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#1 Re: This is Cool » Miscellany » Today 03:28:25

1128) Yale University

Founded in 1701, Yale University is a private Ivy League research university located in New Haven, Connecticut. It is one of the nine Colonial Colleges chartered before the American Revolution and the third-oldest institution of higher education in the USA. The 300 years old institution traces its roots to the 1640s when colonial clergymen took an initiative to lay the foundations of a local college in order to preserve the tradition of European liberal education in the New World. In 1701, Yale was established as a collegiate school near Saybrook, Connecticut. The collegiate school was renamed as Yale College in 1718 in recognition of the donation of books and goods made by Welsh merchant Elihu Yale.

In 1750, one of the oldest buildings in New Haven and a national historic landmark, Connecticut Hall was constructed. Yale law school, established in 1824, is consistently ranked as a prominent law school in the nation. The law school holds a great history of nurturing and training outstanding jurists, judges, practitioners, and government officials. In 1836, Yale Literary magazine was founded. Considered as an oldest literary review in the country, it emerged at the forefront of novel ways of studying literature. In 1861, Yale became the first university in America to award Doctor of Philosophy degrees. The University currently consists of fourteen constituent schools including the undergraduate liberal arts college, the Graduate school of Arts and Sciences and twelve professional schools.

In 2018, the University delivered teaching to 13,433 full-time and part-time students including 5,964 undergraduates and 7,469 graduate and professional students. In addition to more than 80 majors available to undergraduates, the University offers a number of supplementary programs intended to give students specialized knowledge across a variety of areas. The undergraduate students can choose from over 2,000 courses offered each year. Yale’s student body, one of the most diverse in the world includes students from different backgrounds and experiences. In 2018, 2,694 students nearly 20.7% of international students took admission at Yale representing 123 countries. Majority of the international student population comes from Canada, China, Germany, India, South Korea, and the United Kingdom.

Yale’s Endowment generated an 11.3% return. The Endowment grew from $22.5 billion to $30.31 billion, in the past ten-year period. The Endowment’s performance exceeded its benchmark and outpaced institutional fund indices with annual returns of 6.6%, over the past ten years.

The University has graduated many notable alumni consisting of 61 Nobel laureates, 78 MacArthur Fellows, 247 Rhodes Scholars and 119 Marshall Scholars, 5 Fields Medalists and 3 Turing award winners. In addition, five U.S. Presidents, including George W. Bush, Bill Clinton, George H.W. Bush, William Howard Taft and Gerald Ford, 19 U.S. Supreme Court Justices and a number of billionaires have been affiliated with Yale University. Some royals have also attended Yale including Crown Princess Victoria of Sweden, Prince Rostislav Romanov and Prince Akiiki Hosea Nyabongo.

Yale University, private university in New Haven, Connecticut, one of the Ivy League schools. It was founded in 1701 and is the third oldest university in the United States. Yale was originally chartered by the colonial legislature of Connecticut as the Collegiate School and was held at Killingworth and other locations. In 1716 the school was moved to New Haven, and in 1718 it was renamed Yale College in honour of a wealthy British merchant and philanthropist, Elihu Yale, who had made a series of donations to the school. Yale’s initial curriculum emphasized classical studies and strict adherence to orthodox Puritanism.

Yale’s medical school was organized in 1810. The divinity school arose from a department of theology created in 1822, and a law department became affiliated with the college in 1824. The geologist Benjamin Silliman, who taught at Yale between 1802 and 1853, did much to make the experimental and applied sciences a respectable field of study in the United States. While at Yale he founded the American Journal of Science and Arts (later shortened to American Journal of Science), which was one of the great scientific journals of the world in the 19th century. Yale’s Sheffield Scientific School, begun in the 1850s, was one of the leading scientific and engineering centres until 1956, when it merged with Yale College and ceased to exist.

A graduate school of arts and sciences was organized in 1847, and a school of art was created in 1866. Music, forestry and environmental studies, nursing, drama, management, architecture, physician associate, and public health professional school programs were subsequently established. The college was renamed Yale University in 1864. Women were first admitted to the graduate school in 1892, but the university did not become fully coeducational until 1969. A system of residential colleges was instituted in the 1930s.

