Math Is Fun Forum

  Discussion about math, puzzles, games and fun.   Useful symbols: ÷ × ½ √ ∞ ≠ ≤ ≥ ≈ ⇒ ± ∈ Δ θ ∴ ∑ ∫ • π ƒ -¹ ² ³ °

You are not logged in.

#1 Jokes » One liners - 568 » Today 18:21:31

Jai Ganesh
Replies: 0

What's black and white and red all over? Santa covered with chimney soot.
* * *
I thought it was my birthday cake but it was just the shed on fire.
* * *
I've snagged so many catfish on dating sites, I'm now a licensed fisherman.
* * *
What do ghosts read? Booooks!
* * *
I say no to alcohol, it just doesn't listen.
* * *

#2 Dark Discussions at Cafe Infinity » Carefully Quotes - I » Today 17:23:45

Jai Ganesh
Replies: 0

Carefully Quotes - I

1. It is true that liberty is precious; so precious that it must be carefully rationed. - Vladimir Lenin

2. To avoid being mistaken for a sellout, I chose my friends carefully. The more politically active black students. The foreign students. The Chicanos. The Marxist professors and structural feminists and punk-rock performance poets. - Barack Obama

3. I like to listen. I have learned a great deal from listening carefully. Most people never listen. - Ernest Hemingway

4. We are the creative force of our life, and through our own decisions rather than our conditions, if we carefully learn to do certain things, we can accomplish those goals. - Stephen Covey

5. I'm proud of all the movies I've made. They're not sequels, they're not franchises. And the reason I pick my films carefully is that I don't want to spit on my life. I like to think of myself as more than that. - Kevin Costner

6. Great effort is required to arrest decay and restore vigor. One must exercise proper deliberation, plan carefully before making a move, and be alert in guarding against relapse following a renaissance. - Horace

7. My mother always taught us that if people don't agree with you, the important thing is to listen to them. But if you've listened to them carefully and you still think that you're right, then you must have the courage of your convictions. -Jane Goodall

8. Some couples go over their budgets very carefully every month. Others just go over them. - Katherine Mansfield

9. Just try not to ingest a lot of fats, and just try to eat carefully. - Clint Eastwood

10. I monitor very carefully, in the automobile sector in particular, the development of new technologies which help to limit negative effects on the environment by influencing human actions. - Albert II, Prince of Monaco

11. John Dalton's records, carefully preserved for a century, were destroyed during the World War II bombing of Manchester. It is not only the living who are killed in war. - Isaac Asimov

12. If you carefully consider what you want to be said of you in the funeral experience, you will find your definition of success. - Stephen Covey.

#4 Re: Jai Ganesh's Puzzles » English language puzzles » Today 15:03:49


#5493. What does the adjective raffish mean?

#5494. What does the noun raffle mean?

#5 Re: Jai Ganesh's Puzzles » General Quiz » Today 14:45:06


#9507. What does the term Phonology mean?

#9508. What does the term Photobiology mean?

#7 Re: This is Cool » Miscellany » Today 00:14:44

1991) Computer Network


Basics building blocks of a Computer network are Nodes and Links. A Network Node can be illustrated as Equipment for Data Communication like a Modem, Router, etc., or Equipment of a Data Terminal like connecting two computers or more. Link in Computer Networks can be defined as wires or cables or free space of wireless networks.

The working of Computer Networks can be simply defined as rules or protocols which help in sending and receiving data via the links which allow Computer networks to communicate. Each device has an IP Address, that helps in identifying a device.

Basic Terminologies of Computer Networks

Network: A network is a collection of computers and devices that are connected together to enable communication and data exchange.
Nodes: Nodes are devices that are connected to a network. These can include computers, Servers, Printers, Routers, Switches, and other devices.
Protocol: A protocol is a set of rules and standards that govern how data is transmitted over a network. Examples of protocols include TCP/IP, HTTP, and FTP.
Topology: Network topology refers to the physical and logical arrangement of nodes on a network. The common network topologies include bus, star, ring, mesh, and tree.
Service Provider Networks: These types of Networks give permission to take Network Capacity and Functionality on lease from the Provider. Service Provider Networks include Wireless Communications, Data Carriers, etc.
IP Address: An IP address is a unique numerical identifier that is assigned to every device on a network. IP addresses are used to identify devices and enable communication between them.
DNS: The Domain Name System (DNS) is a protocol that is used to translate human-readable domain names into IP addresses that computers can understand.
Firewall: A firewall is a security device that is used to monitor and control incoming and outgoing network traffic. Firewalls are used to protect networks from unauthorized access and other security threats.


Computer network is two or more computers that are connected with one another for the purpose of communicating data electronically. Besides physically connecting computer and communication devices, a network system serves the important function of establishing a cohesive architecture that allows a variety of equipment types to transfer information in a near-seamless fashion. Two popular architectures are ISO Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) and IBM’s Systems Network Architecture (SNA).

Two basic network types are local-area networks (LANs) and wide-area networks (WANs). LANs connect computers and peripheral devices in a limited physical area, such as a business office, laboratory, or college campus, by means of links (wires, Ethernet cables, fibre optics, Wi-Fi) that transmit data rapidly. A typical LAN consists of two or more personal computers, printers, and high-capacity disk-storage devices called file servers, which enable each computer on the network to access a common set of files. LAN operating system software, which interprets input and instructs networked devices, allows users to communicate with each other; share the printers and storage equipment; and simultaneously access centrally located processors, data, or programs (instruction sets). LAN users may also access other LANs or tap into WANs. LANs with similar architectures are linked by “bridges,” which act as transfer points. LANs with different architectures are linked by “gateways,” which convert data as it passes between systems.

