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## #1 Re: This is Cool » Miscellany » Today 00:18:50

2307) Ulna

Gist

The ulna is one of the two forearm long bones that, in conjunction with the radius, make up the antebrachium. The bone spans from the elbow to the wrist on the medial side of the forearm when in anatomical position. In comparison to the radius, the ulna is described to be larger and longer.

Summary

Ulna is inner of two bones of the forearm when viewed with the palm facing forward. (The other, shorter bone of the forearm is the radius.) The upper end of the ulna presents a large C-shaped notch—the semilunar, or trochlear, notch—which articulates with the trochlea of the humerus (upper arm bone) to form the elbow joint. The projection that forms the upper border of this notch is called the olecranon process; it articulates behind the humerus in the olecranon fossa and may be felt as the point of the elbow. The projection that forms the lower border of the trochlear notch, the coronoid process, enters the coronoid fossa of the humerus when the elbow is flexed. On the outer side is the radial notch, which articulates with the head of the radius. The head of the bone is elsewhere roughened for muscle attachment. The shaft is triangular in cross section; an interosseous ridge extends its length and provides attachment for the interosseous membrane connecting the ulna and the radius. The lower end of the bone presents a small cylindrical head that articulates with the radius at the side and the wrist bones below. Also at the lower end is a styloid process, medially, that articulates with a disk between it and the cuneiform (os triquetrum) wrist bone.

The ulna is present in all land vertebrates. In amphibians and some reptiles the radius and ulna do not articulate. The elbow joint evolved first among birds and mammals. The radius tends to be slender in birds; but the ulna is more often reduced in mammals, especially in those adapted for running and, in the case of bats, flying.

Details:

The ulna or ulnar bone (pl.: ulnae or ulnas) is a long bone in the forearm stretching from the elbow to the wrist. It is on the same side of the forearm as the little finger, running parallel to the radius, the forearm's other long bone. Longer and thinner than the radius, the ulna is considered to be the smaller long bone of the lower arm. The corresponding bone in the lower leg is the fibula.

Structure

The ulna is a long bone found in the forearm that stretches from the elbow to the wrist, and when in standard anatomical position, is found on the medial side of the forearm. It is broader close to the elbow, and narrows as it approaches the wrist.

Close to the elbow, the ulna has a bony process, the olecranon process, a hook-like structure that fits into the olecranon fossa of the humerus. This prevents hyperextension and forms a hinge joint with the trochlea of the humerus. There is also a radial notch for the head of the radius, and the ulnar tuberosity to which muscles attach.

Close to the wrist, the ulna has a styloid process.

Near the elbow

Near the elbow, the ulna has two curved processes, the olecranon and the coronoid process; and two concave, articular cavities, the semilunar and radial notches.

The olecranon is a large, thick, curved eminence, situated at the upper and back part of the ulna. It is bent forward at the summit so as to present a prominent lip which is received into the olecranon fossa of the humerus in extension of the forearm. Its base is contracted where it joins the body and the narrowest part of the upper end of the ulna. Its posterior surface, directed backward, is triangular, smooth, subcutaneous, and covered by a bursa. Its superior surface is of quadrilateral form, marked behind by a rough impression for the insertion of the triceps brachii; and in front, near the margin, by a slight transverse groove for the attachment of part of the posterior ligament of the elbow joint. Its anterior surface is smooth, concave, and forms the upper part of the semilunar notch. Its borders present continuations of the groove on the margin of the superior surface; they serve for the attachment of ligaments: the back part of the ulnar collateral ligament medially, and the posterior ligament laterally. From the medial border a part of the flexor carpi ulnaris arises; while to the lateral border the anconeus is attached.

The coronoid process is a triangular eminence projecting forward from the upper and front part of the ulna. Its base is continuous with the body of the bone, and of considerable strength. Its apex is pointed, slightly curved upward, and in flexion of the forearm is received into the coronoid fossa of the humerus. Its upper surface is smooth, concave, and forms the lower part of the semilunar notch. Its antero-inferior surface is concave, and marked by a rough impression for the insertion of the brachialis. At the junction of this surface with the front of the body is a rough eminence, the tuberosity of the ulna, which gives insertion to a part of the brachialis; to the lateral border of this tuberosity the oblique cord is attached. Its lateral surface presents a narrow, oblong, articular depression, the radial notch. Its medial surface, by its prominent, free margin, serves for the attachment of part of the ulnar collateral ligament. At the front part of this surface is a small rounded eminence for the origin of one head of the flexor digitorum superficialis; behind the eminence is a depression for part of the origin of the flexor digitorum profundus; descending from the eminence is a ridge which gives origin to one head of the pronator teres. Frequently, the flexor pollicis longus arises from the lower part of the coronoid process by a rounded bundle of muscular fibers.

The semilunar notch is a large depression, formed by the olecranon and the coronoid process, and serving as articulation with the trochlea of the humerus. About the middle of either side of this notch is an indentation, which contracts it somewhat, and indicates the junction of the olecranon and the coronoid process. The notch is concave from above downward, and divided into a medial and a lateral portion by a smooth ridge running from the summit of the olecranon to the tip of the coronoid process. The medial portion is the larger, and is slightly concave transversely; the lateral is convex above, slightly concave below.

The radial notch is a narrow, oblong, articular depression on the lateral side of the coronoid process; it receives the circumferential articular surface of the head of the radius. It is concave from before backward, and its prominent extremities serve for the attachment of the annular ligament.

Body

The body of the ulna at its upper part is prismatic in form, and curved so as to be convex behind and lateralward; its central part is straight; its lower part is rounded, smooth, and bent a little lateralward. It tapers gradually from above downward, and has three borders and three surfaces.

Borders

* The volar border (margo volaris; anterior border) begins above at the prominent medial angle of the coronoid process, and ends below in front of the styloid process. Its upper part, well-defined, and its middle portion, smooth and rounded, give origin to the flexor digitorum profundus; its lower fourth serves for the origin of the pronator quadratus. This border separates the volar from the medial surface.
* The dorsal border (margo dorsalis; posterior border) begins above at the apex of the triangular subcutaneous surface at the back part of the olecranon, and ends below at the back of the styloid process; it is well-marked in the upper three-fourths, and gives attachment to an aponeurosis which affords a common origin to the flexor carpi ulnaris, the extensor carpi ulnaris, and the flexor digitorum profundus; its lower fourth is smooth and rounded. This border separates the medial from the dorsal surface.
* The interosseous crest (crista interossea; external or interosseous border) begins above by the union of two lines, which converge from the extremities of the radial notch and enclose between them a triangular space for the origin of part of the supinator; it ends below at the head of the ulna. Its upper part is sharp, its lower fourth smooth and rounded. This crest gives attachment to the interosseous membrane, and separates the volar from the dorsal surface.

Surfaces

* The volar surface (facies volaris; anterior surface), much broader above than below, is concave in its upper three-fourths, and gives origin to the flexor digitorum profundus; its lower fourth, also concave, is covered by the pronator quadratus. The lower fourth is separated from the remaining portion by a ridge, directed obliquely downward and medialward, which marks the extent of origin of the pronator quadratus. At the junction of the upper with the middle third of the bone is the nutrient canal, directed obliquely upward.
* The dorsal surface (facies dorsalis; posterior surface) directed backward and lateralward, is broad and concave above; convex and somewhat narrower in the middle; narrow, smooth, and rounded below. On its upper part is an oblique ridge, which runs from the dorsal end of the radial notch, downward to the dorsal border; the triangular surface above this ridge receives the insertion of the anconeus, while the upper part of the ridge affords attachment to the supinator. Below this the surface is subdivided by a longitudinal ridge, sometimes called the perpendicular line, into two parts: the medial part is smooth, and covered by the extensor carpi ulnaris; the lateral portion, wider and rougher, gives origin from above downward to the supinator, the abductor pollicis longus, the extensor pollicis longus, and the extensor indicis proprius.
* The medial surface (facies medialis; internal surface) is broad and concave above, narrow and convex below. Its upper three-fourths give origin to the flexor digitorum profundus; its lower fourth is subcutaneous.

Near the wrist

Near the wrist, the ulnar, with two eminences; the lateral and larger is a rounded, articular eminence, termed the head of the ulna; the medial, narrower and more projecting, is a non-articular eminence, the ulnar styloid process.

* The head of the ulna presents an articular surface, part of which, of an oval or semilunar form, is directed downward, and articulates with the upper surface of the triangular articular disk which separates it from the wrist-joint; the remaining portion, directed lateralward, is narrow, convex, and received into the ulnar notch of the radius.
* The styloid process projects from the medial and back part of the bone; it descends a little lower than the head, and its rounded end affords attachment to the ulnar collateral ligament of the wrist-joint.
* The head is separated from the styloid process by a depression for the attachment of the apex of the triangular articular disk, and behind, by a shallow groove for the tendon of the extensor carpi ulnaris.

Microanatomy

The ulna is a long bone. The long, narrow medullary cavity of the ulna is enclosed in a strong wall of cortical tissue which is thickest along the interosseous border and dorsal surface. At the extremities the compact layer thins. The compact layer is continued onto the back of the olecranon as a plate of close spongy bone with lamellae parallel. From the inner surface of this plate and the compact layer below it trabeculae arch forward toward the olecranon and coronoid and cross other trabeculae, passing backward over the medullary cavity from the upper part of the shaft below the coronoid. Below the coronoid process there is a small area of compact bone from which trabeculae curve upward to end obliquely to the surface of the semilunar notch which is coated with a thin layer of compact bone. The trabeculae at the lower end have a more longitudinal direction.

