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#1 Re: Dark Discussions at Cafe Infinity » crème de la crème » Today 02:36:17

1070) Jacques Charles


Jacques Alexandre César Charles (November 12, 1746 – April 7, 1823) was a French inventor, scientist, mathematician, and balloonist. Charles wrote almost nothing about mathematics, and most of what has been credited to him was due to mistaking him with another Jacques Charles, also a member of the Paris Academy of Sciences, entering on May 12, 1785. He was sometimes called Charles the Geometer. Charles and the Robert brothers launched the world's first unmanned hydrogen-filled gas balloon in August 1783; then in December 1783, Charles and his co-pilot Nicolas-Louis Robert ascended to a height of about 1,800 feet (550 m) in a manned gas balloon. Their pioneering use of hydrogen for lift led to this type of balloon being named a Charlière (as opposed to a Montgolfière which used hot air).

Charles's law, describing how gases tend to expand when heated, was formulated by Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac in 1802, but he credited it to unpublished work by Jacques Charles.

Charles was elected to the Académie des Sciences in 1795 and subsequently became professor of physics at the Académie de Sciences.


Jacques Charles, in full Jacques-Alexandre-César Charles, (born November 12, 1746, Beaugency, France—died April 7, 1823, Paris), was a French mathematician, physicist, and inventor who, with Nicolas Robert, was the first to ascend in a hydrogen balloon (1783). About 1787 he developed Charles’s law concerning the thermal expansion of gases.

From clerking in the finance ministry Charles turned to science and experimented with electricity. He developed several inventions, including a hydrometer and reflecting goniometer, and improved the Gravesand heliostat and Fahrenheit’s aerometer. With the Robert brothers, Nicolas and Anne-Jean, he built one of the first hydrogen balloons (1783). In several flights he rose more than a mile in altitude. He was elected (1795) to the Académie des Sciences and subsequently became a professor of physics. His published papers deal mainly with mathematics.

French Inventor and Scientist

Jacques-Alexandre-César Charles, with Nicolas Robert, ascended in the world's first hydrogen balloon in 1783. He was also a physicist and mathematician and is perhaps better known in this capacity as the person who developed Charles's law, which relates gas temperatures and pressures. In both roles, he made important scientific and technical contributions that have had lasting effects on both science and society.

Charles was born in 1746 in Beaugency, France. Very little is known about his childhood, but he began his professional life as a clerk in the French finance ministry. From there he turned increasingly to science, experimenting with electricity at first. In fact, it may have been Charles's experiments with electricity that showed him how to pass an electrical current through water, separating it into its components of oxygen and hydrogen.

In September 1783 the Montgolfier brothers' first balloons ascended into the air, lifted by hot air. Not knowing that simply heating air could create lift, the Montgolfiers believed that a special gas was formed by burning straw, which they called "Montgolfier gas." Charles mistakenly thought that Montgolfier gas was hydrogen, and he hastened to duplicate their experiment by filling his own balloon with hydrogen. In November 1783 Charles and Nicolas Robert climbed into the balloon they had built and rose into the air as the first truly lighter-than-air flight began. Ascending to an altitude of over a mile (1.61 km), they drifted for several miles before setting down in a field, scaring the peasants who thought they were being attacked by a strange creature. The peasants "killed" the balloon by stabbing it, then dragged it away.

The major advantage of Charles's design was that, without a fire burning beneath the balloon, the risks of a blaze were greatly reduced. In fact, with the substitution of helium for hydrogen, today's balloons are very similar in design to Charles's.

Following his first flight, Charles made additional balloons, financed in part by charging admission to see the balloon fly. His ballooning experiences piqued his curiosity about heated gases, and he spent much of the rest of his life experimenting and formulating what is now known as "Charles's law." This states that, under conditions of constant pressure, a heated gas will expand in volume. This is also known as Gay-Lussac's law, in honor of its codiscoverer.

Over the following decades, Charles's law, Boyle's law, and others that describe the properties of gases under a variety of changing conditions were shown to be part of a more universal ideal gas law. The ideal gas law describes how, in a gas, pressure, temperature, volume, and the number of molecules of a particular gas all relate to each other under a variety of changing conditions. This law is used to predict the behavior of gases when compressed, heated, expanded, and the like. In fact, air conditioning, refrigeration, and similar industries absolutely depend on the proper application of these gas laws to help transfer heat from one point to another, cooling in the process.

In 1795, in honor of his many accomplishments, Charles was elected a member of the Académie des Sciences in France. Later, he became a professor of physics, continuing his work with the characteristics of gases under a variety of conditions. Interestingly, most of his scientific publications deal with mathematics instead of with those discoveries for which he is best known. Charles died in April 1823 in Paris.


