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#1 Re: Help Me ! » Write A Linear Equation » Today 14:16:35

For #2,   the relationship between the temperature in degrees Celsius C and degrees Fahrenheit F is :

Celsius to Fahrenheit:   (°C ×  9/5 ) + 32 = °F
Fahrenheit to Celsius:   (°F − 32) ×  5/9  = °C.

#3 Re: Dark Discussions at Cafe Infinity » Mother's Day » Today 14:04:34

Mother's Day is May 9. In a hurry, I posted March 9 in haste. Rectified.

I have limited number of friends.

I am basically a loner.

#4 Re: Dark Discussions at Cafe Infinity » Mother's Day » Today 13:23:32

I wished every of my close friends and family members of May 9, the Mother's Day.

They were are very happy.

I didn't go anywhere but wished many on the net.

#5 Re: Dark Discussions at Cafe Infinity » The Number 666 » Today 13:19:38

In my opinion, it is just a natural number with the interest mathematical property : Sum of the first 36 natural numbers:  i.e. 1 + 2 + 3 + ... + 34 + 35 + 36 = 666.

Because 36 is also triangular, 666 is a doubly triangular number. Also, 36 = 15 + 21; 15 and 21 are also triangular numbers, and 15² + 21²  = 225 + 441 = 666.

The Roman numeral for 666, DCLXVI, has exactly one occurrence of all symbols whose value is less than 1000 in decreasing order (D = 500, C = 100, L = 50, X = 10, V = 5, I = 1).

#6 Re: Dark Discussions at Cafe Infinity » My Son, Where Are You? » Today 10:51:52

mathland wrote:
ganesh wrote:

I understand your situation. Hope things get better!

Thank you. Do you know people in my situation?

No, I don't. But I can guess it is difficult.

#7 Re: Dark Discussions at Cafe Infinity » Not Easy To Let Go » Today 10:47:37

mathland wrote:
ganesh wrote:

I wan in the habit of smoking and alcohol. For close to 20 years. Fortunately, from 2010, I am a teetotaler. And strictly no tobacco from 2010. I feel much better. My health is improving.

Bad habits are hard to break but doable. In my case, it is an ugly sin that has me crippled for years. I pray for God to restore me to my former walk with Christ.

Do able, yes, but takes a lot of determination. And courage.

#8 Re: This is Cool » Miscellany » Today 01:16:45

992) Bay

Bay, concavity of a coastline or reentrant of the sea, formed by the movements of either the sea or a lake. The difference between a bay and a gulf is not clearly defined, but the term bay usually refers to a body of water somewhat smaller than a gulf. Numerous exceptions, however, are found throughout the world, such as the Bay of Bengal, which is larger than the Gulf of Mexico and about the same size as the Arabian Sea.

A brief treatment of bays follows.

A bay is usually located where more easily eroded rocks, such as clays, silts, and some sandstones, are bounded by harder and more resistant formations made from igneous rocks, such as granite, or hard calcareous rocks, such as massive limestones, which are more resistant to the erosional forces of the land and sea or lake. The harder rocks therefore stand out as promontories projecting out to sea, often with caves that may in some cases link the two sides of the promontory, thus creating an island, perhaps with a natural bridge to the mainland. This bridge will later fall as a result of erosion and weathering and leave an island completely separated from the mainland.

The softer rocks between the promontories are subjected to more rapid erosion as lines of waves, initially with their crests approaching the coastline at an oblique angle, turn to approach the shoreline head-on because of wave impedance by the shallower, nearshore seabed, so that the end of the line of waves closest to shore moves forward more slowly than the end farther out to sea. In this way the lines of waves gradually turn as they move around the windward headland to sweep directly onshore in the bay. The erosion of the soft rocks of the bay is most rapid during storms, when material eroded just behind the line of breakers is thrown by the waves farther up the beach; in this way a series of ridges may mark a succession of storms, particularly where the beach material is mainly pebbles. The wind may then carry the finest beach material inland beyond the high-water mark, where it may be deposited in a zone of sand dunes. These may, if uncontrolled, move miles inland. The most common method of dune stabilization is the encouragement of deep-rooted marram grass.