Development

The ulna is ossified from three centers: one each for the body, the wrist end, and the elbow end, near the top of the olecranon. Ossification begins near the middle of the body of the ulna, about the eighth week of fetal life, and soon extends through the greater part of the bone.

At birth, the ends are cartilaginous. About the fourth year or so, a center appears in the middle of the head, and soon extends into the ulnar styloid process. About the tenth year, a center appears in the olecranon near its extremity, the chief part of this process being formed by an upward extension of the body. The upper epiphysis joins the body about the sixteenth, the lower about the twentieth year.

Function:

Joints

The ulna forms part of the wrist joint and elbow joints. Specifically, the ulna joins (articulates) with:

* trochlea of the humerus, at the right side elbow as a hinge joint with semilunar trochlear notch of the ulna.
* the radius, near the elbow as a pivot joint, this allows the radius to cross over the ulna in pronation.
* the distal radius, where it fits into the ulnar notch.
* the radius along its length via the interosseous membrane that forms a syndesmosis joint.

The ulna is a long thin bone with a small distal head that bears the styloid process, and an expanded proximal end. The proximal end terminates in the olecranon process and bears the semilunar notch on its upper surface. In man, the head of the ulna does not articulate with any of the bones of the carpus. In the rat, the ulna may articulate via its styloid process with the triquetrum and possibly the pisiform bone (see below for a discussion of this point). The radius and ulna are connected more or less throughout their length by an interosseus ligament, which contributes to the origins of some muscles of the forearm.

## #2 Jokes » Dinosaur Jokes - XII » Today 00:09:58

Jai Ganesh
Replies: 0

Q: What's worse than a giraffe with a sore throat?
A: A Diplodocus with a sore throat!
* * *
Q: How many dinosaurs can fit in an empty box ?
A: One . After that, the box isn't empty anymore!
* * *
Q: How can you tell if there's a dinosaur in the refrigerator ?
A: The door won't close!
* * *
Q: What do you call a dinosaur with high heels?
A: My-feet-are-saurus.
* * *
Q: How do you make a dinosaur float?
A: Put a scoop of ice cream in a glass of root beer, and add one dinosaur !
* * *

## #3 Dark Discussions at Cafe Infinity » Chess Quotes - V » Today 00:09:16

Jai Ganesh
Replies: 0

Chess Quotes - V

1. One of the things that first attracted me to chess is that it brings you into contact with intelligent, civilized people - men of the stature of Garry Kasparov, the former world champion, who was my part-time coach. - Magnus Carlsen

2. I believe there is something going on in a conscious being, which includes many animals, as well as ourselves, that is not a computational activity. And to be conscious at all is not a quality that a computer as such will ever possess - no matter how complicated, no matter how well it plays chess or any of these things. - Roger Penrose

3. Maybe if I didn't have the talent in chess I'd find the talent in something else. The only thing I know is that I have talent in chess, and I'm satisfied with that. - Magnus Carlsen

4. I stole a piece of the chess set on the first film. I took a piece of the treasure out of Bellatrix's vault on this film. And I've taken my wand and I've got my cloak. - Emma Watson

5. Chess only appeals to quite a small minority. It does not have the cachet of a mainstream popular sport. - Magnus Carlsen

6. You bring to chess facets of your personality and what you are. I have interests other than chess, like music and world and current affairs. I also have many friends around the world with whom I like to keep in touch. - Viswanathan Anand

7. I felt that chess... is a science in the form of a game... I consider myself a scientist. I wanted to be treated like a scientist. - Bobby Fischer

8. I believe every chess player senses beauty, when he succeeds in creating situations, which contradict the expectations and the rules, and he succeeds in mastering this situation. - Vladimir Kramnik.

## #4 Re: This is Cool » Miscellany » Yesterday 19:39:43

2306) Graphite

Gist

Graphite is a type of crystal carbon and a half-metal along with being one of the renowned carbon allotropes. Under the conditions that are ideal, it would be one of the most stable forms of carbon available. To define the standard state of heat for making compounds of carbons.

Graphite is used in pencils, lubricants, crucibles, foundry facings, polishes, brushes for electric motors, and cores of nuclear reactors.

Summary

Graphite is a mineral consisting of carbon. Graphite has a greasy feel and leaves a black mark, thus the name from the Greek verb graphein, “to write.”

Graphite has a layered structure that consists of rings of six carbon atoms arranged in widely spaced horizontal sheets. Graphite thus crystallizes in the hexagonal system, in contrast to diamond, another form of carbon, that crystallizes in the octahedral or tetrahedral system. Such pairs of differing forms of the same element usually are rather similar in their physical properties, but not so in this case. Graphite is dark gray to black, opaque, and very soft (with a Mohs scale hardness of 1.5), while diamond may be colorless and transparent and is the hardest naturally occurring substance (with a Mohs scale hardness of 10). Graphite is very soft because the individual layers of carbon atoms are not as tightly bound together as the atoms within the layer. It is an excellent conductor of heat and electricity.

Graphite is formed by the metamorphosis of sediments containing carbonaceous material, by the reaction of carbon compounds with hydrothermal solutions or magmatic fluids, or possibly by the crystallization of magmatic carbon. It occurs as isolated scales, large masses, or veins in older crystalline rocks, gneiss, schist, quartzite, and marble and also in granites, pegmatites, and carbonaceous clay slates. Small isometric crystals of graphitic carbon (possibly pseudomorphs after diamond) found in meteoritic iron are called cliftonite.

Naturally occurring graphite is classified into three types: amorphous, flake, and vein. Amorphous is the most common kind and is formed by metamorphism under low pressures and temperatures. It is found in coal and shale and has the lowest carbon content, typically 70 to 90 percent, of the three types. Flake graphite appears in flat layers and is formed by metamorphism under high pressures and temperatures. It is the most commonly used type and has a carbon content between 85 and 98 percent. Vein graphite is the rarest form and is likely formed when carbon compounds react with hydrothermal solutions or magmatic fluids. Vein graphite can have a purity greater than 99 percent and is commercially mined only in Sri Lanka.

Graphite was first synthesized accidentally by Edward G. Acheson while he was performing high-temperature experiments on carborundum. He found that at about 4,150 °C (7,500 °F) the silicon in the carborundum vaporized, leaving the carbon behind in graphitic form. Acheson was granted a patent for graphite manufacture in 1896, and commercial production started in 1897. Since 1918 petroleum coke, small and imperfect graphite crystals surrounded by organic compounds, has been the major raw material in the production of 99 to 99.5 percent pure graphite.

Graphite is used in pencils, lubricants, crucibles, foundry facings, polishes, brushes for electric motors, and cores of nuclear reactors. Its high thermal and electrical conductivity make it a key part of steelmaking, where it is used as electrodes in electric arc furnaces. In the early 21st century, global demand for graphite has increased because of its use as the anode in lithium-ion batteries for electric vehicles. About 75 percent of graphite is mined in China, with significant amounts mined in Madagascar, Mozambique, and Brazil.

Details

Graphite is a crystalline allotrope (form) of the element carbon. It consists of many stacked layers of graphene typically in the excess of hundred(s) of layers. Graphite occurs naturally and is the most stable form of carbon under standard conditions. Synthetic and natural graphite are consumed on a large scale (1.3 million metric tons per year in 2022) for uses in many critical industries including refractories (50%), lithium-ion batteries (18%), foundries (10%), lubricants (5%), among others (17%). Under extremely high pressures and extremely high temperatures it converts to diamond. It is a good conductor of both heat and electricity

Types and varieties:

Natural graphite

Graphite occurs naturally in ores that can be classified into one of two categories either amorphous (microcrystalline) or crystalline (flake or lump/chip) which is determined by the ore morphology, crystallinity, and grain size.  All naturally occurring graphite deposits are formed from the metamorphism of carbonaceous sedimentary rocks, and the ore type is due to its geologic setting. Coal that has been thermally metamorphosed is the typical source of amorphous graphite. Crystalline flake graphite is mined from carbonaceous metamorphic rocks, while lump or chip graphite is mined from veins which occur in high-grade metamorphic regions. There are serious negative environmental impacts to graphite mining.

Synthetic graphite

Synthetic graphite is graphite of high purity produced by thermal graphitization at temperatures in excess of 2,100 °C from hydrocarbon materials most commonly by a process known as the Acheson process. The high temperatures are maintained for weeks, and are required not only to form the graphite from the precursor carbons but to also vaporize any impurities that may be present, including hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur, organics, and metals. This is why synthetic graphite is highly pure in excess of 99.9% C purity, but typically has lower density, conductivity and a higher porosity than its natural equivalent. Synthetic graphite can also be formed into very large flakes (cm) while maintaining its high purity unlike almost all sources of natural graphite. Synthetic graphite has also been known to be formed by other methods including by chemical vapor deposition from hydrocarbons at temperatures above 2,500 K (2,230 °C), by decomposition of thermally unstable carbides or by crystallizing from metal melts supersaturated with carbon.

Biographite

Biographite is a commercial product proposal for reducing the carbon footprint of lithium iron phosphate (LFP) batteries. It is produced from forestry waste and similar byproducts by a company in New Zealand using a novel process called thermo-catalytic graphitisation which project is supported by grants from interested parties including a forestry company in Finland and a battery maker in Hong Kong.

Natural graphite:

Occurrence

Graphite occurs in metamorphic rocks as a result of the reduction of sedimentary carbon compounds during metamorphism. It also occurs in igneous rocks and in meteorites. Minerals associated with graphite include quartz, calcite, micas and tourmaline. The principal export sources of mined graphite are in order of tonnage: China, Mexico, Canada, Brazil, and Madagascar. Significant unexploited graphite resources also exists in Colombia's Cordillera Central in the form of graphite-bearing schists.