WANs connect computers and smaller networks to larger networks over greater geographic areas, including different continents. They may link the computers by means of cables, optical fibres, or satellites, but their users commonly access the networks via a modem (a device that allows computers to communicate over telephone lines). The largest WAN is the Internet, a collection of networks and gateways linking billions of computer users on every continent.


A computer network is a set of computers sharing resources located on or provided by network nodes. Computers use common communication protocols over digital interconnections to communicate with each other. These interconnections are made up of telecommunication network technologies based on physically wired, optical, and wireless radio-frequency methods that may be arranged in a variety of network topologies.

The nodes of a computer network can include personal computers, servers, networking hardware, or other specialized or general-purpose hosts. They are identified by network addresses and may have hostnames. Hostnames serve as memorable labels for the nodes and are rarely changed after initial assignment. Network addresses serve for locating and identifying the nodes by communication protocols such as the Internet Protocol.

Computer networks may be classified by many criteria, including the transmission medium used to carry signals, bandwidth, communications protocols to organize network traffic, the network size, the topology, traffic control mechanisms, and organizational intent.

Computer networks support many applications and services, such as access to the World Wide Web, digital video and audio, shared use of application and storage servers, printers and fax machines, and use of email and instant messaging applications.


Computer networks extend interpersonal communications by electronic means with various technologies, such as email, instant messaging, online chat, voice and video telephone calls, and video conferencing. A network allows sharing of network and computing resources. Users may access and use resources provided by devices on the network, such as printing a document on a shared network printer or use of a shared storage device. A network allows sharing of files, data, and other types of information giving authorized users the ability to access information stored on other computers on the network. Distributed computing uses computing resources across a network to accomplish tasks.

Network packet

Most modern computer networks use protocols based on packet-mode transmission. A network packet is a formatted unit of data carried by a packet-switched network.

Packets consist of two types of data: control information and user data (payload). The control information provides data the network needs to deliver the user data, for example, source and destination network addresses, error detection codes, and sequencing information. Typically, control information is found in packet headers and trailers, with payload data in between.

With packets, the bandwidth of the transmission medium can be better shared among users than if the network were circuit switched. When one user is not sending packets, the link can be filled with packets from other users, and so the cost can be shared, with relatively little interference, provided the link is not overused. Often the route a packet needs to take through a network is not immediately available. In that case, the packet is queued and waits until a link is free.

The physical link technologies of packet networks typically limit the size of packets to a certain maximum transmission unit (MTU). A longer message may be fragmented before it is transferred and once the packets arrive, they are reassembled to construct the original message.

Network topology

The physical or geographic locations of network nodes and links generally have relatively little effect on a network, but the topology of interconnections of a network can significantly affect its throughput and reliability. With many technologies, such as bus or star networks, a single failure can cause the network to fail entirely. In general, the more interconnections there are, the more robust the network is; but the more expensive it is to install. Therefore, most network diagrams are arranged by their network topology which is the map of logical interconnections of network hosts.

Common topologies are:

* Bus network: all nodes are connected to a common medium along this medium. This was the layout used in the original Ethernet, called 10BASE5 and 10BASE2. This is still a common topology on the data link layer, although modern physical layer variants use point-to-point links instead, forming a star or a tree.
* Star network: all nodes are connected to a special central node. This is the typical layout found in a small switched Ethernet LAN, where each client connects to a central network switch, and logically in a wireless LAN, where each wireless client associates with the central wireless access point.
* Ring network: each node is connected to its left and right neighbor node, such that all nodes are connected and that each node can reach each other node by traversing nodes left- or rightwards. Token ring networks, and the Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI), made use of such a topology.
* Mesh network: each node is connected to an arbitrary number of neighbors in such a way that there is at least one traversal from any node to any other.
* Fully connected network: each node is connected to every other node in the network.
* Tree network: nodes are arranged hierarchically. This is the natural topology for a larger Ethernet network with multiple switches and without redundant meshing.

The physical layout of the nodes in a network may not necessarily reflect the network topology. As an example, with FDDI, the network topology is a ring, but the physical topology is often a star, because all neighboring connections can be routed via a central physical location. Physical layout is not completely irrelevant, however, as common ducting and equipment locations can represent single points of failure due to issues like fires, power failures and flooding.

Overlay network

An overlay network is a virtual network that is built on top of another network. Nodes in the overlay network are connected by virtual or logical links. Each link corresponds to a path, perhaps through many physical links, in the underlying network. The topology of the overlay network may (and often does) differ from that of the underlying one. For example, many peer-to-peer networks are overlay networks. They are organized as nodes of a virtual system of links that run on top of the Internet.

Overlay networks have been around since the invention of networking when computer systems were connected over telephone lines using modems before any data network existed.

The most striking example of an overlay network is the Internet itself. The Internet itself was initially built as an overlay on the telephone network. Even today, each Internet node can communicate with virtually any other through an underlying mesh of sub-networks of wildly different topologies and technologies. Address resolution and routing are the means that allow mapping of a fully connected IP overlay network to its underlying network.

Another example of an overlay network is a distributed hash table, which maps keys to nodes in the network. In this case, the underlying network is an IP network, and the overlay network is a table (actually a map) indexed by keys.