#2 Jokes » Short Funny Jokes - 106 » Today 00:52:08

Replies: 0

What would you get if you crossed a vampire with a dwarf?
A creature that drags blood from your knees.
* * *
“Sir, you cannot fish here!”
“Don’t worry, I’m not fishing, I’m just teaching my worm to swim.”
* * *
Daddy, why is the sky so high?
So the birds wouldn’t hit their heads all the time, darling.
* * *
Why do dolphins swim in salt water?
Because pepper water would make them sneeze.
* * *
A little boy visits his farmer grandpa and watches him milk the cows.
The next day one of the cows runs away and grandpa is really upset about it.
“Don’t worry, Grandpa,” says the boy helpfully, “she can’t have gone very far with an empty tank.”
* * *

#5 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » General Quiz » Today 00:08:09


#8371. When is the 'World Meteorological Day'? (World Meteorological Day was established in 1961 to commemorate the World Meteorological Organization creation on in 1950. This organization announces a slogan for World Meteorology Day every year, and this day is celebrated in all member countries.)

#8372. When is the 'World Down Syndrome Day'? (marked each year, beginning in 2006. It was selected to signify the uniqueness of the triplication (trisomy) of the 21st chromosome which causes Down syndrome.

Every year on on this day, World Down Syndrome Day is observed to create awareness about Down syndrome. It is a condition in which a child is born with an extra 21st chromosome.)

#6 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » General Quiz » Today 00:07:14


#8371. When is the 'World Meteorological Day'? (World Meteorological Day was established in 1961 to commemorate the World Meteorological Organization creation on in 1950. This organization announces a slogan for World Meteorology Day every year, and this day is celebrated in all member countries.)

#8372. When is the 'World Down Syndrome Day'? (marked each year, beginning in 2006. It was selected to signify the uniqueness of the triplication (trisomy) of the 21st chromosome which causes Down syndrome.

Every year on on this day, World Down Syndrome Day is observed to create awareness about Down syndrome. It is a condition in which a child is born with an extra 21st chromosome.)

#7 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » English language puzzles » Today 00:06:25


#4499. What does the noun precursor mean?

#4500. What does the noun predicament mean?

#8 Dark Discussions at Cafe Infinity » Add Quotes » Yesterday 17:25:04

Replies: 0

Add Quotes

1. Clouds come floating into my life, no longer to carry rain or usher storm, but to add color to my sunset sky. - Rabindranath Tagore

2. The test of our progress is not whether we add more to the abundance of those who have much it is whether we provide enough for those who have little. - Franklin D. Roosevelt

3. Rightful liberty is unobstructed action according to our will within limits drawn around us by the equal rights of others. I do not add 'within the limits of the law' because law is often but the tyrant's will, and always so when it violates the rights of the individual. - Thomas Jefferson

4. Respect is one of life's greatest treasures. I mean, what does it all add up to if you don't have that? - Marilyn Monroe

5. Make bold choices and make mistakes. It's all those things that add up to the person you become. - Angelina Jolie

6. It is not my nature, when I see a people borne down by the weight of their shackles - the oppression of tyranny - to make their life more bitter by heaping upon them greater burdens; but rather would I do all in my power to raise the yoke than to add anything that would tend to crush them. - Abraham Lincoln

7. I am an enthusiast, but not a crank in the sense that I have some pet theories as to the proper construction of a flying machine. I wish to avail myself of all that is already known and then, if possible, add my mite to help on the future worker who will attain final success. - Wilbur Wright

8. It takes these very simple-minded instructions - 'Go fetch a number, add it to this number, put the result there, perceive if it's greater than this other number' - but executes them at a rate of, let's say, 1,000,000 per second. At 1,000,000 per second, the results appear to be magic. - Steve Jobs

9. To catch a piece of life on camera and make it come alive, add layers to it and deliver a product that is wholesome is really exciting to me. - Mani Ratnam

10. If you have religious faith, very good, you can add on secular ethics, then religious belief, add on it, very good. But even those people who have no interest about religion, okay, it's not religion, but you can train through education. - Dalai Lama

11. I've been waiting over 40 years to come to Cyprus, and it has not disappointed - the birthplace of Aphrodite, the Crossroads of Civilization, and, I might add, a genuine strategic partner to the United States of America. - Joe Biden

12. The ability of a successful company to add functionality to its product has long been upheld. - Bill Gates

13. Need we add that mathematicians themselves are not infallible? - Henri Poincare

14. There is a real danger that computers will develop intelligence and take over. We urgently need to develop direct connections to the brain so that computers can add to human intelligence rather than be in opposition. - Stephen Hawking

15. A crash diet never works. You lose weight one day and add it the next. - Lara Dutta

16. I always do book signings with the same blue pen. That way, if I add a personalised message to a book I've already signed, it'll be in the same colour as my signature. - John Grisham

17. It's easier to add things on to a PC than it's ever been before. It's one click, and boom, it comes down. Bill Gates

18. Every day, we are bombarded with a multitude of toxins in the environment. We know that the negative health impacts from this constant exposure can add up. - Chuck Norris

19. Money can add very much to one's ability to lead a constructive life, not only pleasant for oneself, but, hopefully, beneficial to others. - David Rockefeller

20. Indian IT corporations have made work in the U.S. much more efficient by enhancing their productivity and quality of work. We have helped to add sufficient value to the corporations in the U.S. - N. R. Narayana Murthy.