In meteorites, graphite occurs with troilite and silicate minerals. Small graphitic crystals in meteoritic iron are called cliftonite. Some microscopic grains have distinctive isotopic compositions, indicating that they were formed before the Solar System. They are one of about 12 known types of minerals that predate the Solar System and have also been detected in molecular clouds. These minerals were formed in the ejecta when supernovae exploded or low to intermediate-sized stars expelled their outer envelopes late in their lives. Graphite may be the second or third oldest mineral in the Universe.

Structure

Graphite consists of sheets of trigonal planar carbon. The individual layers are called graphene. In each layer, each carbon atom is bonded to three other atoms forming a continuous layer of sp2 bonded carbon hexagons, like a honeycomb lattice with a bond length of 0.142 nm, and the distance between planes is 0.335 nm. Bonding between layers is relatively weak van der Waals bonds, which allows the graphene-like layers to be easily separated and to glide past each other. Electrical conductivity perpendicular to the layers is consequently about 1000 times lower.

There are two allotropic forms called alpha (hexagonal) and beta (rhombohedral), differing in terms of the stacking of the graphene layers: stacking in alpha graphite is ABA, as opposed to ABC stacking in the energetically less stable beta graphite. Rhombohedral graphite cannot occur in pure form. Natural graphite, or commercial natural graphite, contains 5 to 15% rhombohedral graphite and this may be due to intensive milling. The alpha form can be converted to the beta form through shear forces, and the beta form reverts to the alpha form when it is heated to 1300 °C for four hours.

Thermodynamics

The equilibrium pressure and temperature conditions for a transition between graphite and diamond is well established theoretically and experimentally. The pressure changes linearly between 1.7 GPa at 0 K and 12 GPa at 5000 K (the diamond/graphite/liquid triple point). However, the phases have a wide region about this line where they can coexist. At normal temperature and pressure, 20 °C (293 K) and 1 standard atmosphere (0.10 MPa), the stable phase of carbon is graphite, but diamond is metastable and its rate of conversion to graphite is negligible. However, at temperatures above about 4500 K, diamond rapidly converts to graphite. Rapid conversion of graphite to diamond requires pressures well above the equilibrium line: at 2000 K, a pressure of 35 GPa is needed.

Other properties

The acoustic and thermal properties of graphite are highly anisotropic, since phonons propagate quickly along the tightly bound planes, but are slower to travel from one plane to another. Graphite's high thermal stability and electrical and thermal conductivity facilitate its widespread use as electrodes and refractories in high temperature material processing applications. However, in oxygen-containing atmospheres graphite readily oxidizes to form carbon dioxide at temperatures of 700 °C and above.

Graphite is an electrical conductor, hence useful in such applications as arc lamp electrodes. It can conduct electricity due to the vast electron delocalization within the carbon layers (a phenomenon called aromaticity). These valence electrons are free to move, so are able to conduct electricity. However, the electricity is primarily conducted within the plane of the layers. The conductive properties of powdered graphite allow its use as pressure sensor in carbon microphones.

Graphite and graphite powder are valued in industrial applications for their self-lubricating and dry lubricating properties. However, the use of graphite is limited by its tendency to facilitate pitting corrosion in some stainless steel, and to promote galvanic corrosion between dissimilar metals (due to its electrical conductivity). It is also corrosive to aluminium in the presence of moisture. For this reason, the US Air Force banned its use as a lubricant in aluminium aircraft, and discouraged its use in aluminium-containing automatic weapons. Even graphite pencil marks on aluminium parts may facilitate corrosion. Another high-temperature lubricant, hexagonal boron nitride, has the same molecular structure as graphite. It is sometimes called white graphite, due to its similar properties.

When a large number of crystallographic defects bind these planes together, graphite loses its lubrication properties and becomes what is known as pyrolytic graphite. It is also highly anisotropic, and diamagnetic, thus it will float in mid-air above a strong magnet. (If it is made in a fluidized bed at 1000–1300 °C then it is isotropic turbostratic, and is used in blood-contacting devices like mechanical heart valves and is called pyrolytic carbon, and is not diamagnetic. Pyrolytic graphite and pyrolytic carbon are often confused but are very different materials.)

Natural and crystalline graphites are not often used in pure form as structural materials, due to their shear-planes, brittleness, and inconsistent mechanical properties.

Graphite is a mineral composed of stacked sheets of carbon atoms with a hexagonal crystal structure. It is the most stable form of pure carbon under standard conditions. Graphite is very soft, has a low specific gravity, is relatively non-reactive, and has high electrical and thermal conductivity.

Graphite occurs naturally in igneous and metamorphic rocks, where high temperatures and pressures compress carbon into graphite. Graphite can also be created synthetically by heating materials with high carbon content (e.g. petroleum coke or coal-tar pitch). The carbon-rich material is heated to 2500 to 3000 degrees Celsius, which is hot enough to "purify" the material of contaminants, allowing the carbon to form its hexagonal sheets.

Graphite is extremely soft and breaks into thin flexible flakes that easily slide over one another, resulting in a greasy feel. Due to this, graphite is a good "dry" lubricant and can be used in applications where wet lubricants (like lubricating oil) cannot.

Carbon has several other allotropes, or forms, that occur naturally, each with their own crystal structure. One form is graphene, which is a single layer of carbon atoms in a hexagonal pattern. Another well-known allotrope of carbon, are diamonds. Although also composed of pure carbon, diamonds are almost entirely different in their physical properties.

Uses

Graphite is used in a number of applications that require high temperatures and need a material that will not melt or disintegrate. Graphite is used to make the crucibles for the steel industry. Graphite is also used as a neutron moderator in certain nuclear reactors, like the Soviet RBMK, due to its ability to slow down fast-moving neutrons.

Other common uses of graphite include:

* Lubricant
* Electrodes in batteries
* Brake linings for heavy vehicles.

## #5 Re: Dark Discussions at Cafe Infinity » crème de la crème » Yesterday 16:35:41

2054) Wolfgang Ketterle

Gist:

Work

One of the fundamental numbers in the world of quantum mechanics is the spin quantum number. Particles and atoms that have whole-number spin are described by other rules and equations than those that have half-number spin. Satyendra Nath Bose and Albert Einstein predicted in 1924 that at very low temperatures atoms with whole-number spin would be able to concentrate themselves in the lowest energy state and form a Bose-Einstein condensate. In 1995 Wolfgang Ketterle succeeded in proving the phenomenon in a rarefied gas of sodium atoms at an extremely low temperature.

Summary

Wolfgang Ketterle (born October 21, 1957, Heidelberg, West Germany) is a German-born physicist who, with Eric A. Cornell and Carl E. Wieman, won the Nobel Prize for Physics in 2001 for creating a new ultracold state of matter, the so-called Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC).

In 1986 Ketterle received a Ph.D. from the University of Munich and the Max Planck Institute for Quantum Optics in Garching, West Germany. After postdoctoral work he joined the faculty at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 1993. He also served as a principal investigator with the Center for Ultracold Atoms (CUA), a joint research institution sponsored by MIT, Harvard University, and the National Science Foundation. In 2006 he became director of the CUA. Ketterle has permanent residency in the United States.

In the early 1990s Ketterle began work on the Bose-Einstein condensate, which had been predicted some 70 years earlier by Albert Einstein and Satyendra Nath Bose. Working with a team, Ketterle was able to develop innovative techniques for trapping and cooling atoms, and in September 1995 he succeeded in creating a BEC from sodium atoms. This BEC comprised a much larger sample of atoms than the condensates produced by Wieman and Cornell, and it was used to carry out additional studies, including an interference experiment that provided the first direct evidence of the coherent nature of a BEC. Ketterle’s work offered insight into the laws of physics and pointed to possible practical uses of BECs.

Details

Wolfgang Ketterle (born 21 October 1957) is a German physicist and professor of physics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). His research has focused on experiments that trap and cool atoms to temperatures close to absolute zero, and he led one of the first groups to realize Bose–Einstein condensation in these systems in 1995. For this achievement, as well as early fundamental studies of condensates, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2001, together with Eric Allin Cornell and Carl Wieman.

Biography

Ketterle was born in Heidelberg, Baden-Württemberg, and attended school in Eppelheim and Heidelberg. In 1976 he entered the University of Heidelberg, before transferring to the Technical University of Munich two years later, where he gained the equivalent of his master's diploma in 1982. In 1986 he earned a PhD in experimental molecular spectroscopy under the supervision of Herbert Walther and Hartmut Figger at the Max Planck Institute for Quantum Optics in Garching, before conducting postdoctoral research at Garching and the University of Heidelberg. In 1990 he joined the group of David E. Pritchard in the Research Laboratory of Electronics at MIT (RLE). He was appointed to the MIT physics faculty in 1993 and, since 1998, he has been John D. MacArthur Professor of Physics. In 2006, he was appointed Associate Director of RLE and began serving as director of MIT's Center for Ultracold Atoms.

After achieving Bose–Einstein condensation in dilute gases in 1995, his group was in 1997 able to demonstrate interference between two colliding condensates, as well as the first realization of an "atom laser", the atomic analogue of an optical laser. In addition to ongoing investigations of Bose–Einstein condensates in ultracold atoms, his more recent achievements have included the creation of a molecular Bose condensate in 2003, as well as a 2005 experiment providing evidence for "high-temperature" superfluidity in a fermionic condensate.

Ketterle is also a runner, and was featured in the December 2009 issue of Runner's World's "I'm a Runner". Ketterle spoke of taking his running shoes to Stockholm when he received the Nobel Prize and happily running in the early dusk. Ketterle completed the 2013 Boston Marathon with a time of 2:49:16, and in 2014, in Boston, ran a personal record of 2:44:06.

