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#1 Re: Dark Discussions at Cafe Infinity » crème de la crème » Today 01:47:32

311) Charles Algernon Parsons

Sir Charles Algernon Parsons, (13 June 1854 – 11 February 1931), the son of a member of the Irish peerage, was an Anglo-Irish engineer, best known for his invention of the compound steam turbine, and as the namesake of C. A. Parsons and Company. He worked as an engineer on dynamo and turbine design, and power generation, with great influence on the naval and electrical engineering fields. He also developed optical equipment, for searchlights and telescopes.

Biography

Parsons was born in London into an Anglo-Irish family, youngest son of the famous astronomer William Parsons, 3rd Earl of Rosse. The family seat is Birr Castle, County Offaly, Ireland, and the town of Birr was called Parsonstown, after the family, from 1620 to 1899.

With his three brothers, Parsons was educated at home in Ireland by private tutors (including John Purser), all of whom were well versed in the sciences and also acted as practical assistants to the Earl in his astronomical work. One of them later became, as Sir Robert Ball, Astronomer Royal for Ireland. Parsons then read mathematics at Trinity College, Dublin and St. John's College, Cambridge, graduating from the latter in 1877 with a first-class honours degree. He joined the Newcastle-based engineering firm of W.G. Armstrong as an apprentice, an unusual step for the son of an earl; then moved to Kitsons in Leeds where he worked on rocket-powered torpedoes; and then in 1884 moved to Clarke, Chapman and Co., ship engine manufacturers near Newcastle, where he was head of their electrical equipment development. He developed a turbine engine there in 1884 and immediately utilized the new engine to drive an electrical generator, which he also designed. Parsons' steam turbine made cheap and plentiful electricity possible and revolutionised marine transport and naval warfare.

Another type of steam turbine at the time, invented by Gustaf de Laval, was an impulse design that subjected the mechanism to huge centrifugal forces and so had limited output due to the weakness of the materials available. Parsons explained that his appreciation of the scaling issue led to his 1884 breakthrough on the compound steam turbine in his 1911 Rede Lecture:

"It seemed to me that moderate surface velocities and speeds of rotation were essential if the turbine motor was to receive general acceptance as a prime mover. I therefore decided to split up the fall in pressure of the steam into small fractional expansions over a large number of turbines in series, so that the velocity of the steam nowhere should be great...I was also anxious to avoid the well-known cutting action on metal of steam at high velocity."

In 1889, he founded C. A. Parsons and Company in Newcastle to produce turbo generators to his design. In the same year he set up the Newcastle and District Electric Lighting Company (DisCO). In 1890, DisCo opened Forth Banks Power Station, the first power station in the world to generate electricity using turbo generators. In 1894 he regained certain patent rights from Clarke Chapman. Although his first turbine was only 1.6% efficient and generated a mere 7.5 kilowatts, rapid incremental improvements in a few years led to his first megawatt turbine built in 1899 for a generating plant at Elberfeld, Germany.

Parsons was also interested in marine applications and founded the Parsons Marine Steam Turbine Company in Newcastle. Famously, in June 1897, his turbine-powered yacht, Turbinia, was exhibited moving at speed at Queen Victoria's Diamond Jubilee Fleet Review off Portsmouth, to demonstrate the great potential of the new technology. The Turbinia moved at 34 kn (63 km/h; 39 mph). The fastest Royal Navy ships using other technologies reached 27 kn (50 km/h; 31 mph). Part of the speed improvement was attributable to the slender hull of the Turbinia.

Within two years, the destroyers HMS Viper and Cobra were launched with Parsons' turbines, soon followed by the first turbine powered passenger ship, Clyde steamer TS King Edward in 1901; the first turbine transatlantic liners RMS Victorian and Virginian in 1905, and the first turbine powered battleship, HMS Dreadnought in 1906, all of which were driven by Parsons' turbine engines. Today, Turbinia is housed in a purpose-built gallery at the Discovery Museum, Newcastle.

He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in June 1898 and received their Rumford Medal in 1902, their Copley Medal in 1928 and delivered their Bakerian Lecture in 1918. He was the president of the British Association for 1916–1919. He was an Invited Speaker of the ICM in 1924 at Toronto. He was knighted in 1911 and made a member of the Order of Merit in 1927.