#9 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » Doc, Doc! » Yesterday 15:46:36


#1917. In which part of the human body is affected by 'Panophthalmitis'?

#12 Re: This is Cool » Miscellany » Yesterday 14:08:49

1354) Cardboard

Cardboard is a generic term for heavy paper-based products. The construction can range from a thick paper known as paperboard to corrugated fiberboard which is made of multiple plies of material. Natural cardboards can range from grey to light brown in color, depending of the specific product; dyes, pigments, printing, and coatings are available.

The term "cardboard" has general use in English and French, but the term cardboard is deprecated in commerce and industry as not adequately defining a specific product. Material producers, container manufacturers, packaging engineers, and standards organizations, use more specific terminology.


In 2020, the United States hit a record high in its yearly use of one of the most ubiquitous manufactured materials on earth, cardboard.  With around 80 per cent of all the products sold in the United States being packaged in cardboard, over 120 billion pieces were used that year. In the same year, over 13,000 separate pieces of consumer cardboard packaging was thrown away by American households, combined with all paper products and this constitutes almost 42 per cent of all solid waste generated by the United States annually.

However, despite the sheer magnitude of paper waste, the vast majority of it is composed of one of the most successful and sustainable packaging materials of modern times - corrugated cardboard, known industrially as corrugated fiberboard.


Various card stocks:

Various types of cards are available, which may be called "cardboard". Included are: thick paper (of various types) or pasteboard used for business cards, aperture cards, postcards, playing cards, catalog covers, binder's board for bookbinding, scrapbooking, and other uses which require higher durability than regular paper.


Paperboard is a paper-based material, usually more than about ten mils (0.010 inches (0.25 mm)) thick. It is often used for folding cartons, set-up boxes, carded packaging, etc. Configurations of paperboard include:

* Containerboard, used in the production of corrugated fiberboard.
* Folding boxboard, comprising multiple layers of chemical and mechanical pulp.
* Solid bleached board, made purely from bleached chemical pulp and usually has a mineral or synthetic pigment.
* Solid unbleached board, typically made of unbleached chemical pulp.
* White lined chipboard, typically made from layers of waste paper or recycled fibers, most often with two to three layers of coating on the top and one layer on the reverse side. Because of its recycled content it will be grey from the inside.
* Binder's board, a paperboard used in bookbinding for making hardcovers.

Currently, materials falling under these names may be made without using any actual paper.

Corrugated fiberboard

Corrugated fiberboard is a combination of paperboards, usually two flat liners and one inner fluted corrugated medium. It is often used for making corrugated boxes for shipping or storing products. This type of cardboard is also used by artists as original material for sculpting.


Most types of cardboard are recyclable. Boards that are laminates, wax coated, or treated for wet-strength are often more difficult to recycle. Clean cardboard (i.e., cardboard that has not been subject to chemical coatings) "is usually worth recovering, although often the difference between the value it realizes and the cost of recovery is marginal". Cardboard can be recycled for industrial or domestic use. For example, cardboard may be composted or shredded for animal bedding.


The material had been first made in France, in 1751, by a pupil of Réaumur, and was used to reinforce playing cards. The term cardboard has been used since at least 1848, when Anne Brontë mentioned it in her novel, The Tenant of Wildfell Hall. The Kellogg brothers first used paperboard cartons to hold their flaked corn cereal, and later, when they began marketing it to the general public, a heat-sealed bag of wax paper was wrapped around the outside of the box and printed with their brand name. This development marked the origin of the cereal box, though in modern times the sealed bag is plastic and is kept inside the box. The Kieckhefer Container Company, run by John W. Kieckhefer, was another early American packaging industry pioneer. It excelled in the use of fiber shipping containers, particularly the paper milk carton.


