers. These will normally have very stable power and Internet and increased security. Noise is also less of a concern, but power consumption and heat output can be a serious issue. Server rooms are equipped with air conditioning devices.

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It appears to me that if one wants to make progress in mathematics, one should study the masters and not the pupils. - Niels Henrik Abel.

Nothing is better than reading and gaining more and more knowledge - Stephen William Hawking.

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