The Parsons turbine company survives in the Heaton area of Newcastle and is now part of Siemens, a German conglomerate. Sometimes referred to as Siemens Parsons, the company recently completed a major redevelopment programme, reducing the size of its site by around three quarters and installing the latest manufacturing technology. In 1925 Charles Parsons acquired the Grubb Telescope Company and renamed it Grubb Parsons. That company survived in the Newcastle area until 1985.

Parsons was also known for inventing the Auxetophone, an early compressed air gramophone.

Parsons' ancestral home at Birr Castle in Ireland houses a museum detailing the contribution the Parsons family have made to the fields of science and engineering, with part of the museum given over to marine engineering work of Charles Parsons.

parsons.jpg

#2 Re: Jokes » One Liners » Today 01:20:18

The less skilled the player, the more likely he is to share his ideas about the golf swing.
* * *
Why were the Middle Ages called the Dark Ages? Because there were too many knights.
* * *
A bargain is something you don't need at a price you can't resist.
* * *
What did Mister A say to Mister E? It's the popular mystery.
* * *
I'm a humble person, really. I'm actually much greater than I think I am.
* * *
What do you call a dead Magician? A ABRACADAVA.
* * *
If breaks are meant to be slow... then why do they call it "breakfast"?
* * *
I'm at my most amazing when no one is paying attention.
* * *
Every day, man is making bigger and better fool-proof things, and every day, nature is making bigger and better fools. So far, I think nature is winning.
* * *
Where do bad gymnasts go? Behind parallel bars!
* * *
I'm sure there's a supplement I could take or another easy solution to cure my laziness. Someone look into it for me.
* * *
There are two kinds of people who don't say much: those who are quiet and those who talk a lot.
* * *
What do men and beer bottles have in common? They are both empty from the neck up.
* * *
Why do dogs make good sailors? They know their knots.
* * *

#3 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » English language puzzles » Today 00:45:44

Hi,

#2747. What does the noun clavichord mean?

#2748. What does the noun clavicle mean (Anatomy, Zoology)?

#4 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » Doc, Doc! » Today 00:36:10

Hi,

#1163. What is 'Diverticulosis'?

#5 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » 10 second questions » Today 00:29:02

Hi,

#6459. If (a - b) = 2 and ab = 99, find the value of

.

#6 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » Oral puzzles » Today 00:23:52

Hi,

.

#3990. If

, find the value of
.

#7 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » General Quiz » Yesterday 15:16:52

Hi,

#6747. It is sometimes called the Pharos of Alexandria. It is 'One of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World', for many centuries it was one of the tallest man-made structures in the world. Badly damaged by three earthquakes between AD 956 and 1323, it then became an abandoned ruin. It was the third longest surviving ancient wonder (after the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus and the extant Great Pyramid of Giza), surviving in part until 1480, when the last of its remnant stones were used to build the Citadel of Qaitbay on the site. In 1994, French archaeologists discovered some remains. Name it.

#6748. Name the most populous landlocked country in the world and the second-most populous nation on the African continent. It occupies a total area of approximately 1,100,000 square kilometres (420,000 sq mi), (Actual Land Area : 1,104,300 square km (426,400 sq mi)). It shares borders with Eritrea to the north and northeast, Djibouti and Somalia to the east, Sudan and South Sudan to the west, and Kenya to the south.

#8 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » Doc, Doc! » Yesterday 14:47:07

Hi,

#1162. What does the abbreviation BAL signify (a medical procedure for obtaining a sample from within the lungs)?

#9 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » English language puzzles » Yesterday 14:31:13

Hi,

#2745. What does the noun clatter mean?

#2746. What does the noun claustrophobia mean?

#10 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » 10 second questions » Yesterday 14:00:45

Hi,

#6458. If (a + b) = -8 and

find the value of ab.

#11 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » Oral puzzles » Yesterday 13:56:38

Hi,

#3989. If

. find the value of
.

#12 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » General Quiz » Yesterday 00:30:37

Hi,

#6745. In which continent is 'Sea of Okhostk'?

#6746. In which continent is 'Balkhash Lake'?