Ketterle serves on the board of trustees of the Center for Excellence in Education (CEE), and participates in the Distinguished Lecture Series of CEE's flagship program for high-school students, the Research Science Institute (RSI), which Ketterle's own son Jonas attended in 2003. Ketterle sits on the International Scientific Advisory Committee of Australia's ARC Centre of Excellence in Future Low-Energy Electronics Technologies.

Ketterle is one of the 20 American recipients of the Nobel Prize in Physics to sign a letter addressed to President George W. Bush in May 2008, urging him to "reverse the damage done to basic science research in the Fiscal Year 2008 Omnibus Appropriations Bill" by requesting additional emergency funding for the Department of Energy's Office of Science, the National Science Foundation, and the National Institute of Standards and Technology.

Personal life

Since 2011, Ketterle is married to Michèle Plott. He has five children, three with Gabriele Ketterle, to whom he was married from 1985 to 2001.

## #6 Science HQ » Dura mater » Yesterday 15:45:52

Jai Ganesh
Replies: 0

Dura mater

Gist

Introduction. The dura mater often gets referred to as merely the dura. It is one of the layers of connective tissue that make up the meninges of the brain (pia, arachnoid, and dura, from inside to outside). It is the outermost layer of the three meninges that surround and protect the brain and spinal cord.

The dura mater is a sac that envelops the arachnoid and has been modified to serve several functions. The dura mater surrounds and supports the large venous channels (dural sinuses) carrying blood from the brain toward the heart. The dura mater is partitioned into several septa, which support the brain.

Summary

The dura mater is a thick membranous sac, attached cranially around the greater foramen of the occiput, where its fibres blend with the inner periosteum of the skull, and anchored distally to the dorsal surface of the distal sacrum by the filum terminale. The latter descends to the coccyx, where its fibres merge with the connective tissue of the sacroiliac ligaments. The dural sac itself ends blind, usually at S2. There is an inconstant dural attachment, the ‘Hofmann complex’, made up of bands of connective tissue and loosely joining the anterior dura to the vertebral column. Ventral meningovertebral ligaments pass from the ventral surface of the dura to the posterior longitudinal ligament. They are variable in structure and may present either as tight bands, bifurcations in a Y shape or paramedian bands. Others reported on more lateral ligaments, passing from the lateral surface of the dural sac and blending with the periosteum of the pedicles.

At the lumbar level, the dura contains the distal end of the spinal cord (conus medullaris, ending at L1), the cauda equina and the spinal nerves, all floating and buffered in the cerebrospinal fluid. The lumbar roots have an intra- and extrathecal course. Emerging in pairs from the spinal cord, they pass freely through the subarachnoid space before leaving the dura mater. In their extrathecal course and down to the intervertebral foramen, they remain covered by a dural investment. At the L1 and L2 levels, the nerves exit from the dural sac almost at a right angle and pass across the lower border of the vertebra to reach the intervertebral foramen above the disc. From L2 downwards, the nerves leave the dura slightly more proximally than the foramen through which they will pass, thus having a more and more oblique direction and an increasing length within the spinal canal.

The dura mater has two characteristics that are of cardinal clinical importance: mobility and sensitivity.

Details

In neuroanatomy, dura mater is a thick membrane made of dense irregular connective tissue that surrounds the brain and spinal cord. It is the outermost of the three layers of membrane called the meninges that protect the central nervous system. The other two meningeal layers are the arachnoid mater and the pia mater. It envelops the arachnoid mater, which is responsible for keeping in the cerebrospinal fluid. It is derived primarily from the neural crest cell population, with postnatal contributions of the paraxial mesoderm.

Structure

The dura mater has several functions and layers. The dura mater is a membrane that envelops the arachnoid mater. It surrounds and supports the dural venous sinuses that reabsorbs cerebrospinal fluid and carries the cerebral venous return back toward the heart.

Cranial dura mater has two layers or lamellae, which include a superficial periosteal layer that is actually the inner periosteum of the neurocranium (the calvarium and endocranium); and a deep meningeal layer, which is the true dura mater. The dura mater covering the spinal cord is known as the dural sac or thecal sac, and only has one layer (the meningeal layer) unlike cranial dura mater. The potential space between these two layers is known as the epidural space, which can accumulate blood in the case of traumatic laceration to the meningeal arteries.

Folds and reflections

The dura separates into two layers at dural reflections (also known as dural folds), places where the inner dural layer is reflected as sheet-like protrusions into the cranial cavity. There are two main dural reflections:

* The tentorium cerebelli exists between and separates the cerebellum and brainstem from the occipital lobes of the cerebrum.
* The falx cerebri, which separates the two hemispheres of the brain, is located in the longitudinal cerebral fissure between the hemispheres.

Two other dural infoldings are the cerebellar falx and the sellar diaphragm:

* The cerebellar falx (falx cerebelli) is a vertical dural infolding that lies inferior to the cerebellar tentorium in the posterior part of the posterior cranial fossa. It partially separates the cerebellar hemispheres.
* The sellar diaphragm is the smallest dural infolding and is a circular sheet of dura that is suspended between the clinoid processes, forming a partial roof over the hypophysial fossa. The sellar diaphragm covers the pituitary gland in this fossa and has an aperture for passage of the infundibulum (pituitary stalk) and hypophysial veins.

Blood supply

This depends upon the area of the cranial cavity: in the anterior cranial fossa the anterior meningeal artery (branch from the ethmoidal artery) is responsible for blood supply, in the middle cranial fossa the middle meningeal artery and some accessory arteries are responsible for blood supply, the middle meningeal artery is a direct branch from the maxillary artery and enter the cranial cavity through the foramen spinosum and then divides into anterior (which runs usually in vertical direction across the pterion) and posterior (which runs posterosuperiorly) branches, while the accessory meningeal arteries (which are branches from the maxillary artery) enter the skull through foramen ovale and supply area between the two foramina, and the in posterior cranial fossa the dura mater has numerous blood supply from different possible arteries:

A. posterior meningeal artery (from the ascending pharyngeal artery through the jugular foramen)
B. meningeal arteries (from the ascending pharyngeal artery through hypoglossal canal)
C. meningeal arteries (from occipital artery through jugular or mastoid foramen)
D. meningeal arteries (from vertebral artery through foramen magnum)

Drainage

The two layers of dura mater run together throughout most of the skull. Where they separate, the gap between them is called a dural venous sinus. These sinuses drain blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from the brain and empty into the internal jugular vein.

Arachnoid villi, which are outgrowths of the arachnoid mater (the middle meningeal layer), extend into the dural venous sinuses to drain CSF. These villi act as one-way valves. Meningeal veins, which course through the dura mater, and bridging veins, which drain the underlying neural tissue and puncture the dura mater, empty into these dural sinuses. A rupture of a bridging vein causes a subdural hematoma.

Nerve supply

The supratentorial dura mater membrane is supplied by small meningeal branches of the trigeminal nerve (V1, V2 and V3). The innervation for the infratentorial dura mater are via upper cervical nerves and the meningeal branch of the vagus nerve.

Clinical significance

Many medical conditions involve the dura mater. A subdural hematoma occurs when there is an abnormal collection of blood between the dura and the arachnoid, usually as a result of torn bridging veins secondary to head trauma. An epidural hematoma is a collection of blood between the dura and the inner surface of the skull, and is usually due to arterial bleeding. Intradural procedures, such as removal of a brain tumour or treatment of trigeminal neuralgia via a microvascular decompression, require that an incision is made to the dura mater. To achieve a watertight repair and avoid potential post-operative complications, the dura is typically closed with sutures. If there is a dural deficiency, then a dural substitute may be used to replace this membrane. Small gaps in the dura can be covered with a surgical sealant film.

In 2011, researchers discovered a connective tissue bridge from the rectus capitis posterior major to the cervical dura mater. Various clinical manifestations may be linked to this anatomical relationship such as headaches, trigeminal neuralgia and other symptoms that involved the cervical dura. The rectus capitis posterior minor has a similar attachment.

The dura-muscular, dura-ligamentous connections in the upper cervical spine and occipital areas may provide anatomic and physiologic answers to the cause of the cervicogenic headache. This proposal would further explain manipulation's efficacy in the treatment of cervicogenic headache.

The American Red Cross and some other agencies accepting blood donations consider dura mater transplants, along with receipt of pituitary-derived growth hormone, a risk factor due to concerns about Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease.

Cerebellar tonsillar ectopia, or Chiari malformation, is a condition that was previously thought to be congenital but can be induced by trauma, particularly whiplash trauma. Dural strain may be pulling the cerebellum inferiorly, or skull distortions may be pushing the brain inferiorly.

Dural ectasia is the enlargement of the dura and is common in connective tissue disorders, such as Marfan syndrome and Ehlers–Danlos syndrome. These conditions are sometimes found in conjunction with Arnold–Chiari malformation.

Spontaneous cerebrospinal fluid leak is the fluid and pressure loss of spinal fluid due to holes in the dura mater.

## #7 Re: Jai Ganesh's Puzzles » General Quiz » Yesterday 15:20:32

#10017. What does the term in Biology Whole genome sequencing mean?

#10018. What does the term in Biology White blood cell mean?

## #8 Re: Jai Ganesh's Puzzles » Doc, Doc! » Yesterday 15:00:40

Hi,

#2684. What does the medical term Choroidal nevus mean?

Hi,

#5850.

Hi,

#9338.

Hi,

2298.