#13 Jokes » Short Funny Jokes - 105 » Yesterday 00:44:25

Replies: 0

“Name me five different animals, Johnny.”   
“The dog, the dog’s brother, the dog’s sister, the dog’s cousin and the dog’s aunt.”
* * *
It is evening. Little Johnny and his friend are sitting by a camp fire. 
They’ve been plagued by swarms of mosquitoes already for an hour and the assault only worsens when the darkness sets in. 
Suddenly, fireflies appear.
Little Johnny tells: “These darn mosquitoes! Now they’ve even brought lanterns with them to find us!“
* * *
When can you be sure a snail is lying to you?   
When he says he’s not home.
* * *
“Dad, I got my smarts from you, didn’t I?”
“That’s right my clever boy!”
“Yup, thought so, mom still has hers.”
* * *
What is black – white – black – white – black – white?
A penguin rolling down a mountain!
* * *

#15 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » English language puzzles » Yesterday 00:27:22


#4497. What does the adjective opinionated mean?

#4498. What does the adjective opportune mean?

#16 Dark Discussions at Cafe Infinity » Also Quotes » 2022-05-14 17:47:30

Replies: 0

Also Quotes

1. Courage is what it takes to stand up and speak; courage is also what it takes to sit down and listen. - Winston Churchill

2. Although the world is full of suffering, it is also full of the overcoming of it. - Helen Keller

3. He who is cruel to animals becomes hard also in his dealings with men. We can judge the heart of a man by his treatment of animals. - Immanuel Kant

4. People do not seem to realize that their opinion of the world is also a confession of character. - Ralph Waldo Emerson

5. Liberty may be endangered by the abuse of liberty, but also by the abuse of power. - James Madison

6. Healing is a matter of time, but it is sometimes also a matter of opportunity. - Hippocrates

7. I have self-doubt. I have insecurity. I have fear of failure. I have nights when I show up at the arena and I'm like, 'My back hurts, my feet hurt, my knees hurt. I don't have it. I just want to chill.' We all have self-doubt. You don't deny it, but you also don't capitulate to it. You embrace it. - Kobe Bryant

8. Governments will always play a huge part in solving big problems. They set public policy and are uniquely able to provide the resources to make sure solutions reach everyone who needs them. They also fund basic research, which is a crucial component of the innovation that improves life for everyone. - Bill Gates

9. I'd like to say to all my fans out there, thanks for the support. And to all my doubters, thank you very much because you guys have also pushed me. - Usain Bolt

10. Treat those who are good with goodness, and also treat those who are not good with goodness. Thus goodness is attained. Be honest to those who are honest, and be also honest to those who are not honest. Thus honesty is attained. - Lao Tzu

11. What we wish, we readily believe, and what we ourselves think, we imagine others think also. - Julius Caesar

12. Success in creating AI would be the biggest event in human history. Unfortunately, it might also be the last, unless we learn how to avoid the risks. - Stephen Hawking

13. Technology can be our best friend, and technology can also be the biggest party pooper of our lives. It interrupts our own story, interrupts our ability to have a thought or a daydream, to imagine something wonderful, because we're too busy bridging the walk from the cafeteria back to the office on the cell phone. - Steven Spielberg

14. It is just that we should be grateful, not only to those with whose views we may agree, but also to those who have expressed more superficial views; for these also contributed something, by developing before us the powers of thought. - Aristotle

15. To me, the extraordinary aspect of martial arts lies in its simplicity. The easy way is also the right way, and martial arts is nothing at all special; the closer to the true way of martial arts, the less wastage of expression there is. - Bruce Lee

16. Success comes to those who dedicate everything to their passion in life. To be successful, it is also very important to be humble and never let fame or money travel to your head. - A. R. Rahman

17. Fame is fickle, and I know it. It has its compensations but it also has its drawbacks, and I've experienced them both. - Marilyn Monroe

18. An asteroid or a supervolcano could certainly destroy us, but we also face risks the dinosaurs never saw: An engineered virus, nuclear war, inadvertent creation of a micro black hole, or some as-yet-unknown technology could spell the end of us. - Elon Musk

19. All fashion brands are about looking good. Being Human is also about doing good. And you can do good by the simple act of slipping into a t-shirt or a pair of jeans. - Salman Khan

20. I hope that posterity will judge me kindly, not only as to the things which I have explained, but also to those which I have intentionally omitted so as to leave to others the pleasure of discovery. - Rene Descartes

21. A scientist in his laboratory is not a mere technician: he is also a child confronting natural phenomena that impress him as though they were fairy tales. - Marie Curie

22. The press should be not only a collective propagandist and a collective agitator, but also a collective organizer of the masses. - Vladimir Lenin

23. We must find new lands from which we can easily obtain raw materials and at the same time exploit the cheap slave labor that is available from the natives of the colonies. The colonies would also provide a dumping ground for the surplus goods produced in our factories. - Cecil Rhodes

24. But the fact that some geniuses were laughed at does not imply that all who are laughed at are geniuses. They laughed at Columbus, they laughed at Fulton, they laughed at the Wright Brothers. But they also laughed at Bozo the Clown. - Carl Sagan