Yale is highly selective in its admissions and is among the nation’s most highly rated schools in terms of academic and social prestige. It includes Yale College (undergraduate), the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, and 12 professional schools.

The Yale University Library, with more than 15 million volumes, is one of the largest in the United States. Yale’s extensive art galleries, the first in an American college, were established in 1832 when John Trumbull donated a gallery to house his paintings of the American Revolution. Yale’s Peabody Museum of Natural History houses important collections of paleontology, archaeology, and ethnology.

Yale’s graduates have included U.S. Presidents William Howard Taft, Gerald Ford, George H.W. Bush, Bill Clinton, and George W. Bush; Civil War-era leader John C. Calhoun; theologian Jonathan Edwards; inventors Eli Whitney and Samuel F.B. Morse; and lexicographer Noah Webster. After several years of debate, in 2017 the university announced that the name of Calhoun College, one of the original residential colleges, would be changed to Hopper College, after the 20th-century mathematician, naval officer, and Yale alumna Grace Hopper. Advocates of the renaming had argued that it was inappropriate for the university to honour Calhoun, who had been an ardent proponent of slavery and a white supremacist.


#3 Re: Dark Discussions at Cafe Infinity » crème de la crème » Today 01:05:58

952) Robert Walpole, 1st earl of Orford

Robert Walpole, 1st earl of Orford, also called (1725–42) Sir Robert Walpole, (born August 26, 1676, Houghton Hall, Norfolk, England—died March 18, 1745, London), British statesman (in power 1721–42), generally regarded as the first British prime minister. He deliberately cultivated a frank, hearty manner, but his political subtlety has scarcely been equaled.

Education and early career
Walpole was the third son of Colonel Robert Walpole by his wife, Mary Burwell. He was educated at Great Dunham, Norfolk, and afterward became a scholar of Eton (1690–96) and subsequently of King’s College, Cambridge (1696–98). The death of his elder surviving brother, Edward, cut short his academic career, and, instead of entering the church, he returned to Norfolk to help administer his father’s estates. He married Catherine Shorter of Bybrook, Kent, on July 30, 1700. After his father’s death in the same year, he inherited a heavily encumbered estate and also the family parliamentary seat at Castle Rising, for which he was immediately elected. In 1702 he transferred to King’s Lynn, which he represented, with one short intermission, for the next 40 years.

Walpole rapidly made his mark in the House of Commons, earning the reputation of being a clear, forceful speaker, a firm but not fanatical Whig, and an active parliamentarian. He was made a member in 1705 of Prince George of Denmark’s Council, which controlled the affairs of the navy during the War of the Spanish Succession (1701–14). His ability as an administrator brought him to the attention of both the duke of Marlborough and Lord Godolphin. On February 25, 1708, he was promoted to secretary at war and in 1710 to treasurer of the navy, a post from which he was dismissed on January 2, 1711, with the advent of the Tory Party to power after the general election of 1710. During these years Walpole established himself as one of the foremost of the younger Whig leaders; in society as well as in politics he made his mark. He became a leading member of the Kit-Cat Club, a meeting place of many Whig men of letters. He had many friends, but his expenses were so high that he fell heavily in debt. He had relied on his political offices to keep himself afloat; nevertheless, he refused to compromise his principles for the sake of his salary and perquisites.

His assiduity in attending the Commons and his ability in debate made Walpole the effective leader of the opposition, and the Tories determined to ruin him along with Marlborough. In January 1712 he was impeached for corruption as secretary at war, found guilty, expelled from the Commons, and sent to the Tower of London. He was immediately acclaimed as a martyr by the Whigs, and he himself developed a hatred for the Tory leaders Robert Harley, earl of Oxford, and Henry St. John, Viscount Bolingbroke, who brought about his fall. Walpole enjoyed his revenge in 1714 at the accession of George I when, as well as being made paymaster general of the forces, he became chairman of the secret committee that led to the impeachment for treason of both Bolingbroke and Oxford. Walpole’s mastery of the Commons, allied to his formidable industry, brought him rapid promotion. He became first lord of the Treasury and chancellor of the Exchequer on October 11, 1715. His abilities also aroused jealousy, which was exacerbated by a conflict over foreign policy that saw Walpole and his brother-in-law, Charles, Viscount Townshend, on one side and two of the king’s closest advisers, James Stanhope and Charles Spencer, earl of Sunderland, on the other. Walpole and Townshend maintained that British interests were being sacrificed to the king’s Hanoverian interests in order to curry favour. The break came in 1717, and Walpole and Townshend left the ministry; shortly afterward a violent quarrel between the king and the prince of Wales split the royal family, and the opposition acquired its own court at the prince’s residence, Leicester House.