## #12 Jokes » Dinosaur Jokes - XI » Yesterday 00:04:53

Jai Ganesh
Replies: 0

Q: What's better than a talking dinosaur ?
A: A spelling bee !
* * *
Q: What do you call a dinosaur that never gives up?
A: Try-Try-Try-ceratops !
* * *
Q: What type of tool does a prehistoric reptile carpenter use?
A: A dino-saw !
* * *
Q: Who makes the best prehistoric reptile clothes ?
A: A dino-sewer !
* * *
Q: Where do prehistoric reptiles like to go on vacation?
A: To the dino-shore !
* * *

## #13 Dark Discussions at Cafe Infinity » Chess Quotes - IV » Yesterday 00:04:07

Jai Ganesh
Replies: 0

Chess Quotes - IV

1. In chess one cannot control everything. Sometimes a game takes an unexpected turn, in which beauty begins to emerge. Both players are always instrumental in this. - Vladimir Kramnik

2. I started by just sitting by the chessboard exploring things. I didn't even have books at first, and I just played by myself. I learnt a lot from that, and I feel that it is a big reason why I now have a good intuitive understanding of chess. - Magnus Carlsen

3. Being professional means 100% is not enough. Number one, two and three in my life was chess. The reality for women is, when a child comes into the picture, priorities change. - Judit Polgar

4. There is no better training for chess than swimming. On a Friday evening I like to put in a good long session of breaststroke at the pool near where I live in Budapest with my husband, Gusztav, and my two children. - Judit Polgar

5. My father, a fine chess player himself, has been a massive influence throughout my life. - Magnus Carlsen

6. We want more women players to take up chess. There are few participants at the national level and hope it will grow. - Viswanathan Anand

7. In chess, knowledge is a very transient thing. It changes so fast that even a single mouse-slip sometimes changes the evaluation. - Viswanathan Anand

8. If, in our first match for the world champion's title, I had managed to make the score 6-0, there would have been no Kasparov as a good chess player at all. - Anatoly Karpov.

## #14 Re: This is Cool » Miscellany » Yesterday 00:03:00

Gist

Headphones are also known as earphones or, colloquially, cans. Circumaural (around the ear) and supra-aural (over the ear) headphones use a band over the top of the head to hold the drivers in place. Another type, known as earbuds or earpieces, consists of individual units that plug into the user's ear canal.

They are electroacoustic transducers, which convert an electrical signal to a corresponding sound. Headphones let a single user listen to an audio source privately, in contrast to a loudspeaker, which emits sound into the open air for anyone nearby to hear. Headphones are also known as earphones or, colloquially, cans.

Headphones are a type of hardware output device that can be connected to a computer's line-out or speakers port, as well as wirelessly using Bluetooth. They are also referred to as earbuds. You can watch a movie or listen to audio without bothering anyone nearby by using headphones.

Summary

A headphone is a small loudspeaker (earphone) held over the ear by a band or wire worn on the head. Headphones are commonly employed in situations in which levels of surrounding noise are high, as in an airplane math, or where a user such as a switchboard operator needs to keep the hands free, or where the listener is moving about or wants to listen without disturbing other people. A headphone may be equipped with one earphone or two and may include a miniature microphone, in which case it is called a headset. For listening to stereophonically reproduced sound, stereo headphones may be used, with separate channels of sound being fed to the two earphones.

An earphone is a small loudspeaker held or worn close to the listener’s ear or within the outer ear. Common forms include the hand-held telephone receiver; the headphone, in which one or two earphones are held in place by a band worn over the head; and the plug earphone, which is inserted in the outer opening of the ear. The conversion of electrical to acoustical signals is effected by any of the devices used in larger loudspeakers; the highest fidelity is provided by the so-called dynamic earphone, which ordinarily is made part of a headphone and equipped with a cushion to isolate the ears from other sound sources.

Details

Headphones are a pair of small loudspeaker drivers worn on or around the head over a user's ears. They are electroacoustic transducers, which convert an electrical signal to a corresponding sound. Headphones let a single user listen to an audio source privately, in contrast to a loudspeaker, which emits sound into the open air for anyone nearby to hear. Headphones are also known as earphones or, colloquially, cans. Circumaural (around the ear) and supra-aural (over the ear) headphones use a band over the top of the head to hold the drivers in place. Another type, known as earbuds or earpieces, consists of individual units that plug into the user's ear canal. A third type are bone conduction headphones, which typically wrap around the back of the head and rest in front of the ear canal, leaving the ear canal open. In the context of telecommunication, a headset is a combination of a headphone and microphone.

Headphones connect to a signal source such as an audio amplifier, radio, CD player, portable media player, mobile phone, video game console, or electronic musical instrument, either directly using a cord, or using wireless technology such as Bluetooth, DECT or FM radio. The first headphones were developed in the late 19th century for use by switchboard operators, to keep their hands free. Initially, the audio quality was mediocre and a step forward was the invention of high fidelity headphones.

History

By the 1890s a listening device with two earpieces was developed by the British company Electrophone. The device created a listening system through the phone lines that allowed the customer to connect into live feeds of performances at theaters and opera houses across London. Subscribers to the service could listen to the performance through a pair of massive earphones that connected below the chin and were held by a long rod.

French engineer Ernest Mercadier in 1891 patented a set of in-ear headphones. He was awarded U.S. Patent No. 454,138 for "improvements in telephone-receivers...which shall be light enough to be carried while in use on the head of the operator." The German company Siemens Brothers at this time was also selling headpieces for telephone operators which had two earpieces, although placed outside the ear. These headpieces by Siemens Brothers looked fairly similar to modern headphones. The majority of headgear used by telephone operators continued to have only one earpiece.

One of the earliest companies to make headphones for wireless operators was the Holtzer-Cabot Company in 1909. They were also makers of head receivers for telephone operators and normal telephone receivers for the home. Another early manufacturer of headphones was Nathaniel Baldwin. He was the first major supplier of headsets to the U.S. Navy. In 1910 he invented a prototype telephone headset due to his inability to hear sermons during Sunday service. He offered it for testing to the navy, which promptly ordered 100 of them because of their good quality. Wireless Specialty Apparatus Co., in partnership with Baldwin Radio Company, set up a manufacturing facility in Utah to fulfill orders.

These early headphones used moving iron drivers, with either single-ended or balanced armatures. The common single-ended type used voice coils wound around the poles of a permanent magnet, which were positioned close to a flexible steel diaphragm. The audio current through the coils varied the magnetic field of the magnet, exerting a varying force on the diaphragm, causing it to vibrate, creating sound waves. The requirement for high sensitivity meant that no damping was used, so the frequency response of the diaphragm had large peaks due to resonance, resulting in poor sound quality. These early models lacked padding, and were often uncomfortable to wear for long periods. Their impedance varied; headphones used in telegraph and telephone work had an impedance of 75 ohms. Those used with early wireless radio had more turns of finer wire to increase sensitivity. Impedance of 1,000 to 2,000 ohms was common, which suited both crystal sets and triode receivers. Some very sensitive headphones, such as those manufactured by Brandes around 1919, were commonly used for early radio work.

In early powered radios, the headphone was part of the vacuum tube's plate circuit and carried dangerous voltages. It was normally connected directly to the positive high voltage battery terminal, and the other battery terminal was securely grounded. The use of bare electrical connections meant that users could be shocked if they touched the bare headphone connections while adjusting an uncomfortable headset.

In 1958, John C. Koss, an audiophile and jazz musician from Milwaukee, produced the first stereo headphones.

Smaller earbud type earpieces, which plugged into the user's ear canal, were first developed for hearing aids. They became widely used with transistor radios, which commercially appeared in 1954 with the introduction of the Regency TR-1. The most popular audio device in history, the transistor radio changed listening habits, allowing people to listen to radio anywhere. The earbud uses either a moving iron driver or a piezoelectric crystal to produce sound. The 3.5 mm radio and phone connector, which is the most commonly used in portable application today, has been used at least since the Sony EFM-117J transistor radio, which was released in 1964. Its popularity was reinforced with its use on the Walkman portable tape player in 1979.

Applications

In the professional audio sector, headphones are used in live situations by disc jockeys with a DJ mixer, and sound engineers for monitoring signal sources. In radio studios, DJs use a pair of headphones when talking to the microphone while the speakers are turned off to eliminate acoustic feedback while monitoring their own voice. In studio recordings, musicians and singers use headphones to play or sing along to a backing track or band. In military applications, audio signals of many varieties are monitored using headphones.

Wired headphones are attached to an audio source by a cable. The most common connectors are 6.35 mm (1/4 inch) and 3.5 mm phone connectors. The larger 6.35 mm connector is more common on fixed location home or professional equipment. The 3.5 mm connector remains the most widely used connector for portable application today. Adapters are available for converting between 6.35 mm and 3.5 mm devices.

As active component, wireless headphones tend to be costlier due to the necessity for internal hardware such as a battery, a charging controller, a speaker driver, and a wireless transceiver, whereas wired headphones are a passive component, outsourcing speaker driving to the audio source.

Some headphone cords are equipped with a serial potentiometer for volume control.

Wired headphones may be equipped with a non-detachable cable or a detachable auxiliary male-to-male plug, as well as some with two ports to allow connecting another wired headphone in a parallel circuit, which splits the audio signal to share with another participant, but can also be used to hear audio from two inputs simultaneously. An external audio splitter can retrofit this ability.

Applications for audiometric testing

Various types of specially designed headphones or earphones are also used to evaluate the status of the auditory system in the field of audiology for establishing hearing thresholds, medically diagnosing hearing loss, identifying other hearing related disease, and monitoring hearing status in occupational hearing conservation programs. Specific models of headphones have been adopted as the standard due to the ease of calibration and ability to compare results between testing facilities.