There are no defined dimensions for bays. Smaller bays may be only a few hundred metres wide, while others, such as the Bay of Biscay off Spain and France and Hudson Bay in Canada, are several hundred kilometres from side to side. Some of these larger bays may represent depressions in the ground, formed by vertical earth movements or glacial erosion by ice sheets. Hudson Bay is of this latter type. All bays are semicircular or nearly circular in shape, which distinguishes them from estuaries, which are elongated and funnel-shaped with a river running along the centre line and with beaches mainly near the mouth of the estuary. Estuaries and some of the more enclosed and sheltered bays form excellent harbours, provided that the seabed is deep enough and well-scoured. They were popular sites for early settlements, and a number of the larger coastal cities today have their original cores around a bay that provided protection for ships at anchor.

h5gj1iBSxyuGBmSmyjwL_imageSrc.adapt.687.HIGH.jpg

#9 Re: Dark Discussions at Cafe Infinity » crème de la crème » Today 00:10:27

869) Donald A. Glaser

Donald A. Glaser, in full Donald Arthur Glaser, (born September 21, 1926, Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.—died February 28, 2013, Berkeley, California), American physicist and recipient of the 1960 Nobel Prize for Physics for his invention (1952) and development of the bubble chamber, a research instrument used in high-energy physics laboratories to observe the behaviour of subatomic particles.

After graduating from Case Institute of Technology, Cleveland, in 1946, Glaser attended the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, where he received a Ph.D. in physics and mathematics in 1950. He then began teaching at the University of Michigan, where he became a professor in 1957.

Glaser conducted research with Nobelist Carl Anderson, who was using cloud chambers to study cosmic rays. Glaser, recognizing that cloud chambers had a number of limitations, created a bubble chamber to learn about the pathways of subatomic particles. Because of the relatively high density of the bubble-chamber liquid (as opposed to the vapour that filled cloud chambers), collisions producing rare reactions were more frequent and were observable in finer detail. New collisions could be recorded every few seconds when the chamber was exposed to bursts of high-speed particles from particle accelerators. As a result, physicists were able to discover the existence of a host of new particles, notably quarks. At the age of 34, Glaser became one of the youngest scientists ever to be awarded a Nobel Prize.

In 1959 Glaser joined the staff of the University of California, Berkeley, where he became a professor of physics and molecular biology in 1964. In 1971 he cofounded the Cetus Corp., a biotechnology company that developed interleukin-2 and interferon for cancer therapy. The firm was sold (1991) to Chiron Corp., which was later acquired by Novartis. In the 1980s Glaser turned to the field of neurobiology and conducted experiments on vision and how it is processed by the human brain.

Donald-A.-Glaser-1961_250x250.jpg

#10 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » English language puzzles » Today 00:10:10

Hi,

#3925. What does the adjective flaccid mean?

#3926. What does the adjective flagrant mean?

#12 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » General Quiz » Today 00:08:54

Hi,

#7871. Which is the national bird of Argentina?

#7872. Which is the national animal and national bird of Australia?

#13 Re: Dark Discussions at Cafe Infinity » Not Easy To Let Go » Yesterday 13:34:14

I wan in the habit of smoking and alcohol. For close to 20 years. Fortunately, from 2010, I am a teetotaler. And strictly no tobacco from 2010. I feel much better. My health is improving.

#14 Re: Dark Discussions at Cafe Infinity » My Son, Where Are You? » Yesterday 13:28:47

I understand your situation. Hope things get better!

#15 Re: This is Cool » Miscellany » Yesterday 00:37:19

991) Malaria

Overview

Malaria is a disease caused by a parasite. The parasite is transmitted to humans through the bites of infected mosquitoes. People who have malaria usually feel very sick, with a high fever and shaking chills. Each year, approximately 210 million people are infected with malaria, and about 440,000 people die from the disease. Most of the people who die from the disease are young children in Africa.

While the disease is uncommon in temperate climates, malaria is still common in tropical and subtropical countries. World health officials are trying to reduce the incidence of malaria by distributing bed nets to help protect people from mosquito bites as they sleep. Scientists around the world are working to develop a vaccine to prevent malaria.

If you're traveling to locations where malaria is common, take steps to prevent mosquito bites by wearing protective clothing, using insect repellants and sleeping under treated mosquito nets. Depending on the area you are visiting and your individual risk factors for infection, you may also want to take preventive medicine before, during and after your trip. Many malaria parasites are now resistant to the most common drugs used to treat the disease.