During the next three years Walpole fought the government on every issue, achieving considerable success in bringing about the rejection of the Peerage Bill (1719), which would have limited the royal prerogative in the creation of peers. During this time, too, he became friendly with Caroline of Ansbach, the princess of Wales, who was to help maintain him in power when her husband succeeded to the throne in 1727 as George II. Walpole used his influence with the prince to bring about a reconciliation with the king in April 1720 and his own subsequent return to the ministry as paymaster general of the forces.

No sooner was Walpole back in office than the country was caught up in the speculative frenzy associated with the South Sea Company, a joint-stock company with monopoly rights to trade with Spanish America. A scheme was set up in 1720 whereby the company would take charge of a large part of the national debt. Although Walpole had favoured letting the Bank of England take over the debt, he was no more prudent than many others and invested heavily in South Sea stock. He was saved from financial disaster by the foresight of his banker, Robert Jacomb. Nevertheless, Walpole had not been a promoter of the scheme, and he was free from the stigma of corruption that marked many other ministers as well as the king’s German favourites. He used his great political skill and persuasive powers of argument in the Commons to save the Whig leaders and the court from the consequences of their folly. Some members had to be sacrificed to appease public opinion, among them John Aislabie, chancellor of the Exchequer; others died under the strain, the most notable being Stanhope and James Craggs and his son James. Walpole restored confidence, maintained the Whigs in office, and greatly improved his own and Townshend’s standing at court. He became first lord of the Treasury and chancellor of the Exchequer in April 1721, offices that he was to hold until 1742. Townshend became once more secretary of state and took over the control of foreign affairs. For some time, Walpole and Townshend were forced to share power with John Carteret (later Earl Granville), who had succeeded to Sunderland’s influence after Sunderland’s sudden death in April 1722. By 1724, however, Walpole and Townshend obtained the dismissal of Carteret from his secretaryship of state and had him sent to Ireland as lord lieutenant. For the rest of George I’s reign Walpole and Townshend remained at the head of the ministry. Their position steadily grew stronger. The hopes of the Jacobites, supporters of a return to the throne of the Stuarts, which the South Sea Bubble had fanned, were quashed in 1723 by the exposure of the insurrection planned by Francis Atterbury, bishop of Rochester. The outlook for the Tory Party was equally gloomy in spite of the pardon given to Bolingbroke in 1725.

The long ascendancy of Robert Walpole, 1st earl of Orford

The supremacy in the Commons was maintained by Walpole until 1742. In 1727, at the accession of George II, he suffered a minor crisis when for a few days it seemed that he might be dismissed, but Queen Caroline prevailed on her husband to keep Walpole in office. In 1730 he quarreled with Townshend over the conduct of foreign affairs and forced Townshend’s resignation, but his retirement had no effect on Walpole’s position. These were the years of Walpole’s greatness. His power was based on the loyal support given to him by George I and George II. This enabled him to use all royal patronage for political ends, and Walpole’s appointments to offices in the royal household, the church, the navy, the army, and the civil service were, whenever possible, made with an eye to his voting strength in the House of Commons. By these means he built up the court and treasury party that was to be the core of Whig strength for many generations. These methods, however, never gave him control of the House of Commons. His majorities at Westminster came about because his policy of peace abroad and low taxation at home appealed strongly to the independent country gentlemen who sat in Parliament. Also, Walpole possessed remarkable powers in debate: his knowledge of the detail of government, particularly of finance, was unmatched, and his expression was clear, forceful, and always cogent. He never underestimated the powers of the Commons, and no minister, before or since, has shown such skill in its management.