Supra-aural style headphones are historically the most commonly used in audiology as they are the easiest to calibrate and were considered the standard for many years. Commonly used models are the Telephonics Dynamic Headphone (TDH) 39, TDH-49, and TDH-50. In-the-ear or insert style earphones are used more commonly today as they provide higher levels of interaural attenuation, introduce less variability when testing 6,000 and 8,000 Hz, and avoid testing issues resulting from collapsed ear canals. A commonly used model of insert earphone is the Etymotic Research ER-3A. Circum-aural earphones are also used to establish hearing thresholds in the extended high frequency range (8,000 Hz to 20,000 kHz). Along with Etymotic Research ER-2A insert earphones, the Sennheiser HDA300 and Koss HV/1A circum-aural earphones are the only models that have reference equivalent threshold sound pressure level values for the extended high frequency range as described by ANSI standards.

Audiometers and headphones must be calibrated together. During the calibration process, the output signal from the audiometer to the headphones is measured with a sound level meter to ensure that the signal is accurate to the reading on the audiometer for sound pressure level and frequency. Calibration is done with the earphones in an acoustic coupler that is intended to mimic the transfer function of the outer ear. Because specific headphones are used in the initial audiometer calibration process, they cannot be replaced with any other set of headphones, even from the same make and model.

## #15 Re: Science HQ » BBC Bitesize (Acceleration) » 2024-09-16 23:17:53

Velocity or speed is given by m/s (meters per second) and Acceleration is given in Meters per second squared.

.

## #16 Re: This is Cool » Miscellany » 2024-09-16 20:11:30

2304) Stainless Steel

Gist

Stainless steel is a corrosion-resistant alloy of iron, chromium and, in some cases, nickel and other metals. Completely and infinitely recyclable, stainless steel is the “green material” par excellence.

Stainless steel is the name of a family of iron-based alloys known for their corrosion and heat resistance. One of the main characteristics of stainless steel is its minimum chromium content of 10.5%, which gives it its superior resistance to corrosion in comparison to other types of steels.

Summary

Stainless steels are a family of ferrous alloys containing less than 1.2% carbon and over 10.5% chromium and are protected by a passive surface layer of chromium and iron oxides and hydroxides that protects them efficiently from corrosion.

Stainless steel is a family of alloy steels containing low carbon steel with a minimum chromium content of 10% or more by weight. The name originates from the fact that stainless steel does not stain, corrode or rust as easily as ordinary steel; however, ‘stain-less’ is not ‘stain-proof’ in all conditions. It is important to select the correct type and grade of stainless steel for a particular application. In many cases, manufacturing rooms, processing lines, equipment and machines will be subject to requirements from authorities, manufacturers or customers.

The addition of chromium gives the steel its unique stainless, corrosion-resistant properties. The chromium, when in contact with oxygen, forms a natural barrier of adherent chromium(III) oxide (Cr2O3), commonly called ‘ceramic,’ which is a ‘passive film’ resistant to further oxidation or rusting. This event is called passivation and is seen in other metals, such as aluminum and silver, but unlike in these metals this passive film is transparent on stainless steel. This invisible, self repairing and relatively inert film is only a few microns thick so the metal stays shiny. If damaged mechanically or chemically, the film is self-healing, meaning the layer quickly reforms, providing that oxygen is present, even if in very small amounts. This protective oxide or ceramic coating is common to most corrosion resistant materials. Similarly, anodizing is an electrolytic passivation process used to increase the thickness of the natural oxide layer on the surface of metals such as aluminum, titanium, and zinc among others. Passivation is not a useful treatment for iron or carbon steel because these metals exfoliate when oxidized, i.e. the iron(III) oxide (rust) flakes off, constantly exposing the underlying metal to corrosion.

The corrosion resistance and other useful properties of stainless steel can be enhanced by increasing the chromium content and the addition of other alloying elements such as molybdenum, nickel and nitrogen. There are more than 60 grades of stainless steel, however, the entire group can be divided into five classes (cast stainless steels, in general, are similar to the equivalent wrought alloys). Each is identified by the alloying elements which affect their microstructure and for which each is named.

Details

Stainless steel, also known as inox, corrosion-resistant steel (CRES), and rustless steel, is an alloy of iron that is resistant to rusting and corrosion. It contains iron with chromium and other elements such as molybdenum, carbon, nickel and nitrogen depending on its specific use and cost. Stainless steel's resistance to corrosion results from the 10.5%, or more, chromium content which forms a passive film that can protect the material and self-heal in the presence of oxygen.

The alloy's properties, such as luster and resistance to corrosion, are useful in many applications. Stainless steel can be rolled into sheets, plates, bars, wire, and tubing. These can be used in cookware, cutlery, surgical instruments, major appliances, vehicles, construction material in large buildings, industrial equipment (e.g., in paper mills, chemical plants, water treatment), and storage tanks and tankers for chemicals and food products. Some grades are also suitable for forging and casting.

The biological cleanability of stainless steel is superior to both aluminium and copper, and comparable to glass. Its cleanability, strength, and corrosion resistance have prompted the use of stainless steel in pharmaceutical and food processing plants.

Different types of stainless steel are labeled with an AISI three-digit number. The ISO 15510 standard lists the chemical compositions of stainless steels of the specifications in existing ISO, ASTM, EN, JIS, and GB standards in a useful interchange table.

Properties:

Corrosion resistance

Although stainless steel does rust, this only affects the outer few layers of atoms, its chromium content shielding deeper layers from oxidation.

The addition of nitrogen also improves resistance to pitting corrosion and increases mechanical strength. Thus, there are numerous grades of stainless steel with varying chromium and molybdenum contents to suit the environment the alloy must endure. Corrosion resistance can be increased further by the following means:

* increasing chromium content to more than 11%
* adding nickel to at least 8%
* adding molybdenum (which also improves resistance to pitting corrosion)

Strength

The most common type of stainless steel, 304, has a tensile yield strength around 210 MPa (30,000 psi) in the annealed condition. It can be strengthened by cold working to a strength of 1,050 MPa (153,000 psi) in the full-hard condition.

The strongest commonly available stainless steels are precipitation hardening alloys such as 17-4 PH and Custom 465. These can be heat treated to have tensile yield strengths up to 1,730 MPa (251,000 psi).

Melting point

Stainless steel is a steel, and as such its melting point is near that of ordinary steel, and much higher than the melting points of aluminium or copper. As with most alloys, the melting point of stainless steel is expressed in the form of a range of temperatures, and not a single temperature. This temperature range goes from 1,400 to 1,530 °C (2,550 to 2,790 °F; 1,670 to 1,800 K; 3,010 to 3,250 °R) depending on the specific consistency of the alloy in question.

Conductivity

Like steel, stainless steels are relatively poor conductors of electricity, with significantly lower electrical conductivities than copper. In particular, the non-electrical contact resistance (ECR) of stainless steel arises as a result of the dense protective oxide layer and limits its functionality in applications as electrical connectors. Copper alloys and nickel-coated connectors tend to exhibit lower ECR values and are preferred materials for such applications. Nevertheless, stainless steel connectors are employed in situations where ECR poses a lower design criteria and corrosion resistance is required, for example in high temperatures and oxidizing environments.

Magnetism

Martensitic, duplex and ferritic stainless steels are magnetic, while austenitic stainless steel is usually non-magnetic. Ferritic steel owes its magnetism to its body-centered cubic crystal structure, in which iron atoms are arranged in cubes (with one iron atom at each corner) and an additional iron atom in the center. This central iron atom is responsible for ferritic steel's magnetic properties. This arrangement also limits the amount of carbon the steel can absorb to around 0.025%. Grades with low coercive field have been developed for electro-valves used in household appliances and for injection systems in internal combustion engines. Some applications require non-magnetic materials, such as magnetic resonance imaging. Austenitic stainless steels, which are usually non-magnetic, can be made slightly magnetic through work hardening. Sometimes, if austenitic steel is bent or cut, magnetism occurs along the edge of the stainless steel because the crystal structure rearranges itself.

Wear

Galling, sometimes called cold welding, is a form of severe adhesive wear, which can occur when two metal surfaces are in relative motion to each other and under heavy pressure. Austenitic stainless steel fasteners are particularly susceptible to thread galling, though other alloys that self-generate a protective oxide surface film, such as aluminum and titanium, are also susceptible. Under high contact-force sliding, this oxide can be deformed, broken, and removed from parts of the component, exposing the bare reactive metal. When the two surfaces are of the same material, these exposed surfaces can easily fuse. Separation of the two surfaces can result in surface tearing and even complete seizure of metal components or fasteners. Galling can be mitigated by the use of dissimilar materials (bronze against stainless steel) or using different stainless steels (martensitic against austenitic). Additionally, threaded joints may be lubricated to provide a film between the two parts and prevent galling. Nitronic 60, made by selective alloying with manganese, silicon, and nitrogen, has demonstrated a reduced tendency to gall.

Density

The density of stainless steel ranges from 7.5 to 8.0 g/{cm}^3 (0.27 to 0.29 lb/cu in) depending on the alloy.

Stainless steel is any one of a family of alloy steels usually containing 10 to 30 percent chromium. In conjunction with low carbon content, chromium imparts remarkable resistance to corrosion and heat. Other elements, such as nickel, molybdenum, titanium, aluminum, niobium, copper, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, or selenium, may be added to increase corrosion resistance to specific environments, enhance oxidation resistance, and impart special characteristics.

Most stainless steels are first melted in electric-arc or basic oxygen furnaces and subsequently refined in another steelmaking vessel, mainly to lower the carbon content. In the argon-oxygen decarburization process, a mixture of oxygen and argon gas is injected into the liquid steel. By varying the ratio of oxygen and argon, it is possible to remove carbon to controlled levels by oxidizing it to carbon monoxide without also oxidizing and losing expensive chromium. Thus, cheaper raw materials, such as high-carbon ferrochromium, may be used in the initial melting operation.