Overlay networks have also been proposed as a way to improve Internet routing, such as through quality of service guarantees achieve higher-quality streaming media. Previous proposals such as IntServ, DiffServ, and IP multicast have not seen wide acceptance largely because they require modification of all routers in the network. On the other hand, an overlay network can be incrementally deployed on end-hosts running the overlay protocol software, without cooperation from Internet service providers. The overlay network has no control over how packets are routed in the underlying network between two overlay nodes, but it can control, for example, the sequence of overlay nodes that a message traverses before it reaches its destination.

For example, Akamai Technologies manages an overlay network that provides reliable, efficient content delivery (a kind of multicast). Academic research includes end system multicast, resilient routing and quality of service studies, among others.


#8 Re: Dark Discussions at Cafe Infinity » crème de la crème » Yesterday 22:58:40

1400) Jack Nicholson


John Joseph Nicholson (born April 22, 1937) is an American retired actor and filmmaker. Nicholson is widely regarded as one of the greatest actors of his generation. Throughout his five-decade career, Nicholson appeared in 80 films, for which he received numerous accolades, including three Academy Awards, three BAFTA Awards, six Golden Globe Awards, a Grammy Award, and a Screen Actors Guild Award. He also received the American Film Institute's Life Achievement Award in 1994 and the Kennedy Center Honor in 2001. In many of his films, he played rebels against the social structure.

Nicholson has won three Academy Awards, for Best Actor for One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest (1975) and As Good as It Gets (1997) and for Best Supporting Actor for Terms of Endearment (1983). He was Oscar-nominated for Easy Rider (1969), Five Easy Pieces (1970), The Last Detail (1974), Chinatown (1974), Reds (1981), Prizzi's Honor (1986), Ironweed (1987), A Few Good Men (1992) and About Schmidt (2002). Nicholson is also known for his notable roles in Carnal Knowledge (1971), The Shining (1980), Heartburn (1986), Broadcast News (1987), Batman (1989), Hoffa (1992), Mars Attacks! (1996), Something's Gotta Give (2003), The Departed (2006) and The Bucket List (2007).

Nicholson has directed three films, Drive, He Said (1971), Goin' South (1978), and The Two Jakes (1990). He is one of only three male actors to win three Academy Awards and one of only two actors to be nominated for an Academy Award for acting in films made in every decade from the 1960s to the 2000s (alongside Michael Caine). Nicholson's 12 Academy Award nominations make him the most nominated male actor in the Academy's history.

Additional Information

Jack Nicholson (born April 22, 1937, Neptune, New Jersey, U.S.) is one of the most prominent American motion-picture actors of his generation, especially noted for his versatile portrayals of unconventional, alienated outsiders.

Early life and career

Nicholson, whose father abandoned his family, grew up believing that his grandmother was his mother and that his mother was his older sister; it was not until he had attained fame that Nicholson himself learned the truth. After graduating from high school, he moved to California, where he took an office job in Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer’s animation department. During the years 1957–58 he performed on stage with the Players Ring Theater in Los Angeles and landed some small roles on television. About this time he met B-film king Roger Corman, who offered him the leading role in his low-budget film The Cry Baby Killer (1958). Nicholson spent the next decade playing major roles in B-films (including several more for Corman), occasional supporting roles in A-films (such as Ensign Pulver, 1964), and guest roles on such television series as The Andy Griffith Show. He also dabbled in screenwriting, with his best-known credits being Corman’s LSD-hallucination film The Trip (1967) and the surrealistic romp Head (1968), a box-office failure starring the Monkees that has since attracted a cult following.

Nicholson’s big break finally came with Easy Rider (1969), a seminal counterculture film starring Peter Fonda and Dennis Hopper as drifting, drug-dealing bikers and Nicholson in a scene-stealing, Oscar-nominated supporting performance as an alcoholic lawyer. Nicholson’s newfound stardom was secured with his leading role in Five Easy Pieces (1970), an episodic, existentialist drama and a major entry in Hollywood’s “art film” movement of the early 1970s. Nicholson’s portrayal of a man alienated from his family, friends, career, and lovers garnered him an Oscar nomination for best actor. His next successful film, director Mike Nichols’s Carnal Knowledge (1971), was a darkly humorous condemnation of male sexual mores; it was perhaps mainstream Hollywood’s most sexually explicit film to date. Nicholson’s performance as an emotionally empty, predatory chauvinist showcased his talent for interjecting humour into serious situations as a means to underscore inherent irony—typically, his darkest characters are wickedly funny.

Nicholson earned another Oscar nomination for The Last Detail (1973), in which he portrayed a rowdy military police officer who reluctantly escorts a young sailor to military prison. He next starred in Roman Polanski’s Chinatown (1974), an homage to the film noir detective films of the 1940s and a widely acknowledged cinematic masterpiece. Nicholson’s brilliant performance as stylish private eye Jake Gittes, who realizes too late his impotence in the face of wealth and corruption, earned him a fourth Oscar nomination. The actor capped this highly successful period with his first Oscar win, for One Flew over the Cuckoo’s Nest (1975), in which his iconoclastic, free-spirited characterization of mental institution inmate R.P. McMurphy serves as a metaphor for the hopelessness of rebellion against established authority. Other notable Nicholson films from this period included Michelangelo Antonioni’s Professione: reporter (1975; The Passenger), in which Nicholson portrays a depressed reporter who assumes a dead man’s identity, and Tommy (1975), director Ken Russell’s garish production of the Who’s rock opera, featuring Nicholson in a supporting singing role as the title character’s doctor.