Walpole needed all his art, for his rule was never free from crisis. Foreign affairs gave him constant trouble. Although Townshend had secured the prospect of a settlement by the Treaty of Hanover in 1725, which helped to strengthen the alliance between England and France, the difficulties that had arisen with Spain over Gibraltar and British trading rights in the West Indies proved intractable, and England hovered on the brink of war until Walpole intervened. By showing willingness to negotiate he secured the Treaty of Seville (Sevilla) in 1729. This was followed by a general settlement in 1731 at the Treaty of Vienna. When war broke out on the Continent in 1733 over the question of the succession to the Polish throne, Walpole had to use all his influence with the king in order to maintain England’s neutrality.

Many politicians, particularly those whom Walpole had driven into opposition, regarded his foreign policy as a betrayal of England’s interests. They thought that he had become the dupe of France to the neglect of England’s former allies (the Austrians and the Dutch), and that his desire to maintain friendship with France led to weakness toward Spain. They also disapproved of his use of patronage, which they stigmatized as corruption. They condemned his financial schemes as a sham, particularly the sinking fund to abolish the national debt. The prime movers in this opposition were William Pulteney, an able Whig whom Walpole had rejected in 1724 in favour of the duke of Newcastle as secretary of state, and Bolingbroke. They drew together a miscellaneous collection of members in opposition: Jacobites, Hanoverian Tories, dissident Whigs, and urban radicals. They attempted to give coherence to the party so formed, but with little success. The liveliest part of their campaign was the violent press agitation against Walpole. For this purpose they founded The Craftsman, which denigrated Walpole’s ministry week after week. Walpole was lampooned in pamphlets, ballads, and plays, as well as in the newspapers; and this constant stream of abuse, which was not without a certain element of truth, did much to bring both Parliament and politics into contempt.

The great opportunity for the opposition came in 1733 when Walpole decided to check smuggling and customs frauds by imposing an excise tax on wine and tobacco. This was extremely unpopular, particularly with the London merchants, and the opposition did all in its power to influence opinion. Walpole saved himself from defeat by withdrawing this measure, but those politicians who had been indiscreet enough to show opposition to Walpole’s bill lost their offices. These dismissals, however, weakened Walpole’s position; he lost considerable debating skill as well as votes in the House of Lords, which at that time still played an important part in government. After 1733 the list of able but dismissed Whig politicians grew large enough to supply an alternative Whig ministry to Walpole’s own, and, after the excise crisis, the opposition Whigs had far less need to rely on Tory and Jacobite elements in their battle against Walpole. Bolingbroke himself realized this; he withdrew from politics and retired to France in 1735, admitting defeat in his lifelong struggle with Walpole.

Growing unpopularity of Robert Walpole, 1st earl of Orford

Walpole won the general election of 1734, which had given rise to many violent contests and a resurgence of the old bitterness about excise, but his growing unpopularity was underlined by the loss of many seats in the large seaports and heavily populated counties. Nevertheless, his majority, although diminished, remained comfortable. Without much difficulty he surmounted troubles that arose in Edinburgh (the Porteous riots) over the royal pardon of a captain of the guard who had fired on a crowd demonstrating at Edinburgh prison; he easily persuaded the Commons to reject Sir John Barnard’s scheme to reduce the interest on the national debt and showed his contempt for the literary opposition (among whose members were Swift, Pope, and Fielding) by imposing regulations on London theatres (1737). Yet from 1737 his position began to weaken. The death of Queen Caroline had less effect than many have assumed, for by then George II had developed great loyalty to his minister. More important was Walpole’s increasing age, which led young politicians, such as William Pitt (afterward earl of Chatham), to look elsewhere for their future advancement. The emergence as a leader of the opposition of Frederick Louis, prince of Wales, who had quarreled violently with his parents, provided a focus and a court for the “patriot boys,” as these young Whigs came to be called. The growing difficulties with Spain over trading matters in the West Indies were used by this opposition to embarrass Walpole. He did his utmost to settle these difficulties by negotiation, but in 1739 he was forced to declare war against Spain—the so-called War of Jenkins’ Ear. He disapproved of the war and made his views clear to his cabinet colleagues. These years, too, were darkened by private grief as well as public anxiety. His wife, with whom he had been on indifferent terms, died in 1737, and he was married by March 3, 1738, to his mistress of long-standing, Maria Skerritt, a woman of great charm and wit. Three months later she died in childbirth.