There are more than 100 grades of stainless steel. The majority are classified into five major groups in the family of stainless steels: austenitic, ferritic, martensitic, duplex, and precipitation-hardening. Austenitic steels, which contain 16 to 26 percent chromium and up to 35 percent nickel, usually have the highest corrosion resistance. They are not hardenable by heat treatment and are nonmagnetic. The most common type is the 18/8, or 304, grade, which contains 18 percent chromium and 8 percent nickel. Typical applications include aircraft and the dairy and food-processing industries. Standard ferritic steels contain 10.5 to 27 percent chromium and are nickel-free; because of their low carbon content (less than 0.2 percent), they are not hardenable by heat treatment and have less critical anticorrosion applications, such as architectural and auto trim. Martensitic steels typically contain 11.5 to 18 percent chromium and up to 1.2 percent carbon with nickel sometimes added. They are hardenable by heat treatment, have modest corrosion resistance, and are employed in cutlery, surgical instruments, wrenches, and turbines. Duplex stainless steels are a combination of austenitic and ferritic stainless steels in equal amounts; they contain 21 to 27 percent chromium, 1.35 to 8 percent nickel, 0.05 to 3 percent copper, and 0.05 to 5 percent molybdenum. Duplex stainless steels are stronger and more resistant to corrosion than austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, which makes them useful in storage-tank construction, chemical processing, and containers for transporting chemicals. Precipitation-hardening stainless steel is characterized by its strength, which stems from the addition of aluminum, copper, and niobium to the alloy in amounts less than 0.5 percent of the alloy’s total mass. It is comparable to austenitic stainless steel with respect to its corrosion resistance, and it contains 15 to 17.5 percent chromium, 3 to 5 percent nickel, and 3 to 5 percent copper. Precipitation-hardening stainless steel is used in the construction of long shafts.

## #17 Re: Dark Discussions at Cafe Infinity » crème de la crème » 2024-09-16 15:28:01

2053) Eric Allin Cornell

Summary

Eric Allin Cornell (born December 19, 1961) is a physicist who, along with Carl E. Wieman, was able to synthesize the first Bose-Einstein condensate in 1995. For their efforts, Cornell, Wieman, and Wolfgang Ketterle shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2001.

Cornell was born in Palo Alto, California and is a distinguished Lowell High School alumnus. He is currently a professor at the University of Colorado and a physicist at the United States Department of Commerce's National Institute of Standards and Technology.

In October 2004, his left arm and shoulder were amputated in an attempt to stop the spread of necrotizing fasciitis; he was discharged from hospital in mid-December, having recovered from the infection, and returned to work part-time in April 2005.

Details

Eric Allin Cornell (born December 19, 1961) is an American physicist who, along with Carl E. Wieman, was able to synthesize the first Bose–Einstein condensate in 1995. For their efforts, Cornell, Wieman, and Wolfgang Ketterle shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2001.

Biography

Cornell was born in Palo Alto, California, where his parents were completing graduate degrees at nearby Stanford University. Two years later he moved to Cambridge, Massachusetts, where his father was a professor of civil engineering at MIT. Here he grew up with his younger brother and sister, with yearlong intermezzos in Berkeley, California, and Lisbon, Portugal, where his father spent sabbatical years.

In Cambridge he attended Cambridge Rindge and Latin School. The year before his graduation he moved back to California with his mother and finished high school at San Francisco's Lowell High School, a local magnet school for academically talented students.

After high school he enrolled at Stanford University, where he was to meet his future wife, Celeste Landry. As an undergraduate he earned money as an assistant in the various low-temperature physics groups on campus. He was doing well both in his courses and his jobs in the labs and seemed set for a career in physics. He however doubted whether he wished to pursue such a career, or rather a different one in literature or politics. Halfway through his undergraduate years he went to China and Taiwan for nine months to volunteer teaching conversational English and to study Chinese. He learned that this was not where his talents lay, and returned to Stanford with renewed resolve to pursue his true talent – physics. He graduated with honors and distinction in 1985.

For graduate school he returned to MIT. There he joined David Pritchard's group, which had a running experiment that tried to measure the mass of the electron neutrino from the beta decay of tritium. Although he was unable to determine the mass of the neutrino, Cornell did obtain his PhD in 1990.

After obtaining his doctorate he joined Carl Wieman at the University of Colorado Boulder as a postdoctoral researcher on a small laser cooling experiment. During his two years as a postdoc he came up with a plan to combine laser cooling and evaporative cooling in a magnetic trap to create a Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC). Based on his proposal he was offered a permanent position at JILA/NIST in Boulder. In 1995 Cornell and Wieman gave the University of Colorado's George Gamow Memorial Lecture. For synthesizing the first Bose–Einstein condensate in 1995, Cornell, Wieman, and Wolfgang Ketterle shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2001. In 1997, Deborah S. Jin joined Cornell's group at JILA, where she led the team that produced the fermionic condensate in 2003.

He is currently a professor at the University of Colorado Boulder and a physicist (NIST fellow) at the United States Department of Commerce National Institute of Standards and Technology. His lab is located at JILA. He was awarded the Lorentz Medal in 1998 and is a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

He was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 2005.

## #18 Re: Jai Ganesh's Puzzles » General Quiz » 2024-09-16 15:01:00

Hi,

#10015. What does the term in Geography Spatial analysis mean?

#10016. What does the term in Geography Southern Hemisphere mean?

## #19 Re: Jai Ganesh's Puzzles » Doc, Doc! » 2024-09-16 14:48:56

Hi,

#2683. What does the medical term Antidepressant discontinuation syndrome mean?

Hi,

#5849.

Hi,

#9337.

Hi,

2297.

## #23 Re: This is Cool » Miscellany » 2024-09-16 00:04:36

2303) Siren

Gist

A siren is a warning device which makes a long, loud noise. Most fire engines, ambulances, and police cars have sirens.

It is a device for making a loud warning noise.

Summary

A siren is noisemaking device producing a piercing sound of definite pitch. Used as a warning signal, it was invented in the late 18th century by the Scottish natural philosopher John Robison. The name was given it by the French engineer Charles Cagniard de La Tour, who devised an acoustical instrument of the type in 1819. A disk with evenly spaced holes around its edge is rotated at high speed, interrupting at regular intervals a jet of air directed at the holes. The resulting regular pulsations cause a sound wave in the surrounding air. The siren is thus classified as a free aerophone. The sound-wave frequency of its pitch equals the number of air puffs (or holes times number of revolutions) per second. The strident sound results from the high number of overtones (harmonics) present.

Details

A siren is a loud noise-making device. Civil defense sirens are mounted in fixed locations and used to warn of natural disasters or attacks. Sirens are used on emergency service vehicles such as ambulances, police cars, and fire engines. There are two general types: mechanical and electronic.

Many fire sirens (used for summoning volunteer firefighters) serve double duty as tornado or civil defense sirens, alerting an entire community of impending danger. Most fire sirens are either mounted on the roof of a fire station or on a pole next to the fire station. Fire sirens can also be mounted on or near government buildings, on tall structures such as water towers, as well as in systems where several sirens are distributed around a town for better sound coverage. Most fire sirens are single tone and mechanically driven by electric motors with a rotor attached to the shaft. Some newer sirens are electronically driven speakers.

Fire sirens are often called fire whistles, fire alarms, or fire horns. Although there is no standard signaling of fire sirens, some utilize codes to inform firefighters of the location of the fire. Civil defense sirens also used as fire sirens often can produce an alternating "hi-lo" signal (similar to emergency vehicles in many European countries) as the fire signal, or attack (slow wail), typically 3x, as to not confuse the public with the standard civil defense signals of alert (steady tone) and fast wail (fast wavering tone). Fire sirens are often tested once a day at noon and are also called noon sirens or noon whistles.

The first emergency vehicles relied on a bell. In the 1970s, they switched to a duotone airhorn, which was itself overtaken in the 1980s by an electronic wail.

History

Some time before 1799, the siren was invented by the Scottish natural philosopher John Robison. Robison's sirens were used as musical instruments; specifically, they powered some of the pipes in an organ. Robison's siren consisted of a stopcock that opened and closed a pneumatic tube. The stopcock was apparently driven by the rotation of a wheel.

In 1819, an improved siren was developed and named by Baron Charles Cagniard de la Tour. De la Tour's siren consisted of two perforated disks that were mounted coaxially at the outlet of a pneumatic tube. One disk was stationary, while the other disk rotated. The rotating disk periodically interrupted the flow of air through the fixed disk, producing a tone. De la Tour's siren could produce sound under water, suggesting a link with the sirens of Greek mythology; hence the name he gave to the instrument.

Instead of disks, most modern mechanical sirens use two concentric cylinders, which have slots parallel to their length. The inner cylinder rotates while the outer one remains stationary. As air under pressure flows out of the slots of the inner cylinder and then escapes through the slots of the outer cylinder, the flow is periodically interrupted, creating a tone. The earliest such sirens were developed during 1877–1880 by James Douglass and George Slight (1859–1934) of Trinity House; the final version was first installed in 1887 at the Ailsa Craig lighthouse in Scotland's Firth of Clyde. When commercial electric power became available, sirens were no longer driven by external sources of compressed air, but by electric motors, which generated the necessary flow of air via a simple centrifugal fan, which was incorporated into the siren's inner cylinder.

To direct a siren's sound and to maximize its power output, a siren is often fitted with a horn, which transforms the high-pressure sound waves in the siren to lower-pressure sound waves in the open air.