25. God is the same God, always and everywhere. He is omnipresent not virtually only, but also substantially, for virtue cannot subsist without substance. - Isaac Newton

26. He who knows how to flatter also knows how to slander. - Napoleon Bonaparte

27. Think about what people are doing on Facebook today. They're keeping up with their friends and family, but they're also building an image and identity for themselves, which in a sense is their brand. They're connecting with the audience that they want to connect to. It's almost a disadvantage if you're not on it now. - Mark Zuckerberg

28. Electricity can transform people's lives, not just economically but also socially. - Piyush Goyal

29. There are also two kinds of truths: truth of reasoning and truths of fact. Truths of reasoning are necessary and their opposite is impossible; those of fact are contingent and their opposite is possible. - Gottfried Leibniz

30. It is dangerous to be sincere unless you are also stupid. - George Bernard Shaw

31. There is a time for many words, and there is also a time for sleep. - Homer

32. My paramount object in this struggle is to save the Union, and is not either to save or to destroy slavery. If I could save the Union without freeing any slave, I would do it; and if I could save it by freeing some and leaving others alone, I would also do that. - Abraham Lincoln

33. It's not enough to train today's workforce. We also have to prepare tomorrow's workforce by guaranteeing every child access to a world-class education. - Barack Obama

34. Luck always favours the brave. And you must remember that brave are the people who follow their heart; brave are the people who take chances in life. Which also means you have to say no sometimes. I believe the power of no is greater than yes. - Preity Zinta

35. Peace is not a relationship of nations. It is a condition of mind brought about by a serenity of soul. Peace is not merely the absence of war. It is also a state of mind. Lasting peace can come only to peaceful people. - Jawaharlal Nehru

36. Our technological powers increase, but the side effects and potential hazards also escalate. Alvin Toffler.


#17 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » Doc, Doc! » 2022-05-14 15:46:33


#1916. What dors the medical term 'Meningioma' mean?

#20 Re: This is Cool » Miscellany » 2022-05-14 14:24:29

1353) Carding


Carding, in textile production, is a process of separating individual fibres, using a series of dividing and redividing steps, that causes many of the fibres to lie parallel to one another while also removing most of the remaining impurities. Carding may be done by hand, using hand carders (pinned wooden paddles that are not unlike steel dog brushes) or drum carders (in which washed wool, fleece, or other materials are fed through one or more pinned rollers) to prepare the fibres for spinning, felting, or other fabric- or cloth-making activities.

Cotton, wool, waste silk, other fibrous plant materials and animal fur and hair, and artificial staple are subjected to carding. Carding produces a thin sheet of uniform thickness that is then condensed to form a thick continuous untwisted strand called sliver. When very fine yarns are desired, carding is followed by combing, a process that removes short fibres, leaving a sliver composed entirely of long fibres, all laid parallel and smoother and more lustrous than uncombed types. Carded and combed sliver is then spun.


Carding is a mechanical process that disentangles, cleans and intermixes fibres to produce a continuous web or sliver suitable for subsequent processing. This is achieved by passing the fibres between differentially moving surfaces covered with "card clothing", a firm flexible material embedded with metal pins. It breaks up locks and unorganised clumps of fibre and then aligns the individual fibres to be parallel with each other. In preparing wool fibre for spinning, carding is the step that comes after teasing.

The word is derived from the Latin Carduus meaning thistle or teasel, as dried vegetable teasels were first used to comb the raw wool before technological advances led to the use of machines.


These ordered fibres can then be passed on to other processes that are specific to the desired end use of the fibre: Cotton, batting, felt, woollen or worsted yarn, etc. Carding can also be used to create blends of different fibres or different colours. When blending, the carding process combines the different fibres into a homogeneous mix. Commercial cards also have rollers and systems designed to remove some vegetable matter contaminants from the wool.

Common to all carders is card clothing. Card clothing is made from a sturdy flexible backing in which closely spaced wire pins are embedded. The shape, length, diameter, and spacing of these wire pins are dictated by the card designer and the particular requirements of the application where the card cloth will be used. A later version of the card clothing product developed during the latter half of the 19th century and was found only on commercial carding machines, whereby a single piece of serrated wire was wrapped around a roller, became known as metallic card clothing.

Carding machines are known as cards. Fibre may be carded by hand for hand spinning.


Science historian Joseph Needham ascribes the invention of bow-instruments used in textile technology to India. The earliest evidence for using bow-instruments for carding comes from India (2nd century CE). These carding devices, called kaman (bow) and dhunaki, would loosen the texture of the fibre by the means of a vibrating string.

At the turn of the eighteenth century, wool in England was being carded using pairs of hand cards, in a two-stage process: 'working' with the cards opposed and 'stripping' where they are in parallel.