The war with Spain did not prosper, and opposition continued to mount against Walpole. He succeeded in winning the general election of 1741, but many Whig politicians, and a number of independents, did not consider him capable of directing the war vigorously enough or of surviving another seven years’ Parliament. His resignation was forced on February 2, 1742, on a minor issue. The king created him earl of Orford (he had been knighted in 1725) and gave him an annual pension of £4,000, but the Commons set up a committee to investigate his ministry with a view to impeachment. They failed to secure sufficient evidence and the rancour against Orford petered out. For the rest of his life he continued to play an active and valuable part in politics. He did his utmost to secure the dismissal of Carteret, who had become secretary of state on the fall of his ministry, and to secure the promotion of Henry Pelham, his protégé and leader of the Walpole Whigs, to the position of chief minister. Orford’s influence with George II remained powerful up to his death.


Although Walpole rejected the title of prime minister, which he regarded as a term of abuse, his control of the treasury, his management of the Commons, and the confidence that he enjoyed of the two sovereigns whom he served demonstrated the kind of leadership that was required to give stability and order to 18th-century politics. He used his power to maintain the supremacy of the Whig Party, as he understood it, and his prime concern was to forestall the machinations of the Jacobites, which he took very seriously, by securing the Hanoverian succession. He thought that this could best be achieved by prosperity and low taxation, which in turn depended on peace and on freedom from foreign entanglements. In order to achieve strong support for this policy he created as many obligations as possible among the politically powerful groups in the country. The Jacobite rebellion in 1745 demonstrated both the reality of his fears and the success of his policy.

The influence of Walpole’s long ministry on the structure of 18th-century politics was profound. The Tory Party, split as it was between Hanoverians and Jacobites, faded into insignificance, and to be a Whig became a necessity for the politically ambitious. The struggle for power ceased to be a conflict between two parties and became a battle fought between divergent groups, personalities, and policies within the Whig Party itself, in order to gain the support of the court on the one hand and the independent country gentlemen in Parliament on the other. The frank realism that Walpole had used in all appointments to office, as well as the violent, prejudiced, and often exaggerated criticism to which this gave rise, did much to bring the institutions of government into disrepute and to strengthen the early growth of urban radicalism, particularly in the City of London. On the other hand, Walpole’s ministry had little influence on constitutional development: many generations were to pass before any minister wielded power comparable to his. Like his master, George II, he disliked cabinet government and used it as sparingly as possible. He showed what could be done within the accepted conventions of the constitution; he never attempted to change them.

One side of Walpole’s life is too little noted. He possessed remarkable delight in and judgment of works of art. His house, Houghton Hall, Norfolk, built and furnished under his close supervision, is a masterpiece of Palladian architecture. To the distress of his son Horace, the famous man of letters, Walpole’s collection of pictures was sold to the empress of Russia by Walpole’s grandson George in 1779. Now in the Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, it was one of the most remarkable collections in Europe. He delighted in ostentation and lived in great magnificence, spending freely the huge fortune that he made out of judicious speculation and public office.


#5 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » English language puzzles » Today 00:06:30


#4113. What does the noun foreknowledge mean?

#4114. What does the noun foreleg mean?

#6 Re: Euler Avenue » x ° y = y ° x » Today 00:05:37


This imame may be of help.


#8 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » General Quiz » Yesterday 01:43:56


#8033. What is the National Anthem of Jamaica?

#8034. What is the National Anthem of Japan?

#9 Re: This is Cool » Miscellany » Yesterday 01:04:03

1137) Imperial College London

Imperial College London, institution of higher learning in London. It is one of the leading research colleges or universities in England. Its main campus is located in South Kensington (in Westminster), and its medical school is linked with several London teaching hospitals. Its three- to five-year courses of study lead to bachelor’s, master’s, and doctorate degrees. These degree programs include the biological and physical sciences, engineering, computing, geology, and preclinical and clinical medicine. Among its research centres are the Centre for Environmental Technology, National Heart and Lung Institute, Centre for Population Biology, Centre for Composite Materials, and Centre for the History of Science, Technology and Medicine. Total enrollment is approximately 12,000, including over 4,700 engineering students.