His stardom assured, Nicholson worked sporadically during the next few years. He costarred with Marlon Brando in the Arthur Penn western The Missouri Breaks (1976), an uneven yet compellingly quirky film; and he directed and starred in another revisionist western, Goin’ South (1978). His next notable role was in director Stanley Kubrick’s The Shining (1980); an adaptation of the Stephen King novel, it is a film over which critical opinion remains divided but the one with Nicholson’s ax-wielding rampage—culminating in his demonic cry of “Heeeere’s Johnny!”—that became one of the indelible cinematic images of the era. Nicholson appeared in several quality films during the 1980s, garnering further Academy Award nominations for Reds (1981), Prizzi’s Honor (1985), and Ironweed (1987) and winning a best supporting actor Oscar for his role as a drunken-but-decent ex-astronaut in Terms of Endearment (1983). Two of his most popular performances of the decade came in The Witches of Eastwick (1987) and Batman (1989), which featured Nicholson’s over-the-top comic turns as the Devil and the Joker, respectively.

By the 1990s Nicholson was regarded as a screen icon. He began the decade by directing and starring in The Two Jakes (1990), a sequel to Chinatown that generated lukewarm reviews. Better-received were Hoffa (1992), in which he portrayed the controversial Teamsters boss Jimmy Hoffa, and A Few Good Men (1992), in which his supporting performance as a dyspeptic marine colonel earned him his 10th Oscar nomination, an all-time record for a male actor. His 11th nomination, for his portrayal of a misanthropic writer in As Good as It Gets (1997), resulted in Nicholson’s third Oscar (his second for best actor).

Later work

At the beginning of the 21st century, Nicholson continued to star in dramatic roles. After playing a world-weary former cop in Sean Penn’s The Pledge (2001), he scored another personal triumph with his much-lauded performance as the title character in About Schmidt (2002), a movie about a retired widower seeking to mend his relationship with his daughter. Nicholson’s understated acting in the melancholic comedy earned him a 12th Academy Award nomination. In 2006 he appeared as Irish mobster Frank Costello in Martin Scorsese’s The Departed. Nicholson continued his success in comedic roles when he starred as an over-the-top psychiatrist in Anger Management (2003) and as an aging playboy who falls in love with a playwright (played by Diane Keaton) in Something’s Gotta Give (2004). In The Bucket List (2007) Nicholson and Morgan Freeman portray two terminally ill men who escape a hospital ward so they can accomplish everything they want to do before dying. He later appeared as an irascible father in the romantic comedy How Do You Know (2010), his fourth collaboration with director James L. Brooks.

Although Nicholson’s widely imitated trademarks of a devilish smile and a slow, detached speaking style remained constant throughout the years, his screen persona mellowed in its metamorphosis from iconoclastic leading man to mainstream character actor, and his characters of later years reflect in many ways the maturation of his generation. As he entered his 60s, he often played men with a youthful rebellious streak but who have also learned the value of sensitivity. Nicholson was awarded the American Film Institute’s Life Achievement Award in 1994.


#10 Jokes » One liners - 567 » Yesterday 19:57:28

Jai Ganesh
Replies: 0

Recently, I've tried to make a car without wheels.
I've been working on it tirelessly.
* * *
The possibilities are endless, but I just want the good ones.
* * *
Doctor: Your body has run out of magnesium. Patient: 0mg!
* * *
If the music's too loud you're too old.
* * *
For my wife's birthday, I bought her a fridge freezer. I know it's not much, but you should have seen her face light up when she opened it.
* * *

#11 Dark Discussions at Cafe Infinity » Careful Quotes - IV » Yesterday 19:32:50

Jai Ganesh
Replies: 0

Careful Quotes - IV

1. The difference between a stranger sending you a message that you might be interested in at a very low volume level, no repetition, just sending it to very few people, and that being done as spam - those things get close enough that you want to be careful never to filter out something that's legitimate. - Bill Gates

2. I was born in London in England in 1934. I went through, as a child, the horrors of World War II, through a time when food was rationed and we learned to be very careful, and we never had more to eat than what we needed to eat. There was no waste. Everything was used. - Jane Goodall

3. Yeah, I'm kind of fit. And I'm quite careful about my diet. - Orlando Bloom

4. On February 19th, Dr. Collip found that he was unable to refine the extract by his method and was unable to keep up his supply to the wards. During the following six weeks, or longer, no extract was available for clinical tests. I believe the reason for this to be that Collip, wishing to keep his process a secret, had not kept careful records. - Frederick Banting

5. T20 is good entertainment. It is a game you need. People go to watch it. You have to be careful how far you let it go. - Garfield Sobers

6. I am a professional actor, and I am very careful about being sincere to the characters I play. - Mammootty

7. I'll be very careful about what kind of energy I'm inviting into my life and whether it's going to be helpful for me or help me evolve as a person. - Manisha Koirala

8. From an England point of view they have put money into white-ball cricket because our performances in World Cups has not been good enough, I understand the reasons for that. But we have to be careful not to go too one-day, we have to find a balance because there is such a legacy of Test cricket in this country and we can't lose that. - James Anderson

9. In fact, scientific results are a careful attempt to objectively measure reality, and although they may be refined over time, they are always our best hope of getting at the truth. - Simon Singh

10. As cricketers and professionals, with the scrutiny that is on us, we have to obviously be careful and behave ourselves. - Moeen Ali

11. I was happy that at home we were a closed circle and then we went out playing chess and saw the world. It's a very difficult life and you have to be very careful, especially the parents, who need to know the limits of what you can and can't do with your child. - Judit Polgar.