In 1748 Lewis Paul of Birmingham, England, invented two hand driven carding machines. The first used a coat of wires on a flat table moved by foot pedals. This failed. On the second, a coat of wire slips was placed around a card which was then wrapped around a cylinder. Daniel Bourn obtained a similar patent in the same year, and probably used it in his spinning mill at Leominster, but this burnt down in 1754. The invention was later developed and improved by Richard Arkwright and Samuel Crompton. Arkwright's second patent (of 1775) for his carding machine was subsequently declared invalid (1785) because it lacked originality.

From the 1780s, the carding machines were set up in mills in the north of England and mid-Wales. Priority was given to cotton but woollen fibres were being carded in Yorkshire in 1780. With woollen, two carding machines were used: the first or the scribbler opened and mixed the fibres, the second or the condenser mixed and formed the web. The first in Wales was in a factory at Dolobran near Meifod in 1789. These carding mills produced yarn particularly for the Welsh flannel industry.

In 1834 James Walton invented the first practical machines to use a wire card. He patented this machine and also a new form of card with layers of cloth and rubber. The combination of these two inventions became the standard for the carding industry, using machines first built by Parr, Curtis and Walton in Ancoats, and from 1857 by Jams Walton & Sons at Haughton Dale.

By 1838, the Spen Valley, centred on Cleckheaton had at least 11 card clothing factories and by 1893, it was generally accepted as the card cloth capital of the world, though by 2008 only two manufacturers of metallic and flexible card clothing remained in England, Garnett Wire Ltd. dating back to 1851 and Joseph Sellers & Son Ltd established in 1840.

Baird from Scotland took carding to Leicester, Massachusetts in the 1780s. In the 1890s, the town produced one-third of all hand and machine cards in North America. John and Arthur Slater, from Saddleworth went over to work with Slater in 1793.

A 1780s scribbling mill would be driven by a water wheel. There were 170 scribbling mills around Leeds at that time. Each scribbler would require 15–45 horsepower (11–34 kW) to operate. Modern machines are driven by belting from an electric motor or an overhead shaft via two pulleys.


Predating mechanised weaving, hand loom weaving was a cottage industry that used the same processes but on a smaller scale. These skills have survived as an artisan craft in less developed societies- and as art form and hobby in advanced societies.

Hand carders

Hand cards are typically square or rectangular paddles manufactured in a variety of sizes from 2 by 2 inches (5.1 cm × 5.1 cm) to 4 by 8 inches (10 cm × 20 cm). The working face of each paddle can be flat or cylindrically curved and wears the card cloth. Small cards, called flick cards, are used to flick the ends of a lock of fibre, or to tease out some strands for spinning off.

A pair of cards is used to brush the wool between them until the fibres are more or less aligned in the same direction. The aligned fibre is then peeled from the card as a rolag. Carding is an activity normally done outside or over a drop cloth, depending on the wool's cleanliness. Rolag is peeled from the card.

Carding of wool can either be done "in the grease" or not, depending on the type of machine and on the spinner's preference. "In the grease" means that the lanolin that naturally comes with the wool has not been washed out, leaving the wool with a slightly greasy feel. The large drum carders do not tend to get along well with lanolin, so most commercial worsted and woollen mills wash the wool before carding. Hand carders (and small drum carders too, though the directions may not recommend it) can be used to card lanolin rich wool.

Drum carders

The simplest machine carder is the drum carder. Most drum carders are hand-cranked but some are powered by an electric motor. These machines generally have two rollers, or drums, covered with card clothing. The licker-in, or smaller roller meters fibre from the infeed tray onto the larger storage drum. The two rollers are connected to each other by a belt- or chain-drive so that their relative speeds cause the storage drum to gently pull fibres from the licker-in. This pulling straightens the fibres and lays them between the wire pins of the storage drum's card cloth. Fibre is added until the storage drum's card cloth is full. A gap in the card cloth facilitates removal of the batt when the card cloth is full.

Some drum carders have a soft-bristled brush attachment that presses the fibre into the storage drum. This attachment serves to condense the fibres already in the card cloth and adds a small amount of additional straightening to the condensed fibre.

Cottage carders

Cottage carding machines differ significantly from the simple drum card. These carders do not store fibre in the card cloth as the drum carder does but, rather, fibre passes through the workings of the carder for storage or for additional processing by other machines.

A typical cottage carder has a single large drum (the swift) accompanied by a pair of in-feed rollers (nippers), one or more pairs of worker and stripper rollers, a fancy, and a doffer. In-feed to the carder is usually accomplished by hand or by conveyor belt and often the output of the cottage carder is stored as a batt or further processed into roving and wound into bumps with an accessory bump winder.

Raw fibre, placed on the in-feed table or conveyor is moved to the nippers which restrain and meter the fiber onto the swift. As they are transferred to the swift, many of the fibres are straightened and laid into the swift's card cloth. These fibres will be carried past the worker / stripper rollers to the fancy.