#13 Re: This is Cool » Miscellany » Yesterday 00:04:12

104) Tartaric Acid

Tartaric acid, also called dihydroxybutanedioic acid, a dicarboxylic acid, one of the most widely distributed of plant acids, with a number of food and industrial uses. Along with several of its salts, cream of tartar (potassium hydrogen tartrate) and Rochelle salt (potassium sodium tartrate), it is obtained from by-products of wine fermentation. In a partially purified form, tartar was known to the ancient Greeks and Romans; the free acid was first isolated in 1769 by Swedish chemist Carl Wilhelm Scheele. The lees, or sediments, and other waste products from fermentation are heated and neutralized with calcium hydroxide; the precipitated calcium tartrate is then treated with sulfuric acid to produce free tartaric acid. Rochelle salt is prepared from the crude crystalline potassium acid salt, called argol, by neutralization with sodium carbonate. Purified cream of tartar comes chiefly from the filtrates from production of the acid and Rochelle salt. A third salt, tartar emetic (antimony potassium tartrate), is made from the potassium acid salt and antimony oxide.

Three stereoisomeric forms of tartaric acid exist: (1) dextrorotatory tartaric acid (D-tartaric acid) found in grapes and several other fruits, (2) levorotatory tartaric acid (L-tartaric acid) obtained chiefly by resolution of racemic tartaric acid, and (3) a meso or achiral form. Racemic tartaric acid (an equal mixture of D- and L-tartaric acid) is prepared commercially by the molybdenum- or tungsten-catalyzed oxidation of maleic anhydride with hydrogen peroxide.

Study of the crystallographic, chemical, and optical properties of the tartaric acids by French chemist and microbiologist Louis Pasteur laid the basis for modern ideas of stereoisomerism.

The various tartaric acids and the common tartrate salts are all colourless, crystalline solids readily soluble in water. Tartaric acid is widely used as an acidulant in carbonated drinks, effervescent tablets, gelatin desserts, and fruit jellies. It has many industrial applications—e.g., in cleaning and polishing metals, in calico printing, in wool dyeing, and in certain photographic printing and development processes. Rochelle salt is used in silvering mirrors, in processing cheese, and in compounding mild cathartics. Cream of tartar is incorporated into baking powders, hard candies, and taffies; and it is employed in the cleaning of brass, the electrolytic tinning of iron and steel, and the coating of other metals with gold and silver. Tartar emetic is used as an insecticide and a dyeing mordant.

tartaric_acid_2.jpg

#14 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » General Quiz » 2018-04-17 23:16:55

Hi,

Both the Answers, #6741 and 6742, are correct. Excellent, Mathegocart!

#6743. Name the country/countries of lowest density of population in people per square kilometer.

#6744. Name the country/countries of lowest GDP (Gross Domestic Product).

#15 Re: Jokes » One Liners » 2018-04-17 23:06:17

Monox D. I-Fly wrote:
ganesh wrote:

What is black and white and red all over? A newspaper!
* * *

Or a bleeding zebra.

Funny!

* * *
I have given up on my stand up comedy routines. Everybody just keeps laughing at me.
* * *
I think football would become an even better game if someone could invent a ball that kicks back.
* * *
People who want to share their religious or political views with you almost never want you to share yours with them.
* * *
How about we do some peer-to-peer sharing? Your domain or mine?
* * *
Can't throw the ball, kept on bouncing away: situation is out of hand.
* * *
Why should you not make fun of a crippled person? Because he can't stand the jokes.
* * *
How do we know that soccer referees are happy? Because they whistle while they work.
* * *
Nobody works harder than a drunk person trying to carefully whisper a secret.
* * *
When I asked if you'd like to go out on a date sometime, I meant with me.
* * *
A sports expert is the guy who writes the best alibis for being wrong.
* * *
It's funny how one person can make you never trust anybody...
* * *
When there are no volunteers, they get appointed.
* * *
Why do you need a driver's license to buy liquor when you can't drink and drive?
* * *
I think I'm agnostic, but I haven't decided.
* * *
Incompetence knows no barriers of time or place.
* * *

#16 Re: Dark Discussions at Cafe Infinity » crème de la crème » 2018-04-17 15:32:24

310) Albert Szent-Györgyi

Albert Szent-Györgyi, (born Sept. 16, 1893, Budapest, Hung., Austria-Hungary—died Oct. 22, 1986, Woods Hole, Mass., U.S.), Hungarian biochemist whose discoveries concerning the roles played by certain organic compounds, especially vitamin C, in the oxidation of nutrients by the cell brought him the 1937 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine.