#12 Re: Jai Ganesh's Puzzles » Doc, Doc! » Yesterday 17:45:08


#2428. What does the medical term 'Optic neuropathy' mean?

#15 Re: Jai Ganesh's Puzzles » English language puzzles » Yesterday 15:47:56


#5491. What does the verb pull through mean?

#5492. What does the verb (used without object) pulsate mean?

#16 Re: Jai Ganesh's Puzzles » General Quiz » Yesterday 15:31:12


#9505. What does the term in Physics Shear stress mean?

#9506. What does the term in Physics Shear strength mean?

#17 Re: This is Cool » Miscellany » Yesterday 00:05:45

1990) Dietician


A dietician is an expert in the field of food and nutrition. A dietician is like a physician for your diet.

People who study food in a scientific way are dieticians — they are experts on food and its effects. Dieticians study nutrition, which is the science that looks at what good and bad things various foods do to your body. If you need to change what you eat because of a health problem, like diabetes or obesity, you should consult a dietician. It’s also spelled dietitian.


Dietitians are qualified and regulated health professionals that assess, diagnose and treat dietary and nutritional problems at an individual and wider public-health level.

They use the most up-to-date public health and scientific research on food, health and disease which they translate into practical guidance to enable people to make appropriate lifestyle and food choices.

They work in the NHS and in private clinics. They work with healthy and sick people in a variety of settings. They can work in the food industry, workplace, catering, education, sport and the media. Other care pathways they work in include mental health, learning disabilities, community, acute settings and public health.

They often work as integral members of multi-disciplinary teams to treat complex clinical conditions such as diabetes, food allergy and intolerance, IBS syndrome, eating disorders, chronic fatigue, malnutrition, kidney failure and bowel disorders. They advise and influence food and health policy across the spectrum from government, to local communities and individuals.

Why might you see a dietitian?

Finding and accessing the services of a dietitian can be achieved in several ways, but why choose one in the first place? You may be referred by a GP or request a referral to address a specific medical/health need or condition. Find out how a dietitian can help you.

Alternatively, you may choose to seek out the services of a freelancer. Here are some examples of where they, working on a one-to-one basis or part of a wider health team, can help improve your health and lifestyle:

* you suffer with digestive problems
* you have been diagnosed with a medical condition, such as diabetes, high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, coeliac, HIV etc
* you have oral, enteral or parenteral nutrition requirements 
* your child, or looked after child, has specialised nutritional requirements
* you are wanting or needing to lose weight in a safe and sensible way
* you need to put weight on following a spell of ill-health or as the result of a medical condition
* you are considering surgery to lose weight
* you want to improve your athletic performance or general fitness levels
* you want advice about breastfeeding and weaning
* you think you have an allergy or intolerance to a certain food
* you would like advice about eating disorders
* you are a carer and want credible and practical advice to ensure the person/s you are caring for is/are getting the appropriate nutrition in their diet/s.

While dietitians work with individuals, as the above examples explain, in the NHS and on a freelance basis, they also work across the board wherever food and nutrition is present.


A dietitian, medical dietitian, or dietician is an expert in identifying and treating disease-related malnutrition and in conducting medical nutrition therapy, for example designing an enteral tube feeding regimen or mitigating the effects of cancer cachexia. Many dietitians work in hospitals and usually see specific patients where a nutritional assessment and intervention has been requested by a doctor or nurse, for example if a patient has lost their ability to swallow or requires artificial nutrition due to intestinal failure. Dietitians are regulated healthcare professionals licensed to assess, diagnose, and treat such problems. In the United Kingdom, dietitian is a 'protected title', meaning identifying yourself as a dietitian without appropriate education and registration is prohibited by law.

A registered dietitian (RD) (UK/USA) or registered dietitian nutritionist (RDN) (USA) meets all of a set of special academic and professional requirements, including the completion of a bachelor's and/or master's degree in nutrition and dietetics (or equivalent). One or more internships (USA) or clinical placements (UK) must also be completed. These may be allocated and monitored by the university as part of the structured degree programme (UK) or may be applied for separately (USA).

Roughly half of all RD(N)s hold graduate degrees and many have certifications in specialized fields such as nutrition support, sports, paediatrics, renal, oncological, food-allergy, or gerontological nutrition. Although assessment priorities differ depending on the specialist area, a patient's medical and surgical history, biochemistry, diet history, eating and exercise habits usually form the basis of assessment. The RD(N) negotiates a treatment plan with the patient which may include prescriptions, and follow-up visits often focus on maintenance and monitoring progress.

Most RDs work in the treatment and prevention of disease (administering medical nutrition therapy, as part of medical teams), often in hospitals, health-maintenance organizations, private practices, or other health-care facilities. In addition, many registered dietitians work in community and public-health settings, and/or in academia and research. A growing number of dietitians work in the food industry, journalism, sports nutrition, corporate wellness programs, and other non-traditional dietetics settings.

The spellings "dietitian" and "dietician"

As explained by the American Heritage and Merriam-Webster's dictionaries, the cause of the confusion is that the spelling with "-tian" is an irregular alteration of the ending "-cian", which is otherwise exclusively used to refer to specialists and practitioners of other professions. These and other American dictionaries also list the spelling with "c" but list the spelling with "t" first because this spelling is more common in the United States. Nevertheless, the American publisher McGraw-Hill exclusively uses the spelling with "c" in the 2003 edition of the McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms and the 2002 edition of the McGraw-Hill Concise Dictionary of Modern Medicine.