As the swift carries the fibres forward, from the nippers, those fibres that are not yet straightened are picked up by a worker and carried over the top to its paired stripper. Relative to the surface speed of the swift, the worker turns quite slowly. This has the effect of reversing the fibre. The stripper, which turns at a higher speed than the worker, pulls fibres from the worker and passes them to the swift. The stripper's relative surface speed is slower than the swift's so the swift pulls the fibres from the stripper for additional straightening.

Straightened fibres are carried by the swift to the fancy. The fancy's card cloth is designed to engage with the swift's card cloth so that the fibres are lifted to the tips of the swift's card cloth and carried by the swift to the doffer. The fancy and the swift are the only rollers in the carding process that actually touch.

The slowly turning doffer removes the fibres from the swift and carries them to the fly comb where they are stripped from the doffer. A fine web of more or less parallel fibre, a few fibres thick and as wide as the carder's rollers, exits the carder at the fly comb by gravity or other mechanical means for storage or further processing.


#21 Jokes » Short Funny Jokes - 104 » 2022-05-14 02:25:13

Replies: 0

Why did the donut visit the dentist?   
To get a new filling.
* * *
How did the bunny rob a snowman?
He took out his hair dryer and said: Give me that carrot!
* * *
What do you call a nut that sneezes?
A cashew.
* * *
A very panicky Emma bursts into her brother’s bedroom and shakes him awake, “Jeremy, come quick, there’s a mouse squeaking under my bed!!!!”
Jeremy yawns, “and what the heck should I do? Oil it?!”
* * *
Why did the bee marry?   
He’s finally found his honey.
* * *

#22 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » English language puzzles » 2022-05-14 01:57:10


#4495. What does the adjective limber mean?

#4496. What does the noun limelight mean?

#23 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » General Quiz » 2022-05-14 01:04:36


#8369. When is the 'World Milk Day' celebrated? (World Milk Day is an international day established by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations to recognize the importance of milk as a global food. It has been observed since 2001. The day is intended to provide an opportunity to bring attention to activities that are connected with the dairy sector.)

#8370. When is the 'World Humanist Day'? (World Humanist Day is a Humanist holiday celebrated annually around the world. According to Humanists International, the day is a way of spreading awareness of Humanism as a philosophical life stance and means to effect change in the world. It is also seen as a time for Humanists to gather socially and promote the positive values of Humanism.)

#25 Re: Dark Discussions at Cafe Infinity » crème de la crème » 2022-05-14 00:11:53

1069) Robert Boyle

Robert Boyle (25 January 1627 – 31 December 1691) was an Anglo-Irish natural philosopher, chemist, physicist, and inventor. Boyle is largely regarded today as the first modern chemist, and therefore one of the founders of modern chemistry, and one of the pioneers of modern experimental scientific method. He is best known for Boyle's law, which describes the inversely proportional relationship between the absolute pressure and volume of a gas, if the temperature is kept constant within a closed system. Among his works, The Sceptical Chymist is seen as a cornerstone book in the field of chemistry. He was a devout and pious Anglican and is noted for his writings in theology.


Early years

Boyle was born at Lismore Castle, in County Waterford, Ireland, the seventh son and fourteenth child of The 1st Earl of Cork ('the Great Earl of Cork') and Catherine Fenton. Lord Cork, then known simply as Richard Boyle, had arrived in Dublin from England in 1588 during the Tudor plantations of Ireland and obtained an appointment as a deputy escheator. He had amassed enormous wealth and landholdings by the time Robert was born, and had been created Earl of Cork in October 1620. Catherine Fenton, Countess of Cork, was the daughter of Sir Geoffrey Fenton, the former Secretary of State for Ireland, who was born in Dublin in 1539, and Alice Weston, the daughter of Robert Weston, who was born in Lismore in 1541.

As a child, Boyle was raised by a wet nurse, as were his elder brothers. Boyle received private tutoring in Latin, Greek, and French and when he was eight years old, following the death of his mother, he, and his brother Francis, were sent to Eton College in England. His father's friend, Sir Henry Wotton, was then the provost of the college.

During this time, his father hired a private tutor, Robert Carew, who had knowledge of Irish, to act as private tutor to his sons in Eton. However, "only Mr. Robert sometimes desires it [Irish] and is a little entered in it", but despite the "many reasons" given by Carew to turn their attentions to it, "they practice the French and Latin but they affect not the Irish". After spending over three years at Eton, Robert travelled abroad with a French tutor. They visited Italy in 1641 and remained in Florence during the winter of that year studying the "paradoxes of the great star-gazer" Galileo Galilei, who was elderly but still living in 1641.