Symptoms

A malaria infection is generally characterized by the following signs and symptoms:
•    Fever
•    Chills
•    Headache
•    Nausea and vomiting
•    Muscle pain and fatigue

Other signs and symptoms may include:
•    Sweating
•    Chest or abdominal pain
•    Cough

Some people who have malaria experience cycles of malaria "attacks." An attack usually starts with shivering and chills, followed by a high fever, followed by sweating and a return to normal temperature. Malaria signs and symptoms typically begin within a few weeks after being bitten by an infected mosquito. However, some types of malaria parasites can lie dormant in your body for up to a year.

When to see a doctor

Talk to your doctor if you experience a fever while living in or after traveling to a high-risk malaria region. The parasites that cause malaria can lie dormant in your body for up to a year. If you have severe symptoms, seek emergency medical attention.

Causes

Malaria transmission cycle

Malaria is caused by a type of microscopic parasite. The parasite is transmitted to humans most commonly through mosquito bites.

Mosquito transmission cycle

•    Uninfected mosquito. A mosquito becomes infected by feeding on a person who has malaria.
•    Transmission of parasite. If this mosquito bites you in the future, it can transmit malaria parasites to you.
•    In the liver. Once the parasites enter your body, they travel to your liver — where some types can lie dormant for as long as a year.
•    Into the bloodstream. When the parasites mature, they leave the liver and infect your red blood cells. This is when people typically develop malaria symptoms.
•    On to the next person. If an uninfected mosquito bites you at this point in the cycle, it will become infected with your malaria parasites and can spread them to the other people it bites.

Other modes of transmission

Because the parasites that cause malaria affect red blood cells, people can also catch malaria from exposure to infected blood, including:
•    From mother to unborn child
•    Through blood transfusions
•    By sharing needles used to inject drugs

Risk factors

The biggest risk factor for developing malaria is to live in or to visit areas where the disease is common. There are many different varieties of malaria parasites. The variety that causes the most serious complications is most commonly found in:
•    African countries south of the Sahara Desert
•    The Asian subcontinent
•    New Guinea, the Dominican Republic and Haiti

Risks of more-severe disease

People at increased risk of serious disease include:
•    Young children and infants
•    Older adults
•    Travelers coming from areas with no malaria
•    Pregnant women and their unborn children

Poverty, lack of knowledge, and little or no access to health care also contribute to malaria deaths worldwide.

Immunity can wane

Residents of a malaria region may be exposed to the disease so frequently that they acquire a partial immunity, which can lessen the severity of malaria symptoms. However, this partial immunity can disappear if you move to a country where you're no longer frequently exposed to the parasite.

Complications

Malaria can be fatal, particularly malaria caused by the variety of parasite that's common in tropical parts of Africa. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that 91 percent of all malaria deaths occur in Africa — most commonly in children under the age of 5.

In most cases, malaria deaths are related to one or more serious complications, including:

•    Cerebral malaria. If parasite-filled blood cells block small blood vessels to your brain (cerebral malaria), swelling of your brain or brain damage may occur. Cerebral malaria may cause seizures and coma.
•    Breathing problems. Accumulated fluid in your lungs (pulmonary edema) can make it difficult to breathe.
•    Organ failure. Malaria can cause your kidneys or liver to fail, or your spleen to rupture. Any of these conditions can be life-threatening.
•    Anemia. Malaria damages red blood cells, which can result in anemia.
•    Low blood sugar. Severe forms of malaria itself can cause low blood sugar (hypoglycemia), as can quinine — one of the most common medications used to combat malaria. Very low blood sugar can result in coma or death.

Malaria may recur

Some varieties of the malaria parasite, which typically cause milder forms of the disease, can persist for years and cause relapses.

Prevention

If you live in or are traveling to an area where malaria is common, take steps to avoid mosquito bites. Mosquitoes are most active between dusk and dawn. To protect yourself from mosquito bites, you should:
•    Cover your skin. Wear pants and long-sleeved shirts.
•    Apply insect repellant to skin and clothing. Sprays containing DEET can be used on skin and sprays containing permethrin are safe to apply to clothing.
•    Sleep under a net. Bed nets, particularly those treated with insecticide, help prevent mosquito bites while you are sleeping.