The spelling with "t" is the one preferred by the profession itself internationally, but the spelling with "c" is used often enough in texts not written by members of the profession to be considered a valid variant by both American and British dictionaries. In fact, British dictionaries list the spelling with "c" first and list the spelling with "t" as a variant. American dictionaries list the spelling with "t" first and the spelling with "c" as a variant.

As explained in a 2010 newsletter of the International Confederation of Dietetic Associations:

The spelling of the term "dietitian" has been debated for a long time by dietitians. In the early 1960s dietetic associations, under the auspices of the International Committee of Dietetic Associations (ICDA), worked together to standardize information about dietitians under the International Standard Classification of Occupations. When the International Labour Office confirmed the dietetic profession's classification in 1967, it also adopted the spelling "dietitian" at the request of the international dietetic community. This information can be found in the documentation held by ICDA and by the International Labour Office (ILO).

ILO has however also issued new documents using the spelling "dietician".

World Health Organization classification

Dietitians supervise the preparation and service of food, develop modified diets, participate in research, and educate individuals and groups on good nutritional habits. The goals of dietitians are to provide medical nutritional intervention, and to obtain, safely prepare, serve and advise on flavorsome, attractive, and nutritious food for patients, groups and communities. Dietary modification to address medical issues involving dietary intake is a major part of dietetics (the study of nutrition as it relates to health). For example, working in consultation with physicians and other health care providers, a dietitian may provide specific artificial nutritional needs to patients unable to consume food normally. Professional dietitians may also provide specialist services such as in diabetes, obesity, oncology, osteoporosis, pediatrics, renal disease, and micronutrient research.

Different professional terms are used in different countries and employment settings, for example, clinical dietitian, community dietitian, dietetic educator, food-service dietitian, registered dietitian, public health dietitian, therapeutic dietitian, or research dietitian. In many countries, only people who have specified educational credentials and other professional requirements can call themselves "dietitians"—the title is legally protected. The term "nutritionist" is also widely used; however, the terms "dietitian" and "nutritionist" should not be considered interchangeable—the training, regulation and scope of practice of the two professional titles can be very different across individuals and jurisdictions.

In many countries, the majority of dietitians are clinical or therapeutic dietitians, such as the case of the United States, the United Kingdom, and much of Africa. In other countries they are mostly foodservice dietitians, such as in Japan and many European countries.

Dietitians in practice:

Clinical dietitians

Clinical dietitians work in hospitals, outpatient clinics, nursing care facilities and other health care facilities to provide nutrition therapy to patients with a variety of health conditions, and provide dietary consultations to patients and their families. They confer with other health care professionals to review patients' medical charts and develop individual plans to meet nutritional requirements. Some clinical dietitians will also create or deliver outpatient or public education programs in health and nutrition. Clinical dietitians may provide specialized services in areas of nourishment and diets, tube feedings (called enteral nutrition), and intravenous feedings (called parenteral nutrition) such as total parenteral nutrition (TPN) or peripheral parenteral nutrition (PPN). They work as a team with the physicians, physician assistants, physical therapists, occupational therapists, recreational therapists, pharmacists, speech therapists, social workers, nurses, dietetic technicians, psychologists and other specialists to provide care to patients. Some clinical dietitians have dual responsibilities with patient nutrition therapy and in food service or research.

Community dietitians

Community dietitians work with wellness programs, public health agencies, home care agencies, and health maintenance organizations. These dietitians apply and distribute knowledge about food and nutrition to individuals and groups of specific categories, life-styles and geographic areas in order to promote health. They often focus on the needs of the elderly, children, or other individuals with special needs or limited access to healthy food. Some community dietitians conduct home visits for patients who are too physically ill to attend consultations in health facilities in order to provide care and instruction on grocery shopping and food preparation.

Foodservice dietitians

Foodservice dietitians or managers are responsible for large-scale food planning and service. They coordinate, assess and plan foodservice processes in health care facilities, school food-service programs, prisons, restaurants, and company cafeterias. These dietitians may perform audits of their departments to ensure quality control and food safety standards, and launch new menus and various programs within their institution to meet health and nutritional requirements. They train and supervise other food service workers such as kitchen staff, delivery staff, and dietary assistants or aides.

Gerontological dietitians

Gerontological dietitians are specialists in nutrition and aging. They work in nursing homes, community-based aged care agencies, government agencies in aging policy, and in higher education in the field of gerontology (the study of aging).

Neonatal dietitians

Neonatal dietitians provide individualized medical nutrition therapy for critically ill premature newborns. They are considered a part of the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit's medical team. The neonatal dietitian performs clinical assessment of patients, designs nutrition protocols and quality improvement initiatives with the medical team, develops enteral and parenteral regimens, helps establish and promote lactation/breastfeeding guidelines and often oversees the management of infection prevention in the handling, storage, and delivery of nutritional products.

Pediatric dietitians

Pediatric dietitians provide nutrition and health advice for infants, children, and adolescents. They focus on early nutritional needs, and often work closely with doctors, school health services, clinics, hospitals and government agencies, in developing and implementing treatment plans for children with eating disorders, food allergies, or any condition where a child's diet factors into the equation, such as childhood obesity.