Middle years

Robert returned to England from continental Europe in mid-1644 with a keen interest in scientific research. His father, Lord Cork, had died the previous year and had left him the manor of Stalbridge in Dorset as well as substantial estates in County Limerick in Ireland that he had acquired. Robert then made his residence at Stalbridge House, between 1644 and 1652, and settled a laboratory where he conducted many experiments. From that time, Robert devoted his life to scientific research and soon took a prominent place in the band of enquirers, known as the "Invisible College", who devoted themselves to the cultivation of the "new philosophy". They met frequently in London, often at Gresham College, and some of the members also had meetings at Oxford.

Having made several visits to his Irish estates beginning in 1647, Robert moved to Ireland in 1652 but became frustrated at his inability to make progress in his chemical work. In one letter, he described Ireland as "a barbarous country where chemical spirits were so misunderstood and chemical instruments so unprocurable that it was hard to have any Hermetic thoughts in it."

In 1654, Boyle left Ireland for Oxford to pursue his work more successfully. An inscription can be found on the wall of University College, Oxford, the High Street at Oxford (now the location of the Shelley Memorial), marking the spot where Cross Hall stood until the early 19th century. It was here that Boyle rented rooms from the wealthy apothecary who owned the Hall.

Reading in 1657 of Otto von Guericke's air pump, he set himself, with the assistance of Robert Hooke, to devise improvements in its construction, and with the result, the "machina Boyleana" or "Pneumatical Engine", finished in 1659, he began a series of experiments on the properties of air and coined the term factitious airs. An account of Boyle's work with the air pump was published in 1660 under the title New Experiments Physico-Mechanical, Touching the Spring of the Air, and its Effects.

Among the critics of the views put forward in this book was a Jesuit, Francis Line (1595–1675), and it was while answering his objections that Boyle made his first mention of the law that the volume of a gas varies inversely to the pressure of the gas, which among English-speaking people is usually called Boyle's Law after his name. The person who originally formulated the hypothesis was Henry Power in 1661. Boyle in 1662 included a reference to a paper written by Power, but mistakenly attributed it to Richard Towneley. In continental Europe the hypothesis is sometimes attributed to Edme Mariotte, although he did not publish it until 1676 and was likely aware of Boyle's work at the time.

In 1663 the Invisible College became The Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, and the charter of incorporation granted by Charles II of England named Boyle a member of the council. In 1680 he was elected president of the society, but declined the honour from a scruple about oaths.

He made a "wish list" of 24 possible inventions which included "the prolongation of life", the "art of flying", "perpetual light", "making armour light and extremely hard", "a ship to sail with all winds, and a ship not to be sunk", "practicable and certain way of finding longitudes", "potent drugs to alter or exalt imagination, waking, memory and other functions and appease pain, procure innocent sleep, harmless dreams, etc.". All but a few of the 24 have come true.

In 1668 he left Oxford for London where he resided at the house of his elder sister Katherine Jones, Lady Ranelagh, in Pall Mall. He experimented in the laboratory she had in her home and attended her salon of intellectuals interested in the sciences. The siblings maintained "a lifelong intellectual partnership, where brother and sister shared medical remedies, promoted each other's scientific ideas, and edited each other's manuscripts." His contemporaries widely acknowledged Katherine's influence on his work, but later historiographers dropped discussion of her accomplishments and relationship to her brother from their histories.

Later years

In 1669 his health, never very strong, began to fail seriously and he gradually withdrew from his public engagements, ceasing his communications to the Royal Society, and advertising his desire to be excused from receiving guests, "unless upon occasions very extraordinary", on Tuesday and Friday forenoon, and Wednesday and Saturday afternoon. In the leisure thus gained he wished to "recruit his spirits, range his papers", and prepare some important chemical investigations which he proposed to leave "as a kind of Hermetic legacy to the studious disciples of that art", but of which he did not make known the nature. His health became still worse in 1691, and he died on 31 December that year, just a week after the death of his sister, Katherine, in whose home he had lived and with whom he had shared scientific pursuits for more than twenty years. Boyle died from paralysis. He was buried in the churchyard of St Martin-in-the-Fields, his funeral sermon being preached by his friend, Bishop Gilbert Burnet. In his will, Boyle endowed a series of lectures that came to be known as the Boyle Lectures.

Awards and honours

As a founder of the Royal Society, he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS) in 1663.[5] Boyle's law is named in his honour. The Royal Society of Chemistry issues a Robert Boyle Prize for Analytical Science, named in his honour. The Boyle Medal for Scientific Excellence in Ireland, inaugurated in 1899, is awarded jointly by the Royal Dublin Society and The Irish Times. Launched in 2012, The Robert Boyle Summer School organized by the Waterford Institute of Technology with support from Lismore Castle, is held annually to honor the heritage of Robert Boyle.


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