The Royal College of Science was founded in 1845 by Prince Albert, the consort of Queen Victoria. The Royal School of Mines was founded in 1851, and the City and Guilds College was founded in 1884. The institutions united to form the Imperial College of Science and Technology in 1907 and became a school of the University of London in 1908. An act of Parliament in 1988 made St. Mary’s Hospital Medical School, founded in 1854, the college’s fourth school. The National Heart and Lung Institute was joined with the college in 1995, creating with St. Mary’s the new Imperial College School of Medicine. The Charing Cross and Westminster Medical School, as well as the Royal Postgraduate Medical School, were merged with the institution in 1997, and in 2000 it also merged with Wye College. In 2006 Imperial College withdrew from the University of London in order to become an independent university.

Imperial College London has a 240-acre (97-hectare) site with wetland, farmland, parkland, and laboratories at Silwood Park near Ascot, Berkshire; it also owns a mine near Truro, Cornwall.

Ranked 7th in the world in the QS World University Rankings® 2022, Imperial College London is a one-of-a-kind institution in the UK, focusing solely on science, engineering, medicine and business. Imperial offers an education that is research-led, exposing you to real world challenges with no easy answers, teaching that opens everything up to question and opportunities to work across multi-cultural, multi-national teams.

Imperial is based in South Kensington in London, in an area known as ‘Albertopolis’, Prince Albert and Sir Henry Cole’s 19th century vision for an area where science and the arts would come together. As a result, Imperial’s neighbours include a number of world leading cultural organizations including the Science, Natural History and Victoria and Albert museums; the Royal Colleges of Art and Music; and the Royal Albert Hall, where all of their students also graduate.

There is plenty of green space too, including two Royal Parks (Hyde Park and Kensington Gardens) within 10 minutes’ walk of campus. Travel to and from the area is also really easy as it’s served by three Tube lines and many bus routes.

One of the most distinctive elements of an Imperial education is that students join a community of world-class researchers. The cutting edge and globally influential nature of this research is what Imperial is best known for. It’s the focus on the practical application of their research – particularly in addressing global challenges – and the high level of interdisciplinary collaboration that makes their research so effective. Read more about their research impact on their research and innovation webpages.

The number of award winners, Nobel Prize holders and prestigious Fellowships (Royal Society, Royal Academy of Engineering, Academy of Medical Sciences) amongst their staff is a testament to the outstanding contributions they have made in their respective fields.

Imperial is one of the most international universities in the world, with 59% of its student body in 2019-20 being non-UK citizens and more than 140 countries are currently represented on campus. Meanwhile, the College’s staff, like their students, are diverse in their cultural backgrounds, nationalities and experiences.


#10 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » Doc, Doc! » Yesterday 00:16:19


#1726. What are 'Ketone bodies'?

#11 Jokes » More Sundry Jokes - 34 » Yesterday 00:11:17

Replies: 0

Q: What did the paper say to encourage the pencil?
A: Write on, good friend!
* * *
Q: Where can you always find a peafowl?
A: In the dictionary.
* * *
Q: What is a top’s favorite ride at the amusement park?
A: The merry-go-round.
* * *
Q: What is a kitten’s favorite dessert?
A: Mice cream.
* * *
Q: Where did the bird go when he lost a feather?
A: The re-tail shop.
* * *

#15 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » English language puzzles » 2021-10-14 01:04:27


#4111. What does the noun foregone conclusion mean?

#4112. What does the noun forehead mean?

#16 Re: This is Cool » Miscellany » 2021-10-14 00:27:16

1136) California Institute of Technology

California Institute of Technology, byname Caltech, private coeducational university and research institute in Pasadena, California, U.S., emphasizing graduate and undergraduate instruction and research in pure and applied science and engineering. The institute comprises six divisions: biology; chemistry and chemical engineering; engineering and applied science; geologic and planetary sciences; humanities and social sciences; and physics, mathematics, and astronomy. Total enrollment is approximately 2,000, of which more than half are graduate students.