Preventive medicine

If you're going to be traveling to a location where malaria is common, talk to your doctor a few months ahead of time about whether you should take drugs before, during and after your trip to help protect you from malaria parasites.

In general, the drugs taken to prevent malaria are the same drugs used to treat the disease. Your doctor needs to know when and where you'll be traveling so that he or she can help you evaluate your risk for infection and, if necessary, prescribe the drug that will work best on the type of malaria parasite most commonly found in that region.
No vaccine yet

Scientists around the world are trying to develop a safe and effective vaccine for malaria. As of yet, however, there is still no malaria vaccine approved for human use.

Diagnosis

To diagnose malaria, your doctor will likely review your medical history, conduct a physical exam and order blood tests. Blood tests are the only way to confirm a malaria diagnosis. Certain blood tests can help your doctor by showing:
•    The presence of the parasite in the blood, to confirm that you have malaria
•    Which type of malaria parasite is causing your symptoms
•    If your infection is caused by a parasite resistant to certain drugs


Other blood tests help determine whether the disease is causing any serious complications.

Some blood tests can take several days to complete, while others can produce results in less than 15 minutes.

Treatment

Malaria is treated with prescription drugs to kill the parasite. The types of drugs and the length of treatment will vary, depending on:
•    Which type of malaria parasite you have
•    The severity of your symptoms
•    Your age
•    Whether you're pregnant

Medication

The most common antimalarial drugs include:
•    Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs). ACTs are, in many cases, the first line treatment for malaria. There are several different types of ACTs. Examples include artemether-lumefantrine (Coartem) and artesunate-amodiaquine. Each ACT is a combination of two or more drugs that work against the malaria parasite in different ways.
•    Chloroquine phosphate. Chloroquine is the preferred treatment for any parasite that is sensitive to the drug. But in many parts of the world, the parasites that cause malaria are resistant to chloroquine, and the drug is no longer an effective treatment.
Other common antimalarial drugs include:
•    Combination of atovaquone and proguanil (Malarone)
•    Quinine sulfate (Qualaquin) with doxycycline (Vibramycin, Monodox, others)
•    Mefloquine
•    Primaquine phosphate

Possible future treatments

New antimalarial drugs are being researched and developed. Malaria treatment is marked by a constant struggle between evolving drug-resistant parasites and the search for new drug formulations. For example, one variety of the malaria parasite has demonstrated resistance to nearly all of the available antimalarial drugs.

If you suspect you have malaria or that you've been exposed, you're likely to start by seeing your family doctor. However, in some cases when you call to set up an appointment, you may be referred to an infectious disease specialist. If you have severe symptoms — especially during or after travel in an area where malaria is common — seek emergency medical attention.

What you can do

Before your appointment, you might want to write a list that answers the following questions:
•    What are your symptoms, and when did they start?
•    Have you recently traveled to or moved from a region in which malaria is common?
•    Have you ever had malaria before?
•    What types of medications and supplements do you take?

What to expect from your doctor

During the physical exam, your doctor may review your medical history, listen to your breathing, check your spleen and neurological functions, and look for other causes of a fever.

anopheles_arabiensis_ignell300.jpg?width=480&height=480&mode=crop

#16 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » Doc, Doc! » Yesterday 00:18:52

Hi,

#1640. What does the medical term 'Adipsia', also known as 'hypodipsia'?

#20 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » Algebra » 2021-05-07 13:42:54

Hi zetafunc,

Excellent!

A#174.

#22 Re: Ganesh's Puzzles » English language puzzles » 2021-05-07 04:16:42

Hi David,

The answers #3921 and #3922 are correct. Excellent!

#3923. What does the noun fjord or fiord mean?

#3924. What does the verb (used with object) flabbergast mean?

#23 Re: This is Cool » Miscellany » 2021-05-07 00:45:31

990) Whooping cough

Overview

Whooping cough (pertussis) is a highly contagious respiratory tract infection. In many people, it's marked by a severe hacking cough followed by a high-pitched intake of breath that sounds like "whoop."

Before the vaccine was developed, whooping cough was considered a childhood disease. Now whooping cough primarily affects children too young to have completed the full course of vaccinations and teenagers and adults whose immunity has faded.

Deaths associated with whooping cough are rare but most commonly occur in infants. That's why it's so important for pregnant women — and other people who will have close contact with an infant — to be vaccinated against whooping cough.