Research dietitians

Research dietitians may focus on social sciences or health services research, for example, investigate the impact of health policies or behaviour change, or evaluate program effectiveness. They may survey food-service systems management in order to guide quality improvement. Some research dietitians study the biochemical aspects of nutrient interaction within the body. In universities, they also may have teaching responsibilities. Some clinical dietitians' roles involve research in addition to their patients care workload.

Administrative dietitians

Administrative or management dietitians oversee and direct all aspects of clinical dietetics service, food policy and/or large-scale meal service operations in hospitals, government agencies, company cafeterias, prisons, and schools. They recruit, train and supervise employees of dietetics departments including dietitians and other personnel. They set department goals, policies and procedures; procurement, equipment and supplies; ensure safety and sanitation standards in foodservice; and administer budget management.

Business dietitians

Business dietitians serve as resource people in food and nutrition through business, marketing and communications. Dietitians' expertise in nutrition is often solicited in the media—for example for expert guest opinions on television and radio news or cooking shows, columns for a newspaper or magazine, or resources for restaurants on recipe development and critique. Business dietitians may author books or corporate newsletters on nutrition and wellness. They also work as sales representatives for food manufacturing companies that provide nutritional supplements and tube feeding supplies.

Consultant dietitians

Consultant dietitians are those who are in private practice or practice on a contractual basis with health care facilities or corporations, such as used in Australia, Canada and the United States. Consultant dietitians contract independently to provide nutrition or health related consultation and educational programs to individuals and health care facilities as well as sports teams, fitness clubs, and other health related businesses and corporations.


#19 Re: Exercises » Compute the solution: » 2023-12-07 21:55:34

amnkb: Use the proper case, not only Lower Case.


#21 Re: This is Cool » Miscellany » 2023-12-07 17:47:19

1989) Harward Engineer


Hardware Engineering is the process of designing, developing, testing and producing computer systems and various physical components related to computer systems.

Hardware engineers usually work on computer systems, components, and computerized products for consumer markets. Their main duties include testing, modifying, and maintaining the products they build. Most components must work alongside networking and software tools.


Hardware engineers create computer machines and technologies used to run software and store data on varying scales. Here’s what to know about a hardware engineer’s needed skills, salary and how to become one.

What Is a Hardware Engineer?

Hardware engineers develop the physical equipment required by a computer system, including computer peripherals, electronic devices and network systems. They tend to oversee the full lifecycle of a computer system from concept to installation and maintenance.

What Do Hardware Engineers Do?

Hardware engineers design, build and test all hardware components of computers and related devices. Manufactured hardware can include circuit boards and processors, computer routers, gaming consoles, mobile devices as well as Internet-of-Things (IoT) devices.

Hardware Engineer Responsibilities

* Design computer hardware and determine machine requirements.
* Build and modify computer systems and hardware components.
* Test and analyze computer hardware to gauge necessary functionality.
* Maintain and update hardware to ensure compatibility with software needs.

Day-to-Day Responsibilities Of Hardware Engineers

* Use electronic design automation (EDA) and printed circuit board (PCB) design tools like Fusion 360 to sketch schematics and visualize component placement.
* Use programming languages like Python to automate simulation flows and test hardware features.
* Troubleshoot hardware defects and conduct hands-on investigations.
* Communicate hardware needs between clients, customers and other engineers.

Hardware Engineers Within A Company

Hardware engineers are usually part of a designated hardware team within a company. They often collaborate with IT professionals and software engineers to accomplish their work. They also may report to senior hardware engineers or hardware engineering project managers.

Importance Of Hardware Engineers

Hardware engineers make necessary technology that is used by professionals almost every day. Computers, cell phones and smart devices may not be properly built or updated without hardware engineer expertise.


What Does Hardware Engineer Mean?

A hardware engineer is a professional who works with hardware in various stages, from design to maintenance. The hardware engineer has to know how to work with things such as circuits, components and integrated circuits. His or her role is specific in today's highly virtualized computing world: The hardware engineer is responsible for the physical "guts" of an IT system, whatever that consists of: from servers to RAID or storage media, from PLCs to routing hardware – the hardware engineer worries about the physical electronics.

Hardware engineers may design, develop or test computer systems such as servers, rack setups, physical data partitions or any other type of hardware serving an IT architecture.

The role of the hardware engineer is changing over time. As more of the design process shifts to software systems, hardware engineers concentrate on how to build effectively, and how to support data-crunching with physical hardware systems. For example, a modern hardware engineer may spend a lot of time walking around a data center, checking on physical systems, as software engineers and artificial intelligence workers direct all of the vastly complicated activity happening within that physical data center.

Hardware Engineering is the process of designing, developing, testing and producing computer systems and various physical components related to computer systems.

Hardware Engineering is the process of designing, developing, testing and producing computer systems and various physical components related to computer systems. With the advent of technology and advances in R&D, the scope of hardware engineering has been expanded to include hardware devices enabling embedded software engineering in non-computer devices.

In embedded systems, hardware engineering comprises of the process of design and development of all electronics related hardware such as sensors, processors and controllers.

The scope of hardware engineering is limited not just to the designing and development of computer or embedded systems, but also to integrate the various devices for the functioning of the entire business system.

With the advent of technology and advances in R&D, hardware engineering is now prevalent in newer fields such as mobile computing and distributed systems, computer vision and robotics, etc.

Additional Information

If you have an interest in how computer systems work, you may enjoy a career as a computer hardware engineer. Computer hardware engineers build and test computer systems, and often are innovative in developing new hardware technologies to help companies and people across the world. Knowing more about this profession can help you decide if this is a suitable career path for you. In this article, we discuss how to become a computer hardware engineer and outline the skills and educational qualifications required to excel in this career.