Superbly equipped, and staffed by a faculty of some 1,000 distinguished and creative scientists, Caltech is considered one of the world’s major research centres. Dozens of eminent scientists (including many Nobel Prize winners) have worked and taught there, including physicists Robert Andrews Millikan, Richard P. Feynman, and Murray Gell-Mann; astronomer George Ellery Hale; and chemist Linus Pauling. In 1958 the Jet Propulsion Laboratory at Caltech, operating in conjunction with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, launched Explorer I, the first U.S. satellite, and it subsequently conducted other programs of space and lunar exploration. Caltech operates astronomical observatories at Owens Valley, Mount Palomar, and Big Bear Lake in California and at Mauna Kea in Hawaii. Other institute facilities include a seismological laboratory in Pasadena and a marine biological laboratory at Corona del Mar.

Caltech was established in 1891 as a school for arts and crafts. First called Throop University and later Throop Polytechnic Institute, it assumed its present name in 1920. The institute originally included curricula in business and education, but in 1907 it dropped several programs and began specializing in science and technology, with a focus on creativity and research.

The California Institute of Technology (or Caltech) is one of the foremost scientific and technical institutions in the United States. It is a private university and research institute located in Pasadena, California, about 12 miles (19 kilometers) from Los Angeles. Caltech traces its origins back to Throop University, a school of arts and crafts founded in 1891. It began specializing in science and technology in 1907 and took its present name in 1920. Caltech has been coeducational since 1970, but men still outnumber women. The university enrolls roughly 2,000 students, the majority of whom are graduate students.

Caltech conducts degree programs from the bachelor’s through the doctoral level. The university consists of six academic divisions: biology; chemistry and chemical engineering; engineering and applied science; geological and planetary sciences; physics, mathematics, and astronomy; and humanities and social sciences. Its programs in science and engineering are ranked among the best in the United States. Caltech was also the first scientific institution to require undergraduates to take at least 20 percent of their courses in humanities and cultural studies. The institute provides many opportunities for undergraduates to conduct research, including a summer research fellowship program. The students work on independent projects under the guidance of a faculty sponsor, and many have their work published in scientific journals. To encourage an atmosphere of trust in an intense environment, everyone at Caltech is expected to follow an honor code, which states that “no member of the Caltech community shall take unfair advantage of any other member of the Caltech community.”

Superbly equipped and staffed by a faculty of distinguished and creative scientists, Caltech is considered one of the world’s major research centers. Dozens of eminent scientists, including many Nobel prize winners, have worked and taught there. Among them have been physicists Robert Andrews Millikan, Richard P. Feynman, and Murray Gell-Mann, astronomer George Ellery Hale, and chemist Linus Pauling. Caltech operates the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in conjunction with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). In 1958 JPL launched Explorer I, the first U.S. satellite, and since then it has conducted many other space exploration programs. Caltech also operates astronomical observatories at Owens Valley, Mount Palomar, Big Bear Lake, and Cedar Flat in California and at Mauna Kea in Hawaii. Other institute facilities include a seismological laboratory in Pasadena and a marine biological laboratory at Corona del Mar, California.

Caltech’s Beavers, the school’s varsity sports teams, compete in Division III of the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). School colors are orange and white.


#17 Re: Dark Discussions at Cafe Infinity » crème de la crème » 2021-10-14 00:22:40

951) Manfred Eigen

Manfred Eigen, (born May 9, 1927, Bochum, Germany—died February 6, 2019), German physicist who was corecipient, with Ronald George Wreyford Norrish and George Porter, of the 1967 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for work on extremely rapid chemical reactions.

Eigen was educated in physics and chemistry at the University of Göttingen (Ph.D., 1951). He worked at the university’s Institute of Physical Chemistry from 1951 to 1953, when he joined the Max Planck Institute for Physical Chemistry in Göttingen, where he became director of the Department of Biochemical Kinetics in 1958. In that post he initiated the merger of the institutes for physical chemistry and spectroscopy to form the Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry in 1971. He served as its director until 1995.