The earliest way of summoning volunteer firemen to a fire was by ringing of a bell, either mounted atop the fire station, or in the belfry of a local church. As electricity became available, the first fire sirens were manufactured. In 1886 French electrical engineer Gustave Trouvé developed a siren to announce the silent arrival of his electric boats. Two early fire siren manufacturers were William A. Box Iron Works, who made the "Denver" sirens as early as 1905, and the Inter-State Machine Company (later the Sterling Siren Fire Alarm Company) who made the ubiquitous Model "M" electric siren, which was the first dual tone siren. The popularity of fire sirens took off by the 1920s, with many manufacturers including the Federal Electric Company and Decot Machine Works creating their own sirens. Since the 1970s, many communities have since deactivated their fire sirens as pagers became available for fire department use. Some sirens still remain as a backup to pager systems.

During the Second World War, the British civil defence used a network of sirens to alert the general population to the imminence of an air raid. A single tone denoted an "all clear". A series of tones denoted an air raid.

Types:

Pneumatic

The pneumatic siren, which is a free aerophone, consists of a rotating disk with holes in it (called a chopper, siren disk or rotor), such that the material between the holes interrupts a flow of air from fixed holes on the outside of the unit (called a stator). As the holes in the rotating disk alternately prevent and allow air to flow it results in alternating compressed and rarefied air pressure, i.e. sound. Such sirens can consume large amounts of energy. To reduce the energy consumption without losing sound volume, some designs of pneumatic sirens are boosted by forcing compressed air from a tank that can be refilled by a low powered compressor through the siren disk.

In United States English language usage, vehicular pneumatic sirens are sometimes referred to as mechanical or coaster sirens, to differentiate them from electronic devices. Mechanical sirens driven by an electric motor are often called "electromechanical". One example is the Q2B siren sold by Federal Signal Corporation. Because of its high current draw (100 amps when power is applied) its application is normally limited to fire apparatus, though it has seen increasing use on type IV ambulances and rescue-squad vehicles. Its distinct tone of urgency, high sound pressure level (123 dB at 10 feet) and square sound waves account for its effectiveness.

In Germany and some other European countries, the pneumatic two-tone (hi-lo) siren consists of two sets of air horns, one high pitched and the other low pitched. An air compressor blows the air into one set of horns, and then it automatically switches to the other set. As this back and forth switching occurs, the sound changes tones. Its sound power varies, but could get as high as approximately 125 dB, depending on the compressor and the horns. Comparing with the mechanical sirens, it uses much less electricity but needs more maintenance.

In a pneumatic siren, the stator is the part which cuts off and reopens air as rotating blades of a chopper move past the port holes of the stator, generating sound. The pitch of the siren's sound is a function of the speed of the rotor and the number of holes in the stator. A siren with only one row of ports is called a single tone siren. A siren with two rows of ports is known as a dual tone siren. By placing a second stator over the main stator and attaching a solenoid to it, one can repeatedly close and open all of the stator ports thus creating a tone called a pulse. If this is done while the siren is wailing (rather than sounding a steady tone) then it is called a pulse wail. By doing this separately over each row of ports on a dual tone siren, one can alternately sound each of the two tones back and forth, creating a tone known as Hi/Lo. If this is done while the siren is wailing, it is called a Hi/Lo wail. This equipment can also do pulse or pulse wail. The ports can be opened and closed to send Morse code. A siren which can do both pulse and Morse code is known as a code siren.

Electronic

Electronic sirens incorporate circuits such as oscillators, modulators, and amplifiers to synthesize a selected siren tone (wail, yelp, pierce/priority/phaser, hi-lo, scan, airhorn, manual, and a few more) which is played through external speakers. It is not unusual, especially in the case of modern fire engines, to see an emergency vehicle equipped with both types of sirens. Often, police sirens also use the interval of a tritone to help draw attention. The first electronic siren that mimicked the sound of a mechanical siren was invented in 1965 by Motorola employees Ronald H. Chapman and Charles W. Stephens.

Other types

Steam whistles were also used as a warning device if a supply of steam was present, such as a sawmill or factory. These were common before fire sirens became widely available, particularly in the former Soviet Union. Fire horns, large compressed air horns, also were and still are used as an alternative to a fire siren. Many fire horn systems were wired to fire pull boxes that were located around a town, and this would "blast out" a code in respect to that box's location. For example, pull box number 233, when pulled, would trigger the fire horn to sound two blasts, followed by a pause, followed by three blasts, followed by a pause, followed by three more blasts. In the days before telephones, this was the only way firefighters would know the location of a fire. The coded blasts were usually repeated several times. This technology was also applied to many steam whistles as well. Some fire sirens are fitted with brakes and dampers, enabling them to sound out codes as well. These units tended to be unreliable, and are now uncommon.

Physics of the sound

Mechanical sirens blow air through a slotted disk or rotor. The cyclic waves of air pressure are the physical form of sound. In many sirens, a centrifugal blower and rotor are integrated into a single piece of material, spun by an electric motor.

Electronic sirens are high efficiency loudspeakers, with specialized amplifiers and tone generation. They usually imitate the sounds of mechanical sirens in order to be recognizable as sirens.

To improve the efficiency of the siren, it uses a relatively low frequency, usually several hundred hertz. Lower frequency sound waves go around corners and through holes better.

Sirens often use horns to aim the pressure waves. This uses the siren's energy more efficiently by aiming it. Exponential horns achieve similar efficiencies with less material.

The frequency, i.e. the cycles per second of the sound of a mechanical siren is controlled by the speed of its rotor, and the number of openings. The wailing of a mechanical siren occurs as the rotor speeds and slows. Wailing usually identifies an attack or urgent emergency.

The characteristic timbre or musical quality of a mechanical siren is caused because it is a triangle wave, when graphed as pressure over time. As the openings widen, the emitted pressure increases. As they close, it decreases. So, the characteristic frequency distribution of the sound has harmonics at odd (1, 3, 5...) multiples of the fundamental. The power of the harmonics roll off in an inverse square to their frequency. Distant sirens sound more "mellow" or "warmer" because their harsh high frequencies are absorbed by nearby objects.

Two tone sirens are often designed to emit a minor third, musically considered a "sad" sound. To do this, they have two rotors with different numbers of openings. The upper tone is produced by a rotor with a count of openings divisible by six. The lower tone's rotor has a count of openings divisible by five. Unlike an organ, a mechanical siren's minor third is almost always physical, not tempered. To achieve tempered ratios in a mechanical siren, the rotors must either be geared, run by different motors, or have very large numbers of openings. Electronic sirens can easily produce a tempered minor third.

A mechanical siren that can alternate between its tones uses solenoids to move rotary shutters that cut off the air supply to one rotor, then the other. This is often used to identify a fire warning.

When testing, a frightening sound is not desirable. So, electronic sirens then usually emit musical tones:
Westminster chimes is common. Mechanical sirens sometimes self-test by "growling", i.e. operating at low speeds.

In music
Sirens are also used as musical instruments. They have been prominently featured in works by avant-garde and contemporary classical composers. Examples include Edgard Varèse's compositions Amériques (1918–21, rev. 1927), Hyperprism (1924), and Ionisation (1931); math Avraamov's Symphony of Factory Sirens (1922); George Antheil's Ballet Mécanique (1926); Dimitri Shostakovich's Symphony No. 2 (1927), and Henry Fillmore's "The Klaxon: March of the Automobiles" (1929), which features a klaxophone.

In popular music, sirens have been used in The Chemical Brothers' "Song to the Siren" (1992) and in a CBS News 60 Minutes segment played by percussionist Evelyn Glennie. A variation of a siren, played on a keyboard, are the opening notes of the REO Speedwagon song "Ridin' the Storm Out". Some heavy metal bands also use air raid type siren intros at the beginning of their shows. The opening measure of Money City Maniacs 1998 by Canadian band Sloan uses multiple sirens overlapped.

## #24 Jokes » Dinosaur Jokes - X » 2024-09-16 00:04:16

Jai Ganesh
Replies: 0

Q: Why did the T-Rex eat hamburgers?
A: Because he is a meat eater!
* * *
Q: What did the Tyrannosaurus rex get after mopping the floor?
A: Dino-sore!
* * *
Q: What do you call a dinosaur that lost his glasses?
A: Youthinkhesawrus.
* * *
Q: Why did the dinosaurs go extinct?
A: Because they wouldn't take a bath !
* * *
Q: What makes more noise than a dinosaur ?
A: Two dinosaurs !
* * *

## #25 Dark Discussions at Cafe Infinity » Chess Quotes - III » 2024-09-16 00:02:56

Jai Ganesh
Replies: 0

Chess Quotes - III

1. I spend hours playing chess because I find it so much fun. The day it stops being fun is the day I give up. - Magnus Carlsen

2. Women, by their nature, are not exceptional chess players: they are not great fighters. - Garry Kasparov

3. All I want to do, ever, is play chess. - Bobby Fischer

4. I attend to my fitness. I go the gym every day and try to maintain my physical fitness; without that, it is tough to take challenges on the chess board. - Viswanathan Anand

5. The human element, the human flaw and the human nobility - those are the reasons that chess matches are won or lost. - Viktor Korchnoi

6. My father and mother are exceptional pedagogues who can motivate and tell it from all different angles. Later, chess for me became a sport, an art, a science, everything together. I was very focused on chess, and happy with that world. - Judit Polgar

7. I started playing chess when I was five years old. I learned the moves from my mother, then worked with my father - and later trainers. My style became very technical. I sacrificed a lot of things. I was always hunting for the king, for the mate. I'd forget about my other pieces. - Garry Kasparov

8. I get more upset at losing at other things than chess. I always get upset when I lose at Monopoly. - Magnus Carlsen.