Symptoms

Once you become infected with whooping cough, it takes about seven to 10 days for signs and symptoms to appear, though it can sometimes take longer. They're usually mild at first and resemble those of a common cold:
•    Runny nose
•    Nasal congestion
•    Red, watery eyes
•    Fever
•    Cough

After a week or two, signs and symptoms worsen. Thick mucus accumulates inside your airways, causing uncontrollable coughing. Severe and prolonged coughing attacks may:
•    Provoke vomiting
•    Result in a red or blue face
•    Cause extreme fatigue
•    End with a high-pitched "whoop" sound during the next breath of air

However, many people don't develop the characteristic whoop. Sometimes, a persistent hacking cough is the only sign that an adolescent or adult has whooping cough.
Infants may not cough at all. Instead, they may struggle to breathe, or they may even temporarily stop breathing.

When to see a doctor

Call your doctor if prolonged coughing spells cause you or your child to:
•    Vomit
•    Turn red or blue
•    Seem to be struggling to breathe or have noticeable pauses in breathing
•    Inhale with a whooping sound

Causes

Whooping cough is caused by a type of bacteria called Bordetella pertussis. When an infected person coughs or sneezes, tiny germ-laden droplets are sprayed into the air and breathed into the lungs of anyone who happens to be nearby.

Risk factors

The whooping cough vaccine you receive as a child eventually wears off. This leaves most teenagers and adults susceptible to the infection during an outbreak — and there continue to be regular outbreaks.

Infants who are younger than age 12 months who are unvaccinated or haven't received the full set of recommended vaccines have the highest risk for severe complications and death.

Complications

Teens and adults often recover from whooping cough with no problems. When complications occur, they tend to be side effects of the strenuous coughing, such as:
•    Bruised or cracked ribs
•    Abdominal hernias
•    Broken blood vessels in the skin or the whites of your eyes

Infants

In infants — especially those under 6 months of age — complications from whooping cough are more severe and may include:
•    Pneumonia
•    Slowed or stopped breathing
•    Dehydration or weight loss due to feeding difficulties
•    Seizures
•    Brain damage
Because infants and toddlers are at greatest risk of complications from whooping cough, they're more likely to need treatment in a hospital. Complications can be life-threatening for infants younger than 6 months old.

Prevention

The best way to prevent whooping cough is with the pertussis vaccine, which doctors often give in combination with vaccines against two other serious diseases — diphtheria and tetanus. Doctors recommend beginning vaccination during infancy.

The vaccine consists of a series of five injections, typically given to children at these ages:
•    2 months
•    4 months
•    6 months
•    15 to 18 months
•    4 to 6 years

Vaccine side effects

Side effects of the vaccine are usually mild and may include a fever, crankiness, headache, fatigue or soreness at the site of the injection.

Booster shots

•    Adolescents. Because immunity from the pertussis vaccine tends to wane by age 11, doctors recommend a booster shot at that age to protect against whooping cough (pertussis), diphtheria and tetanus.
•    Adults. Some varieties of the every-10-year tetanus and diphtheria vaccine also include protection against whooping cough (pertussis). This vaccine will also reduce the risk of your transmitting whooping cough to infants.
•    Pregnant women. Health experts now recommend that pregnant women receive the pertussis vaccine between 27 and 36 weeks of gestation. This may also give some protection to the infant during the first few months of life.

Preventive medications

If you've been exposed to someone who has whooping cough, your doctor may recommend antibiotics to protect against infection if you:
•    Are a health care provider
•    Are pregnant
•    Are younger than age 12 months
•    Have a health condition that could put you at risk of severe illness or complications, such as a weakened immune system or asthma
•    Live with someone who has whooping cough
•    Live with someone who is at high risk of developing severe illness or complications from a whooping cough infection

Diagnosis

Diagnosing whooping cough in its early stages can be difficult because the signs and symptoms resemble those of other common respiratory illnesses, such as a cold, the flu or bronchitis.