Eigen was able to study many extremely fast chemical reactions by a variety of methods that he introduced and which are called relaxation techniques. These involve the application of bursts of energy to a solution that briefly destroy its equilibrium before a new equilibrium is reached. Eigen studied what happened to the solution in the extremely brief interval between the two equilibria by means of absorption spectroscopy. Among specific topics thus investigated were the rate of hydrogen ion formation through dissociation in water, diffusion-controlled protolytic reactions, and the kinetics of keto-enol tautomerism.


#20 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » General Quiz » 2021-10-14 00:15:46


#8031. What is the National Anthem of Guyana?

#8032. What is the National Anthem of Indonesia?

#21 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » English language puzzles » 2021-10-13 00:55:19


#4109. What does the noun foreground mean?

#4110. What does the adjective forehand mean?

#22 Re: This is Cool » Miscellany » 2021-10-13 00:21:41

1135) Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), privately controlled coeducational institution of higher learning famous for its scientific and technological training and research. It was chartered by the state of Massachusetts in 1861 and became a land-grant college in 1863. William Barton Rogers, MIT’s founder and first president, had worked for years to organize an institution of higher learning devoted entirely to scientific and technical training, but the outbreak of the American Civil War delayed the opening of the school until 1865, when 15 students enrolled for the first classes, held in Boston. MIT moved to Cambridge, Massachusetts, in 1916; its campus is located along the Charles River.

Under the administration of president Karl T. Compton (1930–48), the institute evolved from a well-regarded technical school into an internationally known centre for scientific and technical research. During the Great Depression, its faculty established prominent research centres in a number of fields, most notably analog computing (led by Vannevar Bush) and aeronautics (led by Charles Stark Draper). During World War II, MIT administered the Radiation Laboratory, which became the nation’s leading centre for radar research and development, as well as other military laboratories. After the war, MIT continued to maintain strong ties with military and corporate patrons, who supported basic and applied research in the physical sciences, computing, aerospace, and engineering.

MIT offers both graduate and undergraduate education. There are five academic schools—the School of Architecture and Planning, the School of Engineering, the School of Humanities, Arts, and Social Science, the MIT Sloan School of Management, and the School of Science—and the Whitaker College of Health Sciences and Technology. While MIT is perhaps best known for its programs in engineering and the physical sciences, other areas—notably economics, political science, urban studies, linguistics, and philosophy—are also strong. Admission is extremely competitive, and undergraduate students are often able to pursue their own original research. Total enrollment is about 10,000.

MIT has numerous research centres and laboratories. Among its facilities are a nuclear reactor, a computation centre, geophysical and astrophysical observatories, a linear accelerator, a space research centre, wind tunnels, an artificial intelligence laboratory, a centre for cognitive science, and an international studies centre. MIT’s library system is extensive and includes a number of specialized libraries. There are also several museums.

The MIT community is driven by a shared purpose: to make a better world through education, research, and innovation. We are fun and quirky, elite but not elitist, inventive and artistic, obsessed with numbers, and welcoming to talented people regardless of where they come from.

Founded to accelerate the nation’s industrial revolution, MIT is profoundly American. With ingenuity and drive, our graduates have invented fundamental technologies, launched new industries, and created millions of American jobs. At the same time, and without the slightest sense of contradiction, MIT is profoundly global. Our community gains tremendous strength as a magnet for talent from around the world. Through teaching, research, and innovation, MIT’s exceptional community pursues its mission of service to the nation and the world.


#23 Jokes » More Sundry Jokes - 33 » 2021-10-13 00:08:02

Replies: 0

Q: What’s a bat’s favorite pastime?
A: Hanging out with his friends.
* * *
Q: Where do polar bears keep their money?
A: In snow banks.
* * *
Knock, knock.
Who’s there?
Canoe who?
Canoe help me with my homework please?
* * *
Q: How do bears keep their den cool in the summer?
A: They use bear-conditioning.
* * *
Q: Why was the clown crying?
A: Because he broke his funny bone.
* * *

#24 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » Doc, Doc! » 2021-10-13 00:04:58


#1725. With which part of the body is 'Micropsia' associated?

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