Szent-Györgyi earned a medical degree from the University of Budapest in 1917. He became interested in biochemistry and pursued studies in Germany and the Netherlands in that field. While working at the University of Cambridge (1927, 1929) and at the Mayo Foundation, Rochester, Minn., U.S. (1928), Szent-Györgyi found and isolated an organic reducing agent, which he called hexuronic acid (now known as ascorbic acid), from plant juices and adrenal gland extracts. Four years later, as a professor at the University of Szeged, Hungary (1931–45), he helped prove that the acid is identical to the antiscurvy vitamin C, which had been discovered in 1907 by Axel Holst and Alfred Fröhlich.

Szent-Györgyi then turned to the study of organic compounds known to play a part in the conversion of carbohydrate breakdown products to carbon dioxide, water, and other substances necessary for the production of usable energy by the cell. His work laid the foundations for Sir Hans Krebs’s elucidation of the complete conversion cycle (the Krebs cycle) two years later.

Devoting himself to a study of the biochemistry of muscular action, he discovered a protein in muscle that he named “actin,” demonstrated that it—in combination with the muscle protein myosin—is responsible for muscular contraction, and showed that the compound adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the immediate source of energy necessary for muscle contraction. Immigrating to the United States in 1947, he was immediately appointed director of the Institute for Muscle Research, Woods Hole, Mass., where he conducted research into the causes of cell division and, hence, cancer.

Szent-Györgyi wrote 'The Crazy Ape' (1970), a critical and pessimistic commentary on science and the prospects for human survival on Earth. Among his scientific publications are 'On Oxidation, Fermentation, Vitamins, Health, and Disease' (1940), 'Chemical Physiology of Contractions in Body and Heart Muscle' (1953), and 'Introduction to a Submolecular Biology' (1960).

szent-gyorgyi.jpg

#17 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » General Quiz » 2018-04-17 15:05:41

Hi,

#6741. Name the nation which lays claim to be the oldest extant sovereign state as well as the oldest constitutional republic.  It is an enclaved microstate surrounded by Italy, situated on the Italian Peninsula on the northeastern side of the Apennine Mountains. Its size is just over 61 square kilometers (24 sq mi), with a population of 33,562.

#6742. Name the most densely populated sovereign state in the world. It is a sovereign city-state, country and microstate on the French Riviera in Western Europe. France borders the country on three sides while the other side borders the Mediterranean Sea.

#18 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » Doc, Doc! » 2018-04-17 14:43:41

Hi,

#1161. With which part of the body is Encephalopathy affected?

#19 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » English language puzzles » 2018-04-17 14:29:49

Hi,

#2743. What does the adjective classified mean?

#2744. What does the adjective classless mean?

#20 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » 10 second questions » 2018-04-17 14:09:13

Hi,

#6457. If a = 7 and b = -10, what is the value of

#21 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » Oral puzzles » 2018-04-17 14:05:48

Hi,

The solution #3987 is correct. Neat work, Monox D. I-Fly!

#3988. If sin A = 3/5 and A is an acute angle, find the value of tan A + sec A.

#22 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » Oral puzzles » 2018-04-17 00:15:24

Hi,

#3987. If

and
is acute, then that is the value of

#23 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » 10 second questions » 2018-04-17 00:10:38

Hi,

#6456. If a = 23 and b = -29, what is the value of

#24 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » English language puzzles » 2018-04-17 00:05:23

Hi,

#2741. What does the noun clasp mean?

#2742. What does the noun classicism mean?

#25 Re: Jokes » One Liners » 2018-04-16 18:29:04

I have given up on my stand up comedy routines. Everybody just keeps laughing at me.
* * *
Sometimes I feel like running away. Then I remember how much I hate running.
* * *
For all the advances in medicine, there is still no cure for the common birthday.
* * *
I was never a photogenic person, because when everyone said cheese I said "WHERE"?
* * *
I hate that feeling after surgery when you're not sure if you're awake or asleep or if you operated on the right patient.
* * *
A wise dog once told me: "Life is like a box of chocolates... it kills you."
* * *
Smart people don't call themselves smart - me included.
* * *
Time is a great teacher, but unfortunately it kills all its pupils.
* * *
Nothing brings neighbors together, like a broken elevator.
* * *
What did the chicken say when it got to the library? "Book book book book book book book..."
* * *
Why didn't the skeleton want to go to school? His heart wasn't in it.
* * *
I may be dumb, but I'm not stupid.
* * *
The first step to causing drama is making sure you tell everyone you hate drama.
* * *
Why can't pigs tell a joke? Because they're such a bore.
* * *
What does a hockey player and a magician have in common? Both do hat tricks!
* * *

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