Sometimes, doctors can diagnose whooping cough simply by asking about symptoms and listening to the cough. Medical tests may be needed to confirm the diagnosis.
Such tests may include:
•    A nose or throat culture and test. Your doctor takes a swab or suction sample from the area where the nose and throat meet (nasopharynx). The sample is then checked for evidence of the presence of whooping cough bacteria.
•    Blood tests. A blood sample may be drawn and sent to a lab to check your white blood cell count, because white blood cells help the body fight infections, such as whooping cough. A high white blood cell count typically indicates the presence of infection or inflammation. This is a general test and not specific for whooping cough.
•    A chest X-ray. Your doctor may order an X-ray to check for the presence of inflammation or fluid in the lungs, which can occur when pneumonia complicates whooping cough and other respiratory infections.

Infants are typically hospitalized for treatment because whooping cough is more dangerous for that age group. If your child can't keep down liquids or food, intravenous fluids may be necessary. Your child will also be isolated from others to prevent the infection from spreading.

Treatment for older children and adults usually can be managed at home.

Medications

Antibiotics kill the bacteria causing whooping cough and help speed recovery. Exposed family members may be given preventive antibiotics.
Unfortunately, not much is available to relieve the cough. Over-the-counter cough medicines, for instance, have little effect on whooping cough and are discouraged.

Lifestyle and home remedies

The following tips on dealing with coughing spells apply to anyone being treated for whooping cough at home:
•    Get plenty of rest. A cool, quiet and dark bedroom may help you relax and rest better.
•    Drink plenty of fluids. Water, juice and soups are good choices. In children, especially, watch for signs of dehydration, such as dry lips, crying without tears and infrequent urination.
•    Eat smaller meals. To avoid vomiting after coughing, eat smaller, more-frequent meals rather than large ones.
•    Clean the air. Keep your home free of irritants that can trigger coughing spells, such as tobacco smoke and fumes from fireplaces.
•    Prevent transmission. Cover your cough and wash your hands often; if you must be around others, wear a mask.

Preparing for your appointment

If you think you or your child has whooping cough, make an appointment with your family doctor or pediatrician. Severe symptoms may warrant a visit to an urgent care center or a hospital's emergency department.

What you can do

You may want to write a list that includes:
•    Detailed descriptions of the signs and symptoms
•    Information about past medical problems
•    Dates of immunizations
•    Information about the medical problems of parents or siblings
•    Questions you want to ask the doctor

What to expect from your doctor

Your doctor will conduct a physical exam and will use a stethoscope to listen closely to your lungs. Questions your doctor may ask include:
•    When did the cough start?
•    How long does a coughing spell generally last?
•    Does anything trigger the cough?
•    Does the cough ever cause gagging or vomiting?
•    Has the cough ever resulted in a red or blue face?
•    Have you been exposed to anyone with whooping cough?

girl-coughing-768x512.jpg

#24 Re: Dark Discussions at Cafe Infinity » crème de la crème » 2021-05-07 00:16:03

868) Severo Ochoa

Severo Ochoa, (born Sept. 24, 1905, Luarca, Spain—died Nov. 1, 1993, Madrid), biochemist and molecular biologist who received (with the American biochemist Arthur Kornberg) the 1959 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for discovery of an enzyme in bacteria that enabled him to synthesize ribonucleic acid (RNA), a substance of central importance to the synthesis of proteins by the cell.

Ochoa was educated at the University of Madrid, where he received his M.D. in 1929. He then spent two years studying the biochemistry and physiology of muscle under the German biochemist Otto Meyerhof at the University of Heidelberg. He also served as head of the physiology division, Institute for Medical Research, at the University of Madrid (1935). He investigated the function in the body of thiamine (vitamin B1) at the University of Oxford (1938–41) and became a research associate in medicine (1942) and professor of pharmacology (1946) at New York University, New York City, where he became professor of biochemistry and chairman of the department in 1954. From 1974 to 1985 he was associated with the Roche Institute of Molecular Biology; thereafter he taught at the Autonomous University of Madrid. Ochoa became a U.S. citizen in 1956.

Ochoa made the discovery for which he received the Nobel Prize in 1955, while conducting research on high-energy phosphates. He named the enzyme he discovered polynucleotide phosphorylase. It was subsequently determined that the enzyme’s function is to degrade RNA, not synthesize it; under test-tube conditions, however, it runs its natural reaction in reverse. The enzyme has been singularly valuable in enabling scientists to understand and re-create the process whereby the hereditary information contained in genes is translated, through RNA intermediaries, into enzymes that determine the functions and character of each cell.

34850___Ochoa,-Severo-1963.jpg

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