How to become a computer hardware engineer

Follow these steps if you want to learn how to become a computer hardware engineer:

1. Complete higher secondary education
The preparation for being an engineer starts early in your career. After school, consider pursuing your 10+2 from a recognised board in the science stream, with physics, chemistry and mathematics as your main subjects. It is important to secure high marks in your 10+2 board exam, as many engineering colleges select candidates based on their higher secondary results.

2. Clear engineering entrance exams
The Joint Entrance Examination (JEE) and the Common Entrance Test (CET) are two of the most common engineering entrance exams for admission into undergraduate degree courses like BE and BTech. If you can clear the JEE Main exam, you can get admission into one of the National Institutes of Technology (NITs) located across the country. You can also take the JEE Advanced exam if you want to get admission into one of the Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs)

Attempt engineering entrance exams based on your city, state and other preferences. Apart from the CET and JEE, some colleges have their own entrance exams that come with a slightly modified syllabus. Make sure you attempt more than one entrance exam to increase the chances of being accepted at a university.

3. Earn a bachelor's degree and undertake projects while studying
The next step to becoming a computer hardware engineer is earning a bachelor's degree. Most employers prefer hiring computer hardware engineers with a BTech or B.E. in computer science or electrical engineering. Instead of diverting all your efforts to good grades, invest time in developing projects that get the attention of future recruiters. This way, you can build your portfolio and create an example of your project development skills while studying. Some project ideas are hardware remodelling for a CPU (central processing unit) and PCB (printed circuit board) design for a computer.

4. Complete an internship
Either during undergraduate studies or immediately after graduation, you can benefit from completing an internship. An internship is often required by your collegiate program, but you can take one voluntarily as well. Here, you can get direct experience working with computer hardware, learn more about developing hardware in a monitored setting and gain important networking contacts you can use to find a job.

5. Pursue an advanced degree
While not generally required, some larger companies may prefer candidates to have a master's degree in computer hardware engineering. A master's degree is also recommended if you want to advance to management positions in the field. During the course of these studies, you can learn to work on systems like broadcasting, navigation and communication, as working within these industries also typically requires an advanced degree. Getting a doctorate is also an option. While master's degrees and doctorates usually both come with pay increases, a doctorate allows you to teach at the university level.

What kind of education do you need to be a computer hardware engineer?

To apply for computer hardware engineering jobs, you typically need a bachelor's degree in computer science. Many companies also hire hardware engineers if they have an electronics engineering degree. If you already have a degree, consider adding a few relevant hardware engineering courses to your resume. This can help you stand out from other applicants.

When hiring for senior positions, many employers prefer candidates with a master's degree in computer engineering. If you have years of work experience but not a master's degree, you may still be eligible to apply for senior positions.


#22 Jokes » One liners - 566 » 2023-12-07 17:02:00

Jai Ganesh
Replies: 0

What did the boy octopus say to the girl octopus? Can I hold your hand, hand, hand, hand, hand, hand, hand, hand, hand, hand?
* * *
Not to brag, but I have sychic powers. For example, right now you're thinking, "It's psychic, idiot!"
* * *
Did something bad happen to you or are you just naturally ugly.
* * *
I'm not a Facebook status, you don't have to like me.
* * *
The three unwritten rules of life:
* * *

#23 Dark Discussions at Cafe Infinity » Careful Quotes - III » 2023-12-07 16:42:59

Jai Ganesh
Replies: 0

Careful Quotes - III

1. Be careful about what you eat because otherwise you get fat! Do you like to be fat? Eat very, very, very little things. Almost starve, but I don't starve, because I eat very much. - Sophia Loren

2. Parents are usually more careful to bestow knowledge on their children rather than virtue, the art of speaking well rather than doing well; but their manners should be of the greatest concern. - R. Buckminster Fuller

3. I can easily go up to 19 stone or so if I'm not careful. - Andrew Flintoff

4. What the United States has done is to be open to people who are fleeing tyranny, who are fleeing danger, but we have done it in a very careful way that has worked for us. - Condoleezza Rice

5. We have to be careful in how we use this light shined on us. - Melinda Gates

6. Democracies have to be careful that they do not become so process-driven. - Hillary Clinton

7. I'm vain. My arms are thin, but I'm vain about loose flesh. And so I'm careful that what I wear will show off my best parts, which are my waist and my butt. - Jane Fonda

8. Every actor is alive because of his/her fans. I'm glad that my fans love me so much. I have an immense responsibility towards them. That's why I'm careful while signing a film. What is also important is to judge whether I would like to watch the film as an audience or not. - Rani Mukerji

9. We have to be very careful about what we say out there to the masses in the entertainment industry because people are listening to every word, and they take it to heart. - Jennifer Love Hewitt

10. If I do do a sequel, I'm going to have to know for sure that the script is better than the original. So I'm going to be very careful about that because I'm not eager to repeat myself. - Nicolas Cage

11. Because television doesn't offer the kind of budget that a movie offers, you've got to be a little more careful where you spend the money to put the fiction in science. - Steven Spielberg

12. I think that society has to be careful not to shift all of its resources to the elderly versus the young. - Bill Gates.


#24 Re: Jai Ganesh's Puzzles » Doc, Doc! » 2023-12-07 15:24:28


#2427. What does the medical term 'Gastric acid' mean?

Board footer

Powered